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Interstate Batteries of Central New York
Image by HTS Ultra-Rack
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British Infantry Tank of the Second Globe War Mark II (Matilda II). Британский танк “Матильда”
Image by Peer.Gynt
ТАНКОВЫЙ МУЗЕЙ В КУБИНКЕ
KUBINKA TANK MUSEUM. Moscow
The Infantry Tank Mark II known as the Matilda II (often referred to as Matilda senior or basically an ‘I’ tank) was a British infantry tank of the Second Planet War. It was also identified from its Common Employees Specification A12.
It served from the start off of the war to its finish and became specifically related with the North Africa Campaign. It was replaced in service by the Infantry Tank Mk III Valentine.
When the earlier Infantry Tank Mark I which was also recognized as "Matilda" was removed from service the Infantry Tank Mk II just became identified as the Matilda.
The very first suggestion for a larger Infantry Tank was produced in 1936, with specification A12 and contractor decided about the end of the year.
The Infantry Tank Mk II was made at the Royal Arsenal, to Basic Staff specification A.12 and constructed by the Vulcan Foundry. The design and style was primarily based on the A7 (which had started improvement in 1929) rather than on the Infantry Tank Mk I, which was a two-man tank with a single machine gun for armament.
When war was recognised as imminent, production of the Matilda II was ordered and that of the Matilda I curtailed. The 1st order was placed shortly soon after trials had been completed with 140 order from Vulcan Foundry in mid 1938.
Design and style
The Matilda Senior weighed about 27 tons (27 tonnes or 60,000 lb) far more than twice as significantly as its predecessor, and was armed with a QF 2 pounder (40 mm) tank gun in a three-man turret. The turret traversed by hydraulic motor or by hand through 360 degrees the gun itself could be elevated by means of an arc from -15[nb two] to +20 degrees. One of the most significant weaknesses of the Matilda II was the lack of a higher-explosive round for its main gun. A higher-explosive shell was created for the two pounder but for factors in no way explained it was never placed in production. With its heavy armour the Matilda II was an superb infantry support tank, but had to rely on its machine gun when operating with infantry units.
Like a lot of other British infantry tanks, it was heavily armoured from 20 mm at the thinnest it was 78 mm (3.1-inch) at the front, much far more than most contemporaries. The turret armour was 75 millimetres (three. in) all round, the hull side armour was 65 to 70 millimetres (2.6 to 2.8 in), and the rear armour, covering the engine, was 55 millimetres (2.2 in). The frontal armour was 75 millimetres (3. in), despite the fact that the nose plates best and bottom were thinner but angled. The turret roof was the very same thickness as the hull roof and engine deck: 20 millimetres (.79 in). The German Panzer III and Panzer IV tanks, of the same period, had 30 to 50 millimetres (1.two to two. in) thick hull armour. The shape of the nose armour was primarily based on the US Christie design, and came to a narrow point with storage lockers added on either side. The heavy armour of the Matilda’s cast turret became legendary for a time in 1940–41 the Matilda earned the nickname "Queen of the Desert". The sheer thickness of its armour produced the tank impervious to the 37 mm and 50 mm calibre anti-tank guns that have been then typically utilised by the Germans, as effectively as the 47 mm utilised by the Italians in North Africa only the 75 mm PAK 40 anti-tank gun and 88 mm anti-aircraft gun could penetrate its armour reliably.
Whilst the Matilda possessed a degree of protection that was then unmatched in the North African theatre, the sheer weight of the armour mounted on the car contributed to a extremely low average speed of about six mph (9.7 km/h) on desert terrain. At the time, this was not thought to be a issue given that British infantry tank doctrine prioritized heavy armour and trench-crossing capacity more than speed and cross-country mobility (which was regarded to be characteristic of cruiser tanks such as the Crusader). This was additional exacerbated by a troublesome suspension and a comparatively weak energy unit, the latter of which was in fact created utilizing two bus engines linked to a single shaft. This arrangement was each complex and time-consuming to sustain, as it essential technician crews had to operate on every single engine separately and subjected automotive components to uneven put on-and-tear. It did however, give some mechanical redundancy, because failure in one engine would not prevent the Matilda from travelling under its personal energy using the other.
The tank was carried by five double wheel bogies on each side. 4 of the bogies were paired on a widespread coil spring. The fifth, rearmost, bogie was sprung against a hull bracket. Between the 1st bogie and the idler wheel was a "jockey wheel". The first Matildas had return rollers these have been replaced in later models by track skids, which have been far less complicated to manufacture.
The turret carried the principal armament with the machine gun to the correct in a rotating internal mantlet. Two smoke grenade launchers had been carried on the proper side of the turret. The grenade launcher mechanisms were cut down Lee-Enfield rifles, every single firing a single smoke grenade.
The very first Matilda was made in 1937 but only two were in service when war broke out in September 1939. Following the initial order from Vulcan Foundry, a second order was placed shortly following with Ruston & Hornsby. Some two,987 tanks had been created by the Vulcan Foundry, John Fowler & Co. of Leeds, Ruston & Hornsby, and later by the London, Midland and Scottish Railway at Horwich Functions Harland and Wolff, and the North British Locomotive Firm Glasgow. The last were delivered in August 1943. Peak production was 1,330 in 1942, the most common model getting the Mark IV.
The Matilda was difficult to manufacture. For instance, the pointed nose was a single casting that, upon initial release from the mould, was thicker than essential in some regions. To avoid a needless addition to the tank’s weight, the thick locations had been ground away. This procedure necessary hugely skilled workers and additional time. The complex suspension and multi-piece hull side coverings also added time to manufacturing.
French Campaign of 1940
The Matilda was very first employed in combat by the 7th Royal Tank Regiment in France in 1940. Only 23 of the unit’s tanks have been Matilda IIs the rest of the British Infantry Tanks in France have been A11 Matildas. Its 2-pounder gun was comparable to other tank guns in the 37 to 45 mm range. Due to the thickness of its armour, it was largely immune to the guns of the German tanks and anti-tank guns in France. The famous 88 mm anti-aircraft guns were pressed into service as the only efficient counter. In the counter-attack at Arras, despite the fact that British Matilda IIs (and Matilda Is) had been in a position briefly to disrupt German progress, getting unsupported their losses were high. All cars surviving the battles around Dunkirk had been abandoned when the BEF evacuated.
North Africa 1940 to 1942
Up to early 1942, in the war in North Africa, the Matilda proved hugely effective against Italian and German tanks, even though vulnerable to the larger calibre and medium calibre anti-tank guns.
In late 1940, during Operation Compass, Matildas of the British 7th Armoured Division wreaked havoc among the Italian forces in Egypt. The Italians have been equipped with L3 tankettes and M11/39 medium tanks, neither of which had any opportunity against the Matildas. Italian gunners had been to uncover that the Matildas have been impervious to a wide assortment of artillery. Matildas continued to confound the Italians as the British pushed them out of Egypt and entered Libya to take Bardia and Tobruk. Even as late as November 1941, German infantry combat reports show the impotence of ill-equipped infantry against the Matilda.
Ultimately, in the rapid manoeuvre warfare often practised in the open desert of North Africa, the Matilda’s low speed and unreliable steering mechanism became main issues. Another dilemma was the lack of a high-explosive shell (the proper shell existed but was not issued). When the German Afrika Korps arrived in North Africa, the 88 mm anti-aircraft gun was once more pressed into service against the Matilda, causing heavy losses during Operation Battleaxe, when sixty-four Matildas had been lost. The arrival of the much more strong 50mm Pak 38 anti-tank gun also offered a indicates for the German infantry to engage Matilda tanks at combat ranges. Nonetheless, during Operation Crusader Matilda tanks of 1st and 32nd Army Tank Brigades had been instrumental in the breakout from Tobruk and the capture of the Axis fortress of Bardia . The operation was decided by the infantry tanks after the failure of the cruiser tank equipped 7th Armoured Division to overcome the Axis tank forces in the open desert.
As the German army received new tanks with more potent guns, as effectively as a lot more potent anti-tank guns and ammunition, the Matilda proved much less and less efficient. Firing tests carried out by the Afrikakorps showed that the Matilda had grow to be vulnerable to a number of German weapons at ordinary combat ranges . Due to the "painfully small" size of its turret ring – 54 inches (1.37 m) – the tank could not be up-gunned sufficiently to continue to be effective against much more heavily armoured enemy tanks. It was also somewhat expensive to generate. Vickers proposed an alternative the Valentine tank, which had the identical gun and a equivalent level of armour protection but on a more rapidly and less expensive chassis derived from that of their "heavy cruiser" tank. With the arrival of the Valentine in autumn 1941, the Matilda was phased out by the British Army via attrition, with lost cars no longer replaced. By the time of the battle of El Alamein (October 1942), couple of Matildas had been in service, with numerous obtaining been lost for the duration of Operation Crusader and then the Gazala battles in early summer time of 1942. About twenty-5 took part in the battle as mine-clearing, Matilda Scorpion mine flail tanks.
In early 1941, a tiny quantity of Matildas have been used during the East Africa Campaign at the Battle of Keren. Nevertheless, the mountainous terrain of East Africa did not enable the tanks of B Squadron 4th Royal Tank Regiment to be as powerful as the tanks of the 7th Royal Tank Regiment had been in Egypt and Libya.
A few Matildas of the 7th RTR were present on Crete for the duration of the German invasion, and all of them were lost
In the Pacific Japanese forces have been lacking in heavy anti-tank guns and the Matilda remained in service with many Australian regiments in the Australian 4th Armoured Brigade, in the South West Pacific Area. They first saw active service in the Huon Peninsula campaign in October 1943. Matilda II tanks remained in action until the final day of the war in the Wewak, Bougainville and Borneo campaigns, which produced the Matilda the only British tank to stay in service throughout the war
The Red Army received 1,084 Matildas. The Soviet Matildas saw action as early as the Battle of Moscow and became pretty widespread in the course of 1942. Unsurprisingly, the tank was found to be as well slow and unreliable. Crews typically complained that snow and dirt were accumulating behind the "skirt" panels, clogging the suspension. The slowness and heavy armour made them comparable to the Red Army’s KV-1 heavy tanks, but the Matilda had nowhere near the firepower of the KV. Most Soviet Matildas had been expended for the duration of 1942 but a handful of served on as late as 1944. The Soviets modified the tanks with the addition of sections of steel welded to the tracks to give much better grip
Production history Designer Mechanization Board and Messrs Vulcan Created 1937 Manufacturer Vulcan Foundry and other individuals Created 1937–1943 Number constructed 2,987 Variants see Variants beneath
Sort Infantry tank Location of origin United Kingdom Service history In service 1939-1945 Employed by United Kingdom
Soviet Union Wars Second Planet War
1948 Arab–Israeli War Production history Designer Mechanization Board and Messrs Vulcan Developed 1937 Manufacturer Vulcan Foundry and other folks Created 1937–1943 Quantity constructed 2,987 Variants see Variants under Specifications Weight 25 tons Length 15 ft 11 in (6. m) Width eight ft 6 in (2.six m)[three] Height 8 ft 3 in (2.5 m) Crew four  (Driver, gunner, loader, commander)
Armour 20 to 78 mm max Primary
armament two pounder (40 mm),
93 armour-piercing rounds[five] Secondary
armament 7.92 mm
two,925 rounds Engine two diesel, AEC 6-cylinder engines[nb 1] or two diesel Leyland engines[two]
94 Brake horsepower – 95 Brake horsepower[six] Power/weight 6.55 hp/tonne Transmission Wilson epicyclic pre-selector gearbox, 6 speeds[four] Suspension Coil spring Operational
range 160 miles (257 km)  Speed 16 miles per hour (26 km/h) (on road)[three
9 miles per hour (14 km/h) (off road) Steering
program Rackham clutch
Nomination 55 – Procedure/Assembly/Enabling Technologies – Composite Rear Seat Cushion Frame
Image by spe.automotive
COMPOSITE REAR SEAT CUSHION FRAME
•OEM Make & Model: Hyundai Kia Automotive Group 2012MY Kia® K9® sedan
•Tier Supplier/Processor: Dymos, Inc.
•Material Supplier / Toolmaker: Honam Petrochemical Corp. / not supplied
•Material / Process: PP / Vacuum bag, autoclave cure
•Description: Replacing a spot-welded steel structure with a 1-shot, injection-molded high-strength (lengthy-glass/high-crystalline) PP composite permitted for improvement of a lightweight, low-cost rear seat cushion frame for a rear-wheel-drive sedan. The application decreased weight 25% and charges ten% while enhancing the manufacturing procedure and has generated 1 Korean patent and 2 further patents overseas.