Some cool automotive parts mold images:
This is an image of the shear surface in a failed composite beam. ‘Hackles’ of matrix are clearly visible where shear has occurred within the matrix and it is also clear that shear has occurred across the fibre/matrix interface. The fibres are for the most part totally unscathed, though some mis-aligned fibres have become caught between the shear surfaces and ‘fibrillated’ by rolling and bending actions. It may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear. It will have been promoted, however, by the extensive longitudinal voids.
Kevlar fibre, epoxy resin matrix
Kevlar is a lyotropic liquid crystal polymer. This means that it can be readily processed in solution (in this case, sulphuric acid). It is annealed under tension to increase its elastic modulus
A crude Kevlar composite was made by laying out 40 tows of fibre, painting them with epoxy resin, compressing them in a mould, and curing them for five hours at 100-190 degrees C
Kevlar composites are used as a structural material in the aerospace and automotive industries, as well as in certain high-performance sporting equipment. They present exceptional stiffness and can be structurally optimised for particular load-bearing applications.
The bar has been bent to failure in a three-point bending rig.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
J A Curran
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge
Image from page 935 of “Automotive industries” (1899)
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Title: Automotive industries
Year: 1899 (1890s)
Subjects: Automobiles Aeronautics
Publisher: Philadelphia [etc.] Chilton [etc.]
Contributing Library: Engineering – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto
Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.
Text Appearing Before Image:
(1) One of a battery of four modern electric furnaces with a daily capacity of slif/htly more than 150 tons. (2) Pouring■ ■■:,■■■■ •■/ into ,„,,,,/ moulds ,„ the Timhen steel will. ( ?,, 11 ,,,1 ran I ir press ami electric manipulator where inuots arepressed into blooms. (4) Twenty-two inch, three stand rolling mill and tilting tables where blooms are converted intorounds and squares with a size range of from 2 in. to 6% in. (5) Twelve inch, three-stand rolling mill where bars for rollsare converted into coils and small rods. (6) Piercing mill where bars are converted into seamless tubes. 914 AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIESTHE AUTOMOBILE April 28, 1921
Text Appearing After Image:
there pierced seamless tubes are automatically finished. (8) Straightening machine where finished traii/lttened. (9) Bulldozer for fabrication of formed seamless tubes. (10) Part of the screw machine nibesare fabricated on automatic screw machines into green cups and cones. (11) Four spindle roller fuhrictihit,/ much nies where rods tire fabricated al high speed into <• rarictij a) si cs o) rolls held to much tiling tolerances not in excess of .003 of an inch. (12) Another view of the screw machine department where large cups and cones made from forgings are machined on automatic screw machines. (7) Reducing millseamless tubes aredepartment win re tul April 28, 1921 AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES THE AUTOMOBILE 915
Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.
4 remaining days of Major Project
Image by Matty Ring
The whiter coloured material is a mould made of silicon rubber, for the rims on my car. the yellow material is two part plastic.