Nice Automotive Mould Manufacturing photos

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Nomination 42 – Body Exterior – View A – Carbon Composite Hood Assembly
automotive mould manufacturing
Image by spe.automotive
•OEM Make & Model: Chrysler Group LLC 2013 model year (MY) SRT Viper® supercar
•Tier Supplier/Processor: Plasan Carbon Composites
•Material Supplier / Toolmaker: Umeco plc/Cytec Industries (carbon fiber weave prepreg); Toray Carbon Fibers Americas, Inc. (unidirectional carbon fiber prepreg); Ashland, Inc. (structural polyurethane adhesive) / Weber Manufacturing Technologies Inc.
•Material / Process: G83C T700S-24K carbon composite / Vacuum bag, autoclave cure
•Description: This hood assembly is a Class A CFRP part with a very large complex clamshell geometry. The painted Class A outer panel is complemented by an exposed weave inner panel. The part represents the largest Class A carbon fiber composite part provided to a mainstream OEM at volumes up to 3,000 vehicle sets/year. Design, tooling, and fabrication technologies from both marine and aerospace were employed for the first time in automotive to facilitate layup of the complex geometry with severe undercuts. Integrated mounting points using riv-nuts and studs are molded into the inner hood panel. Local section thickness was varied to meet structural requirements. The final part, incorporating fenders as well as hood is 44% lighter than the previous hood-only assembly in SMC, helping improve weight distribution and lower the vehicle’s center of gravity, for better vehicle dynamics and power-to-weight ratio.

Nice Automotive Mould Maker photos

Nice Automotive Mould Maker photos

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Image from page 97 of “Automotive industries” (1899)
automotive mould maker
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: automotiveindust44phil
Title: Automotive industries
Year: 1899 (1890s)
Subjects: Automobiles Aeronautics
Publisher: Philadelphia [etc.] Chilton [etc.]
Contributing Library: Engineering – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
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Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
Thereare a great many frames which taper materially in depth.For instance, the Scripps Booth, which is very noticeablein this respect, the depth of the frame being constant foronly a short portion of the length. The Maxwell is an-other example in which the frame tapers considerably indepth. The majority of frames, however, have only slighttaper and this takes place at the extremities. The bottle-neck type has about disappeared and in its place thetapered frame is used to get the narrow front end neces-sary to give narrow turning radius and a sightly frontend. There are not any noticeable steering developmentsexcept perhaps in the lubrication of the parts where prac-tice has been improved in line with what has already beensaid under the head of chassis lubrication. There is, how-ever, a tendency on the part of a great many to use heavieroversize parts. The Hupp has been materially strength-ened in this respect, the steering gear having been entirelyrevised and a larger unit installed.

Text Appearing After Image:
Spring shackle at rear end of Paige rear ,i, ing Front connection of rear spring on Paige January 13, 1921 AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES THE AUTOMOBILE 79 Clutches,Transmissions and Universal Joints By Herbert Chase THERE is little that is really new in the way ofclutches, although some makers have changed thetype employed. Substantially all of the higherprice cars use the multiple disk type running dry andfaced with molded or woven asbestos composition. Thenew Pierce-Arrow chassis is fitted with this type, havingfinally abandoned the cone type, which was standard onchassis built by this company for many years. There areto-day in this country but few makers who continue touse the cone clutch and the tendency both here and abroadis toward the multiple or the single disk type which, asa rule, is smoother in engagement and less apt to causeclashing of gears when changing, because it does not con-tinue to spin so long after disengagement. The plate orsingle disk type is very widely used in this c

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Nice Molds Make Maker China photos

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Stokes Croft – Historical Bristol Street Directory 1871
molds make maker china
Image by brizzle born and bred
Mathews’ Bristol Street Directory 1871

Stoke’s Croft, North Street to Cheltenham Road

One of the shops which was demolished was where Arthur Holborn ran his photography business for about 40 years. He specialised in portraits which bore his elegantly engraved advertisement on the back. Four doors away art of a different type was produced by Thomas Colley, who was a sculptor and his specialities were ‘monuments, headstones, crosses and memorials of all descriptions’.

1. H. Lester, register oflice for servants
2. Richard Pearce, teacher of music
3. William Hagen, painter
4. Oliver Sheppy, family grocer
5. William Corbett
6. Miss Jennings, milliner
7. Walton King, wine & spirit merchant
8. J. Bennett, plumber
9. John Rice, teacher of dancing
10. Thomas Colley, sculptor
11. Benjamin Hamilton, music warehouse
12. Miss Moulding, dress maker
13. Mrs W. Cook, teacher of music, etc
14. William James
15. J. Dilke, house painter
16. George Poole, dentist
17. J. F. Davis, undertaker, etc
18. Richard F. Jones
19. Capt. John Way
20. Mrs Broad
21. Joseph Richards, carpenter
22. Richard Slade, painter, etc
23. James Webber

Brooks Dry Cleaners Ltd St Werburghs Bristol

24. Henry Bishop, Bevan, vict, Antelope (pub) 1837 – 44 John Thomas / 1847 – 59 William Salter / 1860 – 63 Ann Salter / 1865 – 66 James Ricketts / 1867 – 69 Andrew Lewis 1871 – 76 Henry Bishop / 1877 to 1878 T. Gall / 1879 Charles Tovey & Co. / 1882 – 83 Thomas Sedgebeer / 1885 Eliza Perry 1886 J. Machan / 1887 to 1888 George Thomas Mills / 1889 Charles George / 1891 William Northam / 1892 – 96 Henry Burrow 1899 Thomas White / 1901 Nellie Jenkins.

In the 1880s the consecutive numbering system of Stokes Croft changed to odds on one side, evens on the other. In 1873 Charles Board cabinet maker and billiard table manufacturer was listed at no 20. He was still in the same premises as a billiard table manufacturer in 1906, but it was now no 37. Next door (building in scaffolding) had three different occupiers between 1873 and 1906 – Joseph Richards, carpenter had gone by 1888, replaced by Staffordshire Supply Store and by the 1900s Wall and Co, furniture dealers.

25. G. Evans, flour dealer
26. Waters & Co. wine & spirit merchants
27. William Pepper, hosier, etc
27. Thomas Crew, porter stores
28. James Brown, baker
29. William Thomas
30-31. William Merson, saddler
Charles Latham, attorney
31. John Milton, venetian blind maker
33. William Robins, painter, etc
39. James Morse & Co. grocers

40. George Stallard Nipper, builder
41. William Chapman, painter, etc
42. Selina Chapman, earthenware dealer
43. Charles Phillips, greengrocer
44. Charles Williams, boot maker
44. Theodore May, dyer
45. Nathan Palmer, soap and candle dealer

46. Thomas Prewett, baker
47. George Gillingham, painter, etc
48. T. W. Lansdown, greengrocer
49. Edward Brown, greengrocer
50. George Pymm
51. John Sprod, grocer
52. Ann Warley, greengrocer
53. Daniel Taylor, smith and bell hanger
54. William Holbrook, fishmonger and poulterer
55. J. C. Hewitt, goldsmith & jeweller

56. Mary Tossell, vict, Little Swan (pub) 1848 – 66 John Tossell / 1866 – 72 Mary Tossell / 1874 – 89 John Jenkins Eastman / 1890 Clara Eastman / 1891 Clara M. Symes 1892 to 1893 Martha Street / 1894 – 1901 Donald Barry / 1904 – 09 George Rexworthy / 1914 Bridget Spencer / 1917 – 25 Albert Alder 1928 – 31 Alfred Scott / 1935 – 37 Jeremiah McCarthy.

57. Charles Taylor, hair dresser
58. William Rokins, greengrocer

58-76 Stokes Croft

59. James Hewitt, vict, Swan Hotel Near the corner with Nine Tree Hill the Swan Hotel is still trading, but is now known as the Croft.

60. Charles Davis, confectioner

Vincent Skinner, horticultural builder

Tucketts Building

On the corner of Ashley Road stands 108, Tucketts Buildings an ebullient example of late Victorian commercial premises. It is said that human bones were dug up in the foundation trenches, probably from the victims of the gallows which once stood here.

The Tuckett’s Buildings 108 Stokes Croft sweep around the Ashley Road corner.

Named after Coldstream Tuckett who developed the site and opened his grocery and provisions shop there in the 1890s. During the excavations two skeletons were found. It was suggested that they were 17th/18th century suicides who, according to the custom of the time, had been buried at the crossroads.

F. Coldstream Tuckett had his grocer’s shop in part of this building until about 1920. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Bristol & District Grocers’ & Provision Dealers’ Association. When the Grocers’ Federation of the United Kingdom held their Summer Conference in Bristol in July 1900 he was Press Steward and half of the two-man Entertainment Committee.

In 1911 two boys named Cooper and Hardwick were charged at Bristol Police Court with breaking into his premises through Skinners Yard at the back. They stole a bottle of port and some pork pies. The court sentenced them to a birching.

Although a route through Stokes Croft is likely to have existed for centuries earlier, the first reference is in a deed of 1579. The land is recorded as a field containing one little lodge, a garden and pasture, with a footpath running through the grounds. In 1618, the city received 6d for mending holes in the stile.

61. T. J. & J. F. Perry, carriage builders
62. Charles S. Davey, corn and flour dealer
63. Pugh and Son, grocers
64. James Kebby, butcher
65. M. A. Alexander
66. John Smith, porter stores
67. Isaac Thomas, bookseller
68. Thomas Mann, tailor
69. J. Sampson, boot maker
70. James Melhuish, pork butcher

71. E. J. Hatherley, builder, Stokes croft house

72. Edwin Peacock, chemist
Baptist College – Rev. Dr. Gotch
73. Joseph A. Cortisi, confectioner
73. George Park, toy warehouse

76-74 Stokes Croft

74. John Parry, boot maker
75. J. Greenham, tobacconist
76. Misses Wallington, fancy repository

77. Miss E. Wallington, milliner
78. J. Cluett, china warehouse

(North Parade)

6. A. Willis, butcher
5. Eleanor Ford, fancy draper
4. Robert G. Whiting, boot maker
3. George A. Peacock, fishmonger, etc
2. S. Palmer, spirit dealer
1. John Howe, boot maker
1. W. Greening, druggist

(City Road Intersect)

Foll and Abbott, Stokes Croft Brewery

77. Charles and Wakefield, tailors, etc
78. George Nelson Naish, boot maker

79. W. H. Hawkins, plasterer & painter
80. S. Bruton, music warehouse
81. Henry O. Richards, boot maker

82. Robert Tyler, wine & spirit merchant

83. J. W. Sane, ladies’ outfitter
83. Frederick Calder, confectioner
84. Anthony Power, berlin and fancy depository

85. W. J. Exon, baker

86. Charles Tovey & Co, wine merchants
87. A. M. Withers, ironmonger
88. Francis Virtue, bookseller
89. John Parnall, ladies’ outfitter
90. Unitarian Almshouses & School

Stokes Croft School

91. Isaac Simmonds, plumber, etc
92. John H. Diggs, tobacconist
93. Sarah Mountjoy, fancy depository
94. George King, grocer
95. Edward Hunt, ironmonger, etc

Walter James Hooper & Co. fish and poultry market.


101. The Post office

Stokes Croft Court, 28, Stokes Croft

Stoke’s Croft Place, Stoke’s Croft

Mrs Spurse
Catherine Parsons
Alfred Jones
John Weeks, 2, Vine cottages
W. C. R. Bailey, 1, Vine cottages
Mrs Duance
John Pottow, farrier


Ann Barnes – Wife of Mr Barnes wheelwright living near Stokes Croft turnpike Died January 11th 1816 in 22nd year of her age of consumption.

William Chaffe 1753 Died ‘of lunacy’ Inquest held at Full Moon, Stokes Croft

Joseph Church of Newfoundland Gardens, fell down a flight of steps in Stokes Croft in December 1847 and fractured his leg. Admitted to Bristol Infirmary.

Mr Fry Schoolmaster of Stokes Croft married Mrs Dickson of Broad Street at St James’ Church on Friday Nov 7th 1766.

Joseph Glascodine 1793 carpenter and millwright, Stokes Croft.

Edward William Godwin 1833-1886 Born at 12 Old Market Street, alter living at 21 Portland Square. One of his best-known designs is the Carriage and Harness Factory in Stokes Croft.

George Longman of Stokes Croft., married Mrs Mary Clampit of Catherine Place February 3rd 1829.

William Morgan – Recommended for receipt of parish relief (St James) in 1814. He was a tailor with a wife and 4 children who had worked for John Rice of 23 Stokes Croft for some years. Rice could no longer employ him due to ‘work being dead’.

Henry Parker, cab driver, he was charged at Bristol Police Court in January 1899 with ‘furious driving’ in North Street and Stokes Croft. As he had been in trouble before he was fined 10s and costs.

Samuel Parry (d. 1839) Aged 88, of Stokes Croft was buried at St Paul, Portland Square on January 20th 1839.

James Sadler 1753-1828 Originally from Oxford where his family had a confectionery business. Interested in engineering and chemistry. Made several balloon flights before his ascent from Stokes Croft in Bristol on September 24th 1810., accompanied by William Clayfield Watched by a large crowd the balloon rose up and was carried over Leigh Down, where they dropped a cat in a basket attached to a parachute. (The cat was rescued by a watching limeburner. The balloon eventually landed in the Bristol Channel near Lynton.

John Stoke, Mayor 1364, 1366 and 1379. His will was proved in 1382. Stokes Croft, originally known as Berewyke’s Croft was named after him.

Isaac Van Amburgh, Lion tamer, who gave an exhibition at Bristol Zoo in July 1839 and met with an ‘accidental injury whilst thrusting his hand into a lion’s mouth’. A newspaper report stated that he was completely recovered and would give some more performances before continuing with his tour. This was no means his only visit to Bristol. In August 1842 there were newspaper reports of how he ‘made an entrance into the city driving 8 beautiful cream coloured horses in hand’. The procession of vans was accompanied by an elephant. And made its way to Backfields, Stokes Croft where a spacious pavilion was erected.

Archy Walters, Elder of two young brothers who walked from Stokes Croft to Horfield and lost their way in the fields as night fell. As it grew colder and colder they took shelter under a hedge and Archy wrapped his brother in his own clothes to keep him warm. They were found next morning, but too late to save Archy, although his brother survived thanks to his selfless act.. References: Memorial stained glass window in Horfield Parish church,

Wimble (d. Nov 1766) Died at his house in Stokes Croft.


Misses Armstrong’s Boarding School for Young Ladies, Wellington Place, Stokes Croft Listed 1847.

Mrs Baker’s School for Ladies, 4 Wellington Place, Stokes Croft. Mrs Baker gave the establishment her ‘strict personal attention’ according to newspaper notice of 1830 which stated that teaching was ‘conducted on a plan approved by men of learning which renders abstruse studies comprehensible and entertaining’.


Stokes Croft Chapel, Stokes Croft (Christian Brethren) This was originally a skating rink and was purchased on 8th July 1879 by the ‘friends worshipping in Bethesda Chapel and Salem Chapel St Augustine’. It was fitted up as a place of worship in lieu of Salem, which was then vacated. It accommodated 500 people and was ‘neatly fitted up at the expense of £500-600’.


Wyndham Lewis, 102 Stokes Croft Baker and Confectioner.

Massingham – Red House Boot Stores, 77 Stokes Croft. trading in 1901.

W E Pritchard, 95 Stokes Croft. Fishmonger & Poulterer. Trading in May 1901.

E K Vaughan, 56 Stokes Croft, Jeweller and Watchmaker Trading May 1901.

New Zealand quotations (3)
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Image by PhillipC
Ronald Allison Kells Mason was born in Penrose, Auckland, on 10 January 1905, the son of Francis William Mason and his wife, Jessie Forbes Kells. His father, a perfume maker, died of an accidental overdose of opium in 1913 and he and his elder brother were sent to live with an aunt, Isabella Kells, in the south Waikato settlement of Lichfield. She taught the boys until 1915, when Mason returned for one year’s primary schooling at Panmure before attending Auckland Grammar School from 1917 to 1922 (in 1919 and 1921 for only one term each year, apparently for economic reasons). He distinguished himself in English and Latin, and began writing verse. His translation of Horace’s ‘O fons Bandusiae’ (‘O fair Bandusian fountain’) was evidently a class exercise done in the fifth form. In that same year he first encountered A. R. D. Fairburn, with whom he formed a close association over the next decade.

Soon after leaving school Mason took a position as a tutor in Latin, economics and civics at the University Coaching College, a private tutoring school where he was to be employed for six years. In 1923 he prepared a handwritten collection of poems which he named ‘In the manner of men’. This was followed in 1924 by his first published volume, The beggar , which contained versions of many of the poems written during his school years. They are precocious, often morbid poems that reflect the highly rhetorical styles of the Victorian poets, but some are of lasting value. The beggar found almost no market in New Zealand. It did, however, reach the English anthologist and editor Harold Monro, who reprinted two of its poems in the 1924 issue of the Chapbook , and two more in the 1929 anthology Twentieth century poetry .

In 1925 Mason published a pamphlet, Penny broadsheet , containing five further poems. In 1926 he enrolled at Auckland University College, majoring in Latin and French. He studied full time that year and from 1928 to 1930, eventually graduating BA in 1939. Mason evidently continued to support himself by tutoring until near the end of his full-time studies. He continued to write poems, some of which were published in the local newspapers, the Sun and the Auckland Star , and wrote several short stories, published in Kiwi , the Phoenix and Tomorrow ; He also drafted two novels, which remained unpublished.

After completing his full-time studies he worked for a season in Lichfield as a harvester before returning to Auckland to a variety of labouring jobs, and to close association with friends active at the university. In the first months of 1931 he travelled to Tonga and Samoa to study the conditions on those islands, and particularly the circumstances of the Mau uprising in Samoa. This trip he described as beginning his disillusionment with New Zealand nationalism, which was to culminate in 1947 with the publication of the pamphlet Frontier forsaken: an outline history of the Cook Islands .

Between 1931 and 1933 Mason contributed regularly to Kiwi and to the Phoenix , a student publication printed by Bob Lowry at Auckland University College. The first two issues in 1932, edited by James Bertram, emphasised cultural and aesthetic issues. Mason assumed the editorship in 1933; under him the third and fourth issues had a more directly political emphasis, and the magazine’s controversial nature made it the focus for attack from the conservative press.

By this time Mason’s interests had clearly moved from the poetic to the political. Although he was to publish three books of verse in the next 10 years, all but about 12 of the poems eventually collected under his name had been written by 1933. No new thing (1934) contained 25 poems from 1924 to 1929. The book was printed by Lowry at the Unicorn Press, but problems with binding meant that only a few copies were issued for sale. Mason retained his business association with Unicorn for a short time, but the Caxton Press published his poems from then on. End of day (1936) printed five new poems, and a further five were included in Caxton’s Recent poems (1941). This dark will lighten: selected poems, 1923–41 was Mason’s first substantial selection of his work and the first to make it widely available. In it he stripped down the typography and punctuation, making increasing use of the hanging indent that he had first used a decade before, and paring down the rhetorical diction and flourishes of some of the earlier poems.

Mason’s writing after the mid 1930s was mainly political journalism and didactic plays for the stage, radio and dance theatre. At least 10 plays were written; two were published separately, Squire speaks in 1938 and China: script…for a dance-drama by Margaret Barr in 1943. He wrote political and social commentaries extensively, using both his own name and ‘PWD’. He published in Tomorrow , the Workers’ Weekly and the People’s Voice , the communist weekly newspaper. When this was banned by the government in 1941, Mason edited, printed and published its successor, In Print. He was briefly the publisher of the revived People’s Voice in 1943–44 and then publisher of Challenge , the weekly journal of the Auckland District Labourers’ Union. He is also recorded in 1950 as the publisher of a union paper, Congress News , the journal of the New Zealand Trade Union Congress. He made another trip to the Pacific islands prior to the publication of Frontier forsaken in 1947. In the years immediately after the war he was a strong advocate of the establishment of a national theatre.

Ill health forced Mason into semi-retirement in 1956, though for several years he continued to work a little as a landscape gardener. In that year he welcomed a troupe of the Classical Theatre of China to Auckland, and in 1957 he was a member of a New Zealand delegation invited to the People’s Republic of China.

In 1962 Pegasus published his Collected poems. The book drew together all the published and unpublished poems he wished to retain, while the last of the earlier poems were revised for republication. In the same year he held the Robert Burns Fellowship at the University of Otago. Three poems were printed in the students’ association’s Review and ‘Strait is the gate’, a play with strong Otago themes, was performed and later recorded for radio. Also that year, on 27 August, he married his long-time companion Dorothea Mary Beyda (known by her maiden name of Dorothea Mould). They remained in Dunedin until 1965, when they returned to Auckland, living in Takapuna where Mason taught part time. In 1969–70 the New Zealand Literary Fund Advisory Committee discussed a recommendation that a pension be paid to him in recognition of his achievements, but he died on 13 July 1971 before this could be done. He was survived by his wife.

In his own lifetime Mason was respected for his commitment to the trade union movement, and for his dedication to the principles of Marxism as a political philosophy. Although it is as a poet that he is deservedly best remembered, the ethical and existential questions that the poems confront seem to have been answered for Mason by his espousal of Marxist principles, and the transferral of energy from poetry to politics in the mid 1930s was a part of this process. Mason’s poetry was humanistic and sceptical, concerning itself with the quest for purpose in a universe which appeared to be essentially mechanistic or godless. The earlier poems are frequently concerned with a sense of despairing mortality, and a feeling that the poet is the plaything of history. The later poetry, often focusing on the figure of a secular suffering Jesus, who is human rather than divine, poses dramatised questions about the consequences of ethical choice and the problems faced by the good man in a morally indifferent society.

Stylistically and thematically much of Mason’s poetry marks him as an inheritor of the Victorian tradition, although equally he was influenced by the Georgian practices of his time. His work stands somewhat apart from the more overtly nationalistic writings of his contemporaries, though he shared with them a sense of romantic alienation and a view of poetry as primarily a morally instructive art. His poems from The beggar on also mark the beginnings of serious modern poetry in New Zealand, and his best poems remain numbered among the finest in New Zealand literature.

Benn & Adelaide Pitman Bedstead
molds make maker china
Image by elycefeliz

This mahogany bedstead was designed by Benn Pitman on the occasion of his marriage to his second wife, Adelaide Nourse. Adelaide carved the decorative motifs on the bed, which was made for the Pitman home on Columbia Parkway. The interior of the home was decorated with carved floral and geometrical motifs based on native plant life. Everything in the home was carved by hand, from the baseboards to ceiling moldings and all its furniture.

The bedstead is Modern Gothic in style and is composed of a headboard, footboard, and two side rails. The headboard is divided into three sections: two lancet panels with egg molding and a central trilobate arch. The central panel is carved with a flock of swallows flying in the evening sky. The birds are depicted in various stages of relief, some nearly four and a half inches from the headboard. Others are shown in low relief to suggest a sense of depth. Just below and to the right of the birds is a crescent moon in low relief. Hydrangea blossoms in high relief are carved into the lower section of this panel. In the lower left is a carved inscription that reads, "Good night, good rest." Extending above this is an arched hood that is carved with four panels of overlapping daises. The four finials of the headboard are carved in the shape of wild parsnip leaves.

In the two lancet panels on either side are painted images of human heads on gold discs representing night and morning. These panels were painted by Elizabeth Nourse (1859-1938), Adelaide’s twin sister, who was an internationally acclaimed painter. To the left is Morning, surrounded by painted white azaleas. To the right is Night, surrounded by balloon vines. The corners of these side panels are carved with stylized leaves and berries.

This bed, which occupied the Pitman’s bedroom, was meant to symbolize and celebrate sleep. Soon after its completion, it received much acclaim and was exhibited in 1883 by the Pitmans at the Fifteenth Annual Exhibition of the Work of the School of Design of the University of Cincinnati and also at the Cincinnati Industrial Exhibition. In 1909 the bedstead and the rest of the bedroom were described in the Cincinnati Commercial Gazette: "It is such a room in which a sufferer of insomnia would totter drowsily upon entering. The entire combination is made to symbolize "night" and so faithfully is repose portrayed that sleep nearly overcomes one within the door. The bed is a masterstroke of human genius…and the entire combination seems covered with such a consistent nocturnal veil as to make the words "good night" at the bottom quite unnecessary."…

Artist/Maker Benn Pitman (American, b.1822, d.1910)
Elizabeth Nourse (American, b.1859, d.1938)
Adelaide Nourse Pitman (American, b.1859, d.1893)
Date 1882-1883
Medium American black walnut and painted panels
Credit Line Gift of Mary Jane Hamilton in memory of her mother Mary Luella Hamilton, made possible through Rita S. Hudepohl, Guardian

Benn Pitman, an expatriated Englishman, arrived in Cincinnati from Philadelphia in 1853. Although trained to be an architect, he traveled to America to promote the phonetic shorthand system developed by his brother Sir Isaac Pitman. Sometime between his arrival and 1872, he developed an extraordinary interest and skill in woodcarving. Pitman embraced the Aesthetic Movement and turned to nature for inspiration.

In 1872, carved furniture, doors and baseboards made by the Pitman family, including his wife, Jane, and daughter Agnes, were exhibited at the Third Cincinnati Industrial Exposition.

He taught woodcarving at the School of Design of the University of Cincinnati (later the Art Academy) from 1873 to 1892. He also invented an electrochemical process for relief engraving (1855), was court recorder for the Lincoln assassination trial (1865) and wrote a biography of his brother (1902).

Adelaide Nourse Pitman, the twin sister of Elizabeth Nourse and youngest of ten children, was born on October 26, 1859, in the Cincinnati suburb of Mt. Healthy. Her parents had moved to Cincinnati from Massachusetts in the early 1830s. Her father, a banker, suffered serious financial losses after the Civil War. As a result of this loss, the girls were required to support themselves. The twins enrolled in the University of Cincinnati School of Design, which charged only minimal tuition. While at the University, Adelaide joined Marie Egger’s china painting class and began several years’ study of wood carving under Benn Pitman. She worked on the carving of the Cincinnati Music Hall organ screen, carved a number of architectural elements for the interior of the Ursuline chapel in St. Martin, and received a silver medal at the 1880 Cincinnati Industrial Exposition.

On August 10, 1882, Adelaide married Pitman in Sandusky, Ohio. She was twenty-two and he was sixty. After their marriage, she continued to work, under his supervision, in copper, silver, and brass, as well as on decorative wood carvings for the Pitman home on Columbia Parkway.

In 1883 she gave birth to her first child, who died in infancy. The couple’s second child, born July 5, 1884, was named Emerson. The third and final child born to the couple was their daughter, Melrose, born on November 5, 1889.

Tragically, Adelaide Pitman died on September 12, 1893 of tuberculosis. She was only thirty-three years old.

Elizabeth Nourse was a painter, sculptor, wood-carver, etcher, illustrator and decorative artist who achieved her greatest success after 1887 as an expatriate in Paris. Born a twin in Mount Healthy, she enrolled in 1874 at the Cincinnati University School of Design, graduating in 1881. She had planned to continue her studies in New York, but with the death of her father and the marriage of her sister, Adelaide, to furniture-maker Benn Pitman her plans changed.

Nourse studied for a few months at the National Academy of Design and from 1883-86 worked as a portrait painter spending part of each summer sketching and painting in the mountains of eastern Tennessee. It was the local people who would become her subjects. In 1887 she exhibited four watercolors at the Cincinnati Industrial Exposition and soon after she and her older sister, Louise, left for what was to be a visit to France. They spent the rest of their lives abroad.

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2008 Saturn Astra XR
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Image by DVS1mn
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Jerry Flint’s 2001 speech on General Motors

Jerry Flint’s 2001 speech to engineers and technicians at General Motors’ Milford Proving Ground.

(With thanks to Paul Eisenstein, editor of, who provided this copy from his files.)

There was an auto executive, he was a very high-ranking GM man. You all know his name but I won’t mention it because it might embarrass him. He’s not at General Motors anymore.

I once asked this man what he would do if he found himself the chief executive of General Motors. He said, and I quote, "I would fire 1,000 executives." I’m not sure whether it made any difference to him which 1,000 executives, if he had anyone in particular in mind, or any thousand would do. I just tell you this to start things off.

Fasten your seatbelts. It’s going to get bumpy.

This talk will be divided into four sections. In the first, I will tell you something about myself. That’s long. In the second I will tell you the mistakes General Motors has been making. That’s longer. In the third part, I will tell you why General Motors makes these mistakes. That’s short. In the fourth part, much shorter I am afraid, I will suggest what you can do about it.

I was born in Detroit, in the city, in 1931. We lived on Willis between Second and Third, a few blocks south of Wayne University, which was a city university back then.

I went to the neighborhood schools, tough schools; it was a workers hillbilly neighborhood. As a boy, my father and I would walk miles from our apartment to the Fisher Theater to see the movies, and we walked to save the nickel busfare. We would always stop at the General Motors building to look at the cars, and the models. They used to have a contest. Young people would enter futuristic car designs, or make a copy of a Louis the 14th carriage. I loved that GM display, and dreamed of the day we would have a car.

We moved uptown and I went to Central High School, where by the way, a classmate was Sander Levin, now a member of the House of Representatives and brother to Carl, your senator. Then I came Wayne University, worked as a copy boy on the Detroit News, as a writer for Motor News, the AAA magazine and on the college daily. When I graduated after 3 1/2 years, in 1953, I enlisted in the U.S. Army. The Korean War was on but I served in Europe, in intelligence, in what we called the Army Security Agency.

When I came home in 1956, I joined the Wall Street Journal in Chicago, and in 1958 transferred to Detroit. I worked for the Journal in Detroit until 1967, when I became the New York Times bureau chief in Detroit and I held that position until 1973, when I transferred to New York for the Times, working the national news, then as a financial editor, then the national labor writer. In 1979, I joined Forbes magazine as its Washington bureau chief, and in the 1980s transferred to New York where I worked in various jobs, including assistant managing editor. I retired in 1996, but now write columns, six a month, one for Forbes Magazine monthly called Backseat Driver, plus a weekly column for, plus as monthly column for Ward’s Auto World, the Contrarian, and a monthly column for The Car

I haven’t just written about cars. I’ve covered politics, and am mentioned in "The Making of the President," 1968, by William White. Along the way I’ve done some foreign reporting, chasing Communists in Central America during the Carter/Reagan years. I’ve swung through Africa, Somalia, Nigeria, Angola, South Africa.

Recently I was named one of the top 100 financial journalists of the century by TJFR, a financial journalists group. I was ranked along with the likes of Ida Tarbell (the great muckraker who brought down the Standard Oil Trust), B.C. Forbes (founder of Forbes Magazine), Barney Kilgore, the creator of the modern Wall Street Journal. I tell you this so you will understand that I just may know what I am talking about.

As to the auto business, I was there when Ed Cole created the Corvair and there when John DeLorean created the GTO that Ronny and the Daytonas sang about. I was there when Karl Hahn taught us to "think small" about his beetle-shaped Volkswagen, and I was there when George Romney brought forth the compact Rambler and slew the dinosaurs in the driveway. I was there when the Edsel was born, and when Bob McNamara of Vietnam fame created the little Ford Falcon, the first car to really kick Chevy since the 1920s. And better yet, I was there when Lee Iacocca introduced his Mustang. I was there when Soji Hatori brought Toyota here. Soji, by the way, dumped his Japanese wife and married an American blonde in a blimp over Los Angeles. I was there when Studebaker owned rights to distribute Mercedes cars in this country, and I was there in Utah when Sherwood Egbert sent his lovely Avantis racing across the Salt Flats in a last doomed effort to save Studebaker.

I drove Ralph Nader into Detroit from the airport when he came with his new book, "Unsafe at Any Speed," and I knew Haagen Smit, who explained smog, and Bill Mitchell who knew how to make cars look long and low for General Motors. I was there when Lee (Iacocca) saved Chrysler with his K car and the minivan, and yes, I advised my readers to buy Chrysler stock when it was at 7 on its way down to 3. I was there when Tom Gale and Bob Lutz did cab forward (car design), and saved Chrysler again, and yes, I told my readers to buy Chrysler again at 10.

I do all this name dropping so you know that I know the difference between cars made of steel and cars made of clay, and more important, that I know the difference between men made of steel and men made of clay.

OK, end of Part 1. Now I am going to talk about General Motors.

You won’t like what I have to say.

You are badly led, with an organization that just doesn’t work.

I’m going to prove this to you, and my proof is an unparalleled number of errors, mistakes and failures.

This isn’t a new theme with me. In Wards Auto World of May 1998 I raised the question of GM strategy. I noted that you had a strategy board that didn’t know anything about auto strategy

I wrote that your strategy board had decided that luxury sport-utility vehicles had no place in the company’s own Cadillac division, thereby going about as far as anyone could to destroy Cadillac. This isn’t hindsight. Mercedes, BMW and Lexus all understood what was happening at the same time that GM rejected a Cadillac SUV, and they created SUVs, and so did Lincoln.

Quoting from that column on Saturn: "The board is taking seven years to get Saturn a second car, (it really took 10 years) thereby leaving its most warm and fuzzy division to wallow in a small-car depression. Instead of investing in success, this board starved it."

You know, they took away the Saturn’s product engineers. They are out to make Saturn into another Oldsmobile. Look at the LS launch. First, the idea of forcing Saturn to use a German platform designed for a metal body on a car with a plastic body is ludicrous. It cost more and took longer to do than to get a completely new platform for Saturn. Then the car design was completely undistinguished, and the actual launch was the worst I have ever seen in 40 years. The result is that sales are one-third expectations in the first year and the factory lost a shift. I figure that is a 0-million-a-year loss.

This is the board that has never updated and will soon kill the Camaro. That should take a good part of the excitement from Chevrolet. GM executives don’t seem to understand that the art in the auto business is building desirable vehicles, not killing models and closing plants.

Your strategy board completely missed the trend to car-based all-wheel drive vehicles, and is years behind the Lexus RX 300, the Honda CR-V and the like. Even Ford is in production of the Escape. How many more years must we wait for such a GM vehicle?

Now let’s go beyond that 2 1/2- year-old article:

Your management built an all-new pickup truck without four doors, when Dodge and Ford and Toyota all had four-door big pickups. To this day, no one at GM admits to have made that decision. It must have been someone they promoted. How could they build an all-new vehicle with three doors when they knew their competitors would have four?

How could they be a door short on an all-new vehicle?

Your company still doesn’t have a four-door small pickup. That is unbelievable. Ranger creams them. If Dodge Dakota had the capacity, it probably would outsell the Chevy S-10. I asked one of your highest-ranking executives why no four-door S-10. He explained that since a new S-10 was coming a few years down the road, they didn’t want to spend the money. Your people never, it seems, have heard the word "competition." Now about a month ago you did begin production of a Chevy S-10 Crew Cab. That is a type of four-door, but different from the usual design. In fact, this is a vehicle you build in Brazil, so you could have produced it here earlier. And it is priced ,000 above the two-door.

I’m sure they will sell some, but why are they years late in matching the competition? There is only one answer: incompetence.

Just to repeat what I am doing now, I am listing dumb decisions by your management that proves they know nothing about the auto business.

The EV-1. I am all for experimentation, but to spend 0 million to 0 million for a two-seater with a 40-mile range, are we out of our minds? That is the greatest car disaster ever, covered up by the press because it’s a green disaster. The EV-1 makes the Edsel look like a bases-loaded home run in the last of the ninth of the seventh game of the World Series.

Once the then-chief executive of your company, Jack Smith, said to me, and I quote, "You don’t think we can do anything right." I told him that I did think they did one thing right; they did a good job cutting manufacturing costs. And guess what? They’ve fired the man who did it, Don Hackworth.

And talking about strategy boards, did you know that the chief of design is not on the GM global strategy board, but your vice president of human resources is? That’s right: the global strategy board, the head of design isn’t on it but the head of the employment office is. Go figure.

Brand marketing. I don’t think much of brand marketing theories. To me they are just a way of avoiding the idea of building a better product. I suppose that if your idea of a new model change is putting six more raisins in a box of cereal, then brand marketing might be important. But even if I did believe, the idea that every single car model is a brand is incredibly dumb. No one in the industry believes this, except at GM. The idea that Chevy Impala is a separate brand, that Chevy Monte Carlo is a brand, that Cavalier is a brand, that Malibu is a brand is nutsy coo-koo. You can’t have 75 brands within GM. It won’t work, but it has been the GM strategy. And what’s the result of this strategy? Falling market share every year this management has been in power.

Look at the numbers. Your management has lost an average 3/4 of a percent point of market share very year, from 35% to down toward 28% this year. My belief is that you are headed to 25% of the market. I would also predict that before long someone high will "take the fall" for this loss, which I put directly on the top management and its theories.

Supplier relations: Your company has the poorest supplier relations in the industry, and a reputation of mistreating suppliers, of trying to beat down their prices unfairly. If someone comes up with a great innovation, GM is the last company it will try to sell it to for these reasons. I have had the CEO of major suppliers say this. Yet this is how your management does business.

Another disaster was the strike of 1998, which cost GM, I believe, better than billion in profit. General Motors provoked that strike. Look, I covered the UAW in Detroit. I knew Walter Reuther and Leonard Woodcock and Doug Fraser. I knew the company negotiators like Malcolm Denise of Ford and Earl Bramlett of GM. I was the labor writer of the New York Times. GM deliberately proved the strike. I’m not saying that was wrong. It is OK to provoke a strike, and GM had some justification But when GM was 24 hours from winning, the company surrendered. Apparently GM decided that winning would hurt the UAW’s feelings. Why provoke a strike unless you intend to win? Why surrender when victory is in your grasp. At a cost of billion. The performance of your management was unbelievable here.

How about the dealer ordering system, which was installed by present management? The company has been in business since 1907, and it sets up a system that keeps dealers from getting the cars they need. This cost GM one-half of a percent of market share, which is 85,000 sales, or billion in sales. How could your management install an ordering system that didn’t work? How?

Fit and finish. Look, the quality of your fit and finish is the worst in the industry, excluding Koreans. Your executives know it, too, but what are they doing about it? I’ll know they are doing something when an executive vice president is given the public responsibility of improving fit and finish, and his bonus is on the line.

The dealers. You want to know something? The only reason you are still selling 28% of the market is your dealers. The biggest distribution system in the business. And your management hates them. They actually announced a plan to buy 15% of the GM dealers, to go into competition with their own dealers, and then when the dealers blew up, your chief executive said he didn’t know anything about it. Well, GM is disorganized but I don’t believe that Roy Roberts invented and publicly announced a billion-dollar acquisition plan all by himself.


Design: What do you want me to say? GM invented car design: Harley Earl, Bill Mitchell. I knew some of these people. Now, you have the Aztek.

For God’s sake, why couldn’t they hire somebody. Ford did, Chrysler did, Mercedes and BMW did, they all do (not the Japanese. Their designers really are Japanese). Now GM did hire someone from the outside, a French woman from Renault. Now I like French women, and I wish her well, I am sure she is talented. But please explain to me who buys French Renaults besides the French … and a few Spaniards. Who? Nobody. Why can’t GM find an American who understands the American culture, and who can create a PT Cruiser, or a Thunderbird? Why do they hire a foreigner?

I ask you, if you didn’t work for GM, would you drive a GM car?

Let’s get specific: How about that pickup truck design. You know, that’s where the money is, the T800 platform. The pickup is the heart of it. You used to be No. 1 in pickups, now you are behind Ford F-150 and Dodge Ram has scored big off Chevy. So you designed a new truck, darn good truck, too, except for the rattles. But when it came to design, they made it look like the old one. You know why? Because instead of relying on your designers to design a modern-looking truck, you took the designs to focus groups, and they picked the old look. So your new truck looks dated when it comes out, and in a couple of years will really look dated. And as noted earlier, they forgot to put four doors on it at first. These are the reasons I believe your Silverado sales are less than expected, why you are rebating it.

Then we have the Pontiac Aztek. I’m not going to dump on it, and I hope it catches on. I hear it’s a dud, but you never can tell. But I have never, never seen such dislike of a vehicle design, never.

Look, even the future stuff, the show cars, they just don’t look right. I know it and you know it. Why hasn’t this management done something about it?

Oldsmobile: Look, Olds is dead. Your management is saying that they did everything possible and it’s up to the dealers and the customers to save Olds. Those are code words. Figure five years and gone. They did give Olds new product, but it was product without any design distinction, without any engineering firsts, a new engine that wasn’t better than the competition, and mediocre quality and inexperienced leadership. Hell, they fired the experienced leadership. Remember the Rock, John Rock? The head of Olds today used to sell Alpo dog food. You figure it out. Five years and dead. Why five years? It’s a legal strategy. Starve it to death so sales fall, so we can’t be sued.

Cadillac. Let’s not go over 15 years of disaster. Let’s just say that I’ve seen the new Catera, to be built in a new plant in Lansing. But where’s the new motor? The old German motor was one of the Catera problems, and they are putting that old engine in the new car, maybe with a horsepower boost. That’s not the way to save Cadillac. The car needs a great engine and it doesn’t have one. And I understand that rushing out the Escalade was to save the dealers, but in the long run it reinforced the idea that Caddy is a Chevy with thicker leather. BMW builds an all new X-5. Mercedes builds an all- new ML 320. Caddy gets a redone Tahoe. If they could create new vehicles, and even new factories, why couldn’t GM? Some management.

True story: One of the most important businesswomen in America decided to buy an SUV. Her name is known to all of your directors. She’s big. She asked a friend of mine if he could get her some to test drive. He said he could and would get her a Cadillac Escalade.

She said to him, and this is the quote: "Don’t insult me."

The Escalade isn’t a bad vehicle. It’s quite OK. But the prestige of Cadillac is so low that a well-known person says that being offered a Cadillac to drive is an insult.

Which brings us to Powertrain. Would someone tell me what Powertrain has been doing for 20 years?

You know, a while back GM was the greatest engine maker in the world, the greatest. Then some jackass stuck Chevy engines in Oldsmobiles. Instead of saying, we’re sorry, it will never happen again and firing the idiot, GM solved the problem by eliminating divisional engines and setting up one big engine operation, Powertrain.

In my lifetime, in my lifetime, GM Powertrain has never turned out a world-class four-cylinder engine in North America. Never.

The best Six, the 3800, is as old as Methuselah, so they are trying to sell an ancient engine to a generation that doesn’t want a two-year-old computer. There’s a little four-cylinder engine in the ,000 Toyota Echo that has more technology than any GM engine today. Your first engine with variable valve breathing, comes out next year. Let’s hope they can build it. The Japanese and Europeans have been building them for years; that’s why they are good now. We’ll see what happens to your new variable valve engines next year.

All you hear is Northstar Northstar Northstar. BMW, Mercedes, Toyota, Honda wouldn’t have Northstar in their cars. No variable valve breathing. What GM needs is a new small block V8. Where is it? Don’t ask me.

In fact, you are buying a six-cylinder engine from Honda for Saturn. Saturn was created to prove that Americans could build as good a product as the Japanese. Now they are buying Honda engines for Saturn, which proves that this management not only can’t build a better engine, it’s given up trying. In heaven you can hear Ed Cole and Boss Kett sobbing. GM has to buy engines from a competitor

They don’t even have a five-speed automatic for their own cars which are front-wheel drive. They are getting one, when the competition is getting six-speed automatics. GM will get its five when the competition is getting a six-speed. Actually, GM did make five-speed automatics for rear-wheel drive cars and sold them to your competitors. Believe it or not, you helped your competitors whip you.

This management is so inept that its own wholly-owned subsidiary, German Opel, revolted. Did you know that? The board of directors of German Opel, appointed by GM, revolted. They blamed Detroit for stripping Opel of resources for GM’s globalization, thereby wrecking Opel quality. The American head of Opel, Dave Herman, agreed with the Germans, so GM in Detroit, in effect, fired him, ordered him transferred to Moscow. The German board said no, you can’t fire Dave Herman unless we say so. Unprecedented. It took a half-year to straighten this out, and they are still mad.

And while we’re on this, how about this "alliance" strategy? GM spent billions buying 20% of Suzuki, half of Isuzu, 20% of Fiat, 20% of Subaru. Remember, I’m supposed to be a good financial reporter, voted one of the century’s best.

Well, this alliance strategy makes no sense at all to me. Did you know GM has owned part of Isuzu since 1971, that’s 29 years? What have they gotten from it? They’ve been in Suzuki since 1981. 19 years. What have they gotten from it? In profits? Nothing. They get to sell the Geo Tracker. They don’t even get the good Tracker. You get the old one. Billions down the ratholes and they call it a strategy. Well, it is, a losing strategy.

Here’s an aside:

This year’s General Motors annual report said, "It’s no secret that, in recent times, General Motors has been thought of by some as the ‘product laggard’ in the industry. We don’t think that description has ever been fair. However, that image is going to change."

Well, I’m the one they are talking about. And they say it isn’t true but it’s going to change. Why, with the same people leading the team? They are doing the best they can. It just isn’t good enough.

The other day I saw the new SUV the GMC Envoy. That’s the new Jimmy, like the new Blazer will be called the Trailblazer. That Envoy looked good, darn good. But the version I saw had only two rows of seats, no third-row option. GM will build an extended-wheelbase version for a third seat. That extended-seat version will be the same length of the GMC Yukon that has a third seat. You’ve got to understand, the extended-wheelbase Envoy and the Yukon, both the same length, will sit three feet apart in the showroom.

Why do that? Why not build one Envoy, an inch or two longer if need be, with an optional third seat. If it’s not comfortable, the salesman sells the Yukon. You know, that is what Ford is doing. The new Explorer will have a third-seat option, with no 0 million spent for an extended wheelbase version.

The same thing will go for Chevy extended-wheelbase Trailblazer and the Tahoe. Ain’t there anyone in the RenCen who knows how to play this game?

How about the advertising? Remember the Cadillac Ducks? All that money spent to introduce the Catera with stupid and silly ads. How about the new Cadillac advertising theme? "The power of &." I don’t know anyone that knows what it means. And they never fire an ad agency.

I will say the OnStar ads with Batman are terrific. Super. I don’t understand how they got them. I figure they’ll fire the guy who did them.

There’s so much. It goes on and on. They talk about a major effort to build a five-day car; you can have it built-to-order and delivered in five days. What, you need a five-day Cavalier? The major reasons for not having what the customer wants are corporate. That is, they want V8s and you don’t have enough V8 capacity, so you give incentive money to sell sixes. They want silver paint jobs, but the company bought white paint and wants to use it up. Sure, they should make it faster to get a car built-to-order, but that’s no big deal.

E-Business, China, your management puts its hopes in all these fantasies. Meanwhile, Toyota is going to outsell your cars in California. Last year, you registered 182,000 cars in California. Toyota registered 161,000. You were just 21,000 ahead. When will they pass you? And they are catching up in trucks, too. Your management doesn’t know that beating Toyota in California is more important than dreaming about China.

And there’s no modern GM convertible, either. Chrysler sells 60,000 Sebrings. Ford sells 40,000 Mustangs. Good business. But it’s more than that. The convertible is the spirit of a company. That’s why Toyota builds them. You have the ancient and soon-to-die Camaro and the two-seat ‘Vette.

Do we have to go on?

Everybody makes mistakes. But your management makes so many of them. The proof of their incompetence is in the number of mistakes. There is absolutely no reason to think that this will change. The same people who made the mistakes are still in charge, and they haven’t admitted it.

End of Part 2.

Part 3, a much shorter segment. Why these things happen.

Listen carefully: You have a management that doesn’t know much about the American car business. It isn’t that they are bad people or dumb people. I assume they are smart. They just don’t know much about the American car business. Look at their resumes. The chairman and former CEO was the former treasurer who made his bones negotiating the joint-venture deal for the Fremont plant with Toyota. As a reward he was made boss of GM Canada and then GM Europe, and he did a good job, a good job. But he had no American car experience. And in Europe, he had top people around him; they knew the business. That wasn’t true here.

Your new CEO likewise was a financial official, who did a good job in Brazil and a good job in Europe, but had little American car experience, until he was made president of North American operations. His on-the-job training was running North American Auto Operations. He lost market share very year and was promoted to CEO. Most of the disasters that I’ve described, and the fall in market share, came on his watch. Yes, you did make profit here. It would be amazing if you couldn’t make a profit in a 17-million-car year. What happens when it goes to 13.5 million and you have 25% share?

Look, I don’t have anything against financial people. One of the best officers I knew, Bill Hoglund, the man who turned around Pontiac, you know, "We Build Excitement," was a financial man. But he had cars in his heart, and that’s what counts, what’s in your heart, not what you studied in graduate school.

Your president today of North American operations was selling eyewash five years ago. Actually I like Ron Zarrella. He is terrifically smart, and a quick study. But he doesn’t have any experience, the knowledge you get from seeing how things really work. If he had great backup, that might be OK. But the backup is awful. They don’t know the auto business, either. Ron is like a quarterback just out of college, playing for the NFL in his first year, and with no protection. He’s going to get sacked an awful lot.

It’s one thing not to know the business. But worse, your management doesn’t like people who do know something about the American car business. Look at the top-flight people who have gone. J.T. Battenberg, one of the best, gone from GM. Don Hackworth, who once headed Buick and then manufacturing, going. Lou Hughes, gone. Mike Losh, the CFO who once headed Pontiac and Olds, gone. John Rock, who saved GMC, bounced. Ed Mertz of Buick, gone. My impression has been that they actually consider knowledge of the business as some kind of disadvantage.

But worse is the management system they have set up. You don’t have a working system.

Gentlemen, and ladies, again, I am supposed to know something about managements.

Let me tell you a story. Years ago, in the 1950s, Pontiac was going down, and GM sent over Bunkie Knudsen to take over. He took over 60 days before Job 1. He went down to the styling shop to see what he had coming in 60 days.

Pontiac was an old man’s car then. Its styling symbols were two wide chrome stripes running down the hood, we called them suspenders, and the Pontiac Indian head on the hood.

It was only 60 days before Job 1, and Bunkie couldn’t do much, so he said take off the suspenders and the Indian head.

Well, one day I asked the vice president of Buick, you remember, Ed Mertz, if he could walk in 60 days before Job 1 and strip chrome off his car. That was in the day of the 4-Phase System of new-car development. You remember the 4- Phase system; it started at Phase Zero and ended at Phase 3. I want you to know I never thought much of a company with a 4-Phase System that starts at Zero and goes to 3. Anyway, I told Mertz the Knudsen story and asked if he could go into design 60 days before Job 1 and strip off chrome.

He said, "Sixty days before Job 1? Hell, that’s Phase 5."

Gentlemen, I have not found one man in GM who could by himself order a piece of chrome stripped off a car. Your management has created a system without power or responsibility, or with power and responsibility so diffused that it takes forever to get anything at all done. Even the VLEs have to hold meetings to strip off a piece of chrome.

You could say your CEO has power, but he says he doesn’t know anything about design or engineering or marketing so why would he do anything.

Look, the division chiefs are nothing anymore. They aren’t vice presidents; they have no power over quality even. A division like Cadillac has about 50 people on the payroll. They probably will be eliminated in time and the division chief, too.

The brand-marketing boss is supposed to have power, but as far as I can he or she has power over the advertising. The VLE is supposed to be the boss, but they aren’t vice presidents, and they report to manufacturing and manufacturing never wants to change anything.

As far as I could tell, the most powerful car guy was Don Hackworth, but he’s gotten his head chopped off.

And there seems to be no penalty for failure. Has anyone been fired for that Saturn disaster? I figure the worst launch on top of the worst platform decision, which was, by the way, forced not by Saturn people but by top management of GM. Have they shaken up design for those boring products? Have they changed the brand management for the market share loss? Did they ever fire anybody for lousy advertising? There is no penalty for failure.

How can anyone who knows something about the American car business, about cars, get to the top, or even the No. 2 position, of GM. I don’t see the pathway up. Engineers don’t count for anything anymore in this company as far as I can tell. You know, even Fred Donner, the ultimate financial man at GM, who set up the last management system about 40 years ago, felt that while there should be a financial man on top, the No. 2 should know something about cars. Not today.

I recall John Rock, then a vice president of Oldsmobile, said to me, "This system won’t work, but it will take them 10 years to find out."

Your board of directors. I believe there is only one person on the entire board who likes cars, and it’s not Jack Smith, the chairman, either

The stock price: It is as high as it is because of Hughes, bought by Roger Smith. Without Hughes I figure GM could be selling at 35. And you can thank Carl Icahn, the old raider for pushing it up 12 points by announcing a raid. Now he’s gone. Where will it go?

Enough, end of Part 3

Part 4. What can you do about it?

Well I hope someone made a tape of this speech. If not, I can give you a copy of my text. Each one of you should drop a note to each member of the board.

You could do it in a round robin, if you wanted. That is, everyone signs the same note, in a circle. That’s a round robin. No one stands out.

Tell them you don’t know if I’m right or wrong but you’re worried about GM.

Urge them to set up a committee of outsiders, men who know the business, to study GM and report back with a plan of action in 60 days. Make suggestions about who should be on this committee.

How about Bill Hoglund, ex-GM executive vice president. How about Roger Penske, how about Lee Iacocca, or Bill Mitchell or Bob Eaton or Bob Lutz or J.T. Battenberg or Maryanne Keller.

The board must order that all records and minutes be made available immediately to the committee. They must order that all officers make cooperation with the committee their first, their first priority. That anyone obstructing, delaying or acting in any way uncooperatively shall be suspended by the committee awaiting board action. Who could they hire if they went that way? Believe me, there are people out there who could lead General Motors back to glory. And throw another shrimp on the barbie. That’s a hint about one of them.

The committee should have the right to interview people outside of GM for positions within the company. The committee members must be paid terribly well for their work, too. That’s because if they do it for free no one will respect the report. They only respect what they overpay for.

You can call this the Committee of Public Safety.

What else can you do? Go to church and pray. Your company is going down to 25% of the market. That’s not terrible. You can make money at 25%, Ford does. But I don’t see leaders coming up the pipeline. All I see is more stretch goals.

When you write to your board members, tell them that you don’t understand how a company that depends on products has no upward mobility for product people. None of the top executives are product people.

Write slogans on walls, too. Victory or Death, Beat Ford, V, Sic Semper Tyrannis.

That’s it.

My last words:

Never give up,

Never surrender,

And don’t let them take you alive.

Read more: Jerry Flint’s 2001 speech | | Detroit Free Press…

Nice Plastic Auto Door Tooling Production photos

Nice Plastic Auto Door Tooling Production photos

A few nice plastic auto door tooling production images I found:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Boeing B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay”, with Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning
plastic auto door tooling production
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning :

In the P-38 Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and his team of designers created one of the most successful twin-engine fighters ever flown by any nation. From 1942 to 1945, U. S. Army Air Forces pilots flew P-38s over Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific, and from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Lightning pilots in the Pacific theater downed more Japanese aircraft than pilots flying any other Allied warplane.

Maj. Richard I. Bong, America’s leading fighter ace, flew this P-38J-10-LO on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field, Ohio, to evaluate an experimental method of interconnecting the movement of the throttle and propeller control levers. However, his right engine exploded in flight before he could conduct the experiment.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Lockheed Aircraft Company


Country of Origin:
United States of America

Overall: 390 x 1170cm, 6345kg, 1580cm (12ft 9 9/16in. x 38ft 4 5/8in., 13988.2lb., 51ft 10 1/16in.)


Physical Description:
Twin-tail boom and twin-engine fighter; tricycle landing gear.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.


Country of Origin:
United States of America

Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Polished overall aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Nice Plastic Auto Parts Plastic Mould photos

Nice Plastic Auto Parts Plastic Mould photos

A few nice plastic auto parts plastic mould images I found:

1973 Citroen DS23 Pallas
plastic auto parts plastic mould
Image by DVS1mn
When in 1955 Citroen released its DS19 ‘Goddess’, media commentators reviewed the car in tones previously reserved for objects arriving from the depths of outer space.

Hydro-pneumatic suspension, assistance systems for the steering, brakes and gearshift lever, and inboard front disc brakes were among the advances pioneered by this extraordinary design.

By 1968 the rest of the world had begun adopting aspects of Citroen’s radical package; however, Citroen wasn’t finished exploring the range of quirks it could pack into a medium-sized sedan. One new feature to perplex the home mechanic was a link that would swivel headlights in unison with the front wheels.

The car’s ability to traverse rough terrain was proved in 1969 when a Citroen was set to win the first London-Sydney Marathon, only to be taken out in a serious collision with a spectator vehicle. Five years later, the Australian crew of a DS23 got the job done, dominating a 1974 World Cup Rally that sent competitors from South America to Munich via the Sahara Desert.

Maintaining a DS is work for specialist technicians or perhaps the seriously talented amateur. There is barely room under the bonnet of a Pallas to see engine components, let alone put a spanner on them.

Three-speed automatics were plagued by problems and remain difficult to maintain, so get a five-speed manual if you can. Overseas values are providing a big hint that anyone who wants a really good Pallas needs to act soon. Be prepared to invest the better part of ,000. Of several thousand cars sold new in Britain, fewer than 300 are known to survive and numbers in Australia will be far slimmer.


Packing a mass of electro/mechanical/hydraulic bits plus the complete drivetrain into a small space ahead of the firewall didn’t help Citroen’s reputation for reliability.

Keeping your Citroen cool is vital to engine longevity and that can be costly. One spare parts site was quoting authentic but renovated radiators at more than 00. Replacing the coolant hoses with a set of genuine items will cost more than 0.

Citroen club sites of late have carried requests for help in locating a competent trimmer for DS models. This suggests that finding someone to repair a car with worn seats and compromised head-lining has become challenging.

Words: Paul Blank – January, 2005

The DS was spectacularly bold, wrote Paul Blank…

When the time came to replace the Traction Avant, the resulting car could be expected to be absolutely amazing – and it was.

The new car, launched at the Paris Salon in 1955, was called DS, which, when pronounced in French, is "Day-ess", which translates to Goddess. At the Paris Salon an amazing number of orders were taken for the new car – some 12,000 people signing on the dotted line.

In 1955 Australians were buying new FJ Holdens and the Morris Minor was considered a modern small car in England. The DS might as well have been a spaceship in comparison. It certainly looked like
nothing else.

The car floated along at any speed. Famously, the DS featured Hydropneumatic suspension. It had the cars sitting on suspension units which were steel spheres in place of traditional springs and shock absorbers. The ride in a DS has to be experienced to be believed. Even if a tyre blew, the car would compensate.

Another DS feature was the use of disc brakes. It was Citroen which first fitted them to a mass-production car.

Inside, the DS was as spectacularly bold as the rest of the car. In an era of flat tin or wood dashboards, Citroen used the biggest single piece of moulded plastic in the world. The DS in not a complicated car; just very different.

You know the car’s ready when first the back, then the front of the car lift up to normal ride height. To change gear, you lift off, switch to the next gear and accelerate away again. Then you have to learn about the brakes. Where you might expect a brake pedal, there’s a black rubber mushroom. It works like a valve operating by the "the harder you push, the more you stop" system, with almost no pedal travel available.

The DS isn’t a sports car; it’s a real Grand Tourer and, treated as such, provides a magical experience.


Citroen DS23 Pallas

Number built: 582,593 (All ID/DS 1968-75)
Body: All-steel, integrated body/chassis 4-door sedan and station wagon
Engine: 2347cc inline 4-cylinder, OHV, 8v, fuel injection
Power & torque: 105kW @ 5500rpm, 200Nm @ 4000rpm
Performance: 0-97km/h 10.2sec; 0-400m 17.3sec
Transmission: 3-speed automatic, 5-speed manual
Suspension: Independent with wishbones, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (f); Independent with trailing arms, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (r)
Brakes: Discs, power-assisted
Tyres: 185HR15 radial
Price range: 00-,000
Contact: Citroen Clubs in various states,
Click here for more car pictures at my Flickr site.

Cool China Box Mold photos

Cool China Box Mold photos

Some cool china box mold pictures:

FOR SALE: Original North Light Percheron Mare
china box mold
Image by appaIoosa
Catalogue info:
North Light Percheron mare, bay #P1171B
Size: Height 8 three/four&quotH, x 9 1/two&quotL
Identifying marks &amp logos:
has North Light stamp on inside hind leg, plus: ©NL 95 Produced IN UK

The Percheron breed originated in northern France in the Normandy area. This horse is the most famous and quite a few of the French draft breeds, and was probably created from a mixing of neighborhood Norman horses, Oriental breeds left behind in Europe by the Moors and some Arabian blood. This cross breeding created the massive heavy draft horse used first by medieval knights and then for agriculture and cart perform. The added infusion of Arab blood in the 19th century contributed to the Percheron being a lot more active and lively than other heavy horse breeds. The Percheron of these days, is a a lot more refined horse, with intelligence, great-natured character, spirited and prepared attitude and exceptional elegance for such a heavy breed.

This big North Light model is true to the breed standard: with very good bone, strong heavily muscled shoulders and hind quarters, and medium length sturdy legs with large hooves and no feathering. A life-like face with large moist searching eyes completes this great creation.


This is one particular of the original North Light horses produced by the North Light factory in Stoke-On-Trent, England (not China) – ahead of the company was sold to Wade Ceramics, and prior to Wade outsourced these molds for production in China.

This mold has been discontinued for some time now, and quite uncommon. The original (made in Stoke-On-Trent, UK with North Light backstamp) are really uncommon and quite tough to come by. In truth, all the original North Light horses are becoming extremely rare and tough to discover.


North Light model horse figurines are created of a porcelain and resin composition, which allow for the in depth mold detailing (some with person hair detailing, braided manes &amp tails, etc) that is really evident in the finish. The figurines are finished in a studio where they are airbrushed with the physique colour and shading essential for the certain breed piece. Next comes the hand detailing , which can be in depth, based on the horses’ color pattern. Pinto and appaloosa patterns call for substantial hand operate, and vary greatly from horse to horse. Facial features also receive hand detailing, with expressive, lifelike eyes which have a final gloss application to make them look moist and realistic. Touches of pink are added to muzzles. Nostrils are darkened inside to add depth.

With this degree of hand detailing, each model horse will vary slightly.

North Light is a company situated in Stoke-On-Trent, Staffordshire, England. The location is famous for its potteries and figurines, including the well known Wedgwood, Beswick and Royal Doulton brands. In 2005, the North Light factory was sold – including all existing North Light molds – to the organization: WADE CERAMICS LTD (yes, the identical company that produced those small whimsy figurines located in red rose tea boxes years ago). Wade repackaged the existing North Light horses beneath their new trademark and resold them within the Wade division as &quotNorth Light @ Wade&quot horses.

Directly from Wade Co. internet site, verbatim:
Contributed by Carol Atrak
Monday, 18 July 2005

We have pleasure in announcing that Wade has purchased particular assets from Dennis Doyle of the North Light resin figurine range. North Light, which will trade as a division inside Wade as &quotNorth Light @ Wade&quot, is well-known for its variety of dogs, farm animals, horses and wildlife figurines. They are manufactured in resin and hand painted. The &quotClassic Dog and Horse Ranges&quot are finished in marble, china blue, bronze, Monet and other effects to grace the sideboards and coffee tables of the World’s finest homes.

Managing Director, Paul Farmer mentioned, &quotNorth Light @ Wade&quot will bring a new dimension to Wade’s figurine capability and Wade’s mechanisms for on-line purchases of its ceramic merchandise will be adapted to cater for North Light items also. We are also searching forward to improving our ceramic hand painting techniques which come with the North Light asset obtain.&quot

Artists, Guy Pocock and Anne Godfrey, have been retained to continue modelling new lines and Clare Beswick, from that famous family of figurine makers which bears her name, has been appointed Sales and Item Manager for North Light @ Wade.

The manufacture has been moved from Biddulph to a separate resin region inside Wade’s Royal Victoria Pottery in Burslem.

In 2008, Wade announced they would no longer create the North Light @Wade horses (and dogs) at the factory (in the UK). As an alternative they decided to release a new line: &quotNorth Light @ Wade Premier Collection&quot (consisting of 17 horses and 22 dogs) – to be created in China. Numerous of the current NL horses you see being sold on eBay (and elsewhere) nowadays, bear the &quotmade in China&quot sticker, along with the NL backstamp.

In 2009, Wade ceased production altogether on all current North Light models . Nowadays, North Light horses are no longer being developed, sold or marketed by Wade Ceramics, creating these horses extremely sought after, worthwhile and rare.

I have no idea what the Wade Co. decided to do with all the existing North Light horses. Some say they sold the existing molds to a business in China.

If your North Light horse has the &quot©North Light Made in the UK&quot backstamp, you have a very rare &amp beneficial collectible certainly!

Susan Glazer cleaning her property
china box mold
Image by Jewish Women’s Archive
Susan Glazer wearing a respirator even though cleaning the property, which is covered from floor to ceiling with mold.

Susan was one of many who kept a Katrina Journal of their experiences – which they circulated to family members and close friends.

The following are excerpts from her journal on the meaning of home:

…Soon after nearly a week, we could not pack any a lot more boxes. We had rented a trailer from U–Haul, which could only hold a finite quantity of stuff. So, we had to make some tough decisions about what to leave behind…We salvaged nevertheless more garments, a handful of pieces of artwork, lots of kitchen items, china and glassware and knick–knacks galore. Unfortunately, we possibly forgot some things — I left behind two needlepoint purses that Nana had made, as effectively as her mother’s sterling silver hand mirror (February 27, 2006).

…We miss so a lot about New Orleans – our close friends most of all. We also miss the apparent charms of the Crescent City – the food, the music, the architecture and the general exciting and funkiness that have been element of our lives for so a lot of years. The good news is that Michael (our son) intends to keep. His job is safe, he has produced a home for himself from the shambles that was our residence this time final year. And we will be frequent visitors. We know what it indicates to miss New Orleans – and our hearts are with all who are starting over – wherever they could be. (September 12, 2006)

Learn much more about the Jewish encounter of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita at JWA’s Katrina’s Jewish Voices.

The Jewish Women’s Archive organized Katrina’s Jewish Voices in collaboration with the Center for History and New Media. By way of the contributions of people and organizations nationwide, the project is making a virtual archive of stories, photos, and reflections about the New Orleans and Gulf Coast Jewish communities just before and following Hurricane Katrina.

Read a lot more about Katrina’s Jewish Voices.

Cool Machined Car Cup Holder China photos

Cool Machined Car Cup Holder China photos

A couple of nice machined car cup holder china images I located:

CA – Historical Bristol Street Directory 1871
machined car cup holder china
Image by brizzle born and bred
Mathews’ Bristol Street Directory 1871

Caledonia Location, Sion Hiil to Mall Buildings, Clifton

Mrs Thomas Butterworth
Cooper Reade, surgeon
Mary Powell, lodging home
Jesse Peachey, lodging property
Mrs. Watley
Mrs Luxmore
Misses Davey
Robert H. Rickards
William Cross, surgeon
Julius Miles
John M. Walcot
Mrs S. Howe
Mrs J . M. Cholmeley
Mrs Sarah Woodley
Mrs Whish –
Miss Farleigh, lodging home
William Adams, lodging home
C. J . Rumbold
Henry Thomas Bridges
Samuel Cryer, lodging house
Mrs Povey, lodging house
Mrs General Roberts
George Young, lodging house
Miss Might
Miss Taverner
Mrs H. Forsyth
Rev. Ralph Lambton Hopper, MA.
Miss Payton Sadler
John Southwood
Jean Van Houtrive
Mrs Elizabeth Brown
Dr. Henry Marshall
Mrs Henry Seymour
Miss Burrow, lodging residence
Col. Saville

Callowhill Street, Leek Lane, Milk Street to Clark Street

William Penn the founder of Pennsylvania married Hannah Callowhill.

Leek Lane connecting Broadmead and Milk Street (which ran from Horsefair to Newfoundland Street).

The site is now covered by the part of the Broadmead shopping centre that is adjacent to Cabot Circus.

C. Hart, baker
William Higgins, boot maker
Thomas Hill, vict, the Apollo (pub)
Elizabeth Jones, vict, Prince of Wales (pub)

Prince of Wales, Callowhill Street

1868 Mary Ann Roberts / 1869 John Jones / 1871 – 72 Elizabeth Jones / 1874 James Willey / 1875 Thomas Morgan / 1876 Henry Tucker 1877 – 79 William Hacker / 1882 – 83 Henry Hathway / 1885 – 89 Thomas Hill / 1891 Eliza Ann Hill / 1892 John Thomas 1896 William Burgess / 1897 – 99 Thomas Hill / 1901 Arthur Dare / 1904 W. J. Rodway / 1906 John Fitter / 1909 – 14 William Blackmor James Harding.

Cambridge Park, Redland, Durdham Down

Mrs Shuttleworth
Mrs Hussey Gould, Dorset lodge
Rev. ?. Barnes
Rev. Edward. St. Jn. Parry, Tudor residence

Cambridge Place, Harley Place to Canynges Road, Clifton

Mrs O. C. Lane, Seymour villa
Miss Edwards
William Thomas Palmer
Mrs Ellis
Edmund Edmunds
Mrs Annie Bowling
Mrs Thomas Trimnell
William Richards
Mrs Mary Hume
Mrs Jane Robinson
Richard Sanders
Mrs Elizabeth Gullick
Emile Arnold Praeger, artist and engineer
Miss Le Grice, piano and singing
?. Wilkins
Mrs Carus Wilson
Mrs Margaret Keir
William Snook, lodging house
Miss A. Townsend
Miss L. Palmer

Cambridge Spot, Seymour Road, Stapleton Road

See Seymour Road

Cambridge Street, Wells Road to William Street, Totterdown

William Ashton Primrose, Cambridge lodge
Thomas Powell, Raglan residence
Joseph Coles, fly proprietor
Henry Young
Theodore Young
Stephen Masters
John Howell
Thomas Vicary
William Angle
John Westcott, Devonshire dairy
Phillip Levering, tea dealer
Phillip Light, carpenter
Robert Macfarlane
Richard Richards, miller

Cambridge Terrace, Cambridge Street to Richmond Street, Totterdown

George William Brackstone
John Tovey, painter
Richard Richards, draper
Thomas Pearson
Frederick Kneller
Thomas Hurford
Jos. Lowden
Mrs. Hall, ladies boarding school
John Mortimer, clerk
Henry Woodman
John Adamson
John Jarrett
James Rathbone
Charles Sibley
John Tucker, grocer &amp beer retailer

Cambridge Terrace, Seymour Road, Baptist Mills

See Seymour Road

Camden Cottages, Stapleton Road

See Stapleton Road

Camden Terrace, Clifton Vale to Hotwell Road

Robert Purnell, lodging home
Mrs Hannah Hitchcock
Mrs Elizabeth Carter
Robert Marks
George M. Carlisle
John Davey
Mrs Hazard
George Drummond, Channel Docks Co.
Alfred Emblin
Frank Mulleny
Capt. William Outerbridge
John Put on, accountant
Henry Jones
Peter Bull
Henry George Raymond, carpenter and contractor
Robert Williams
Mrs Mary Williams, dressmaker and milliner
John Gardiner Fraser

Camden Terrace, Guinea Street, Redcliff

See Guinea Street

Camden Terrace, Cotham Road, South

Campbell Street, Grosvenor Road, St. Paul’s

Mrs Ann Robertson
John Waters
James Harry. Lovell, professor of music
Mrs Brief
Mrs Ann Lewis
Joseph Evans Pearce
Henry Fuller Stokes, sign-writer on glass and wood
William Henry Poole
Henry Fullford
James Taylor
Tom Pusey
Thomas Dunn
Henry Wyatt
Thomas Tarr
William James Brown, com-trav
Thomas Mitchell, carpenter
Thomas Naylor
Josiah John Brain Taylor
William Gibbs
James Underhill
Joseph Norman
John Clyne

Campbell Terrace, Baptist Mills

Canning Street, Pennywell Road

Canon Spot, Folly Lane, Dings

Canon Street, near London Inn, East street, to North street, Bedminster

In Cannon Street, Moses Reynolds complained of Henry Williams burning pigs and melting fat at his piggery, but nothing at all seems to have been accomplished about this complaint.

In addition to the nuisance caused by deposits of filth and the close proximity of animals to houses, not least was the effect upon the environment by regional sector.

In 1853 the Bristol Board of Overall health asked Messrs Stephen Cox and Co to discontinue the practice of burning Wet Tan at their premises in Whitehouse Street. Cornish and Parnell, solicitors for the company, maintained that the burning of Wet Tan was not a nuisance, neither did it give off any noxious or offensive odour.

Fleshings and butcher’s offal were widespread offenders, with each other with slaughterhouses. It was decided to advertise in the local press requesting all butchers and slaughterhouse keepers to register with the Board. By 1894, the following slaughterhouses had been registered in Bedminster.

Charles Norris, painter
Susan Hobbs, shopkeeper
William Worgan, marine retailer dealer
Wm. Franklin, com-trav Eldon cottage
William Rowe, vict, London Tavern (pub)

London Inn, Cannon Street

1775. William Morgan / 1816 – 20. Thomas Lamprey / 1822. Charles Lamprey / 1823 – 30. Charlotte Lamprey 1831 – 34. Mary Clements / 1837. Charlotte Lamprey / 1839 – 42. John Abbott / 1843. Henry Williams / 1844 – 50. John Spiller 1852 – 53. John Thompson / 1854 to 1857. Joseph Bridgeman / 1858. John Wall / 1860. Jeremiah Reay / 1863 – 67. Thomas Farmer 1868 – 89. John Rowe / 1891 -1904. Aubrey Lock / 1906. Frederick Carr / 1909. Emma Carr / 1914 – 17. Harry Hopkins 1921 – 25. Charles Marr / 1928 – 31. Edward Godwin / 1935 – 38. William York / 1944 – 53. Albert Tew / 1960. E. A. Bird 1975. F. A. Hennessy.

Canon Street, St. James’s churchyard to Decrease Montague St

Mrs Gay
Mrs Murdon
John Gordon, greengrocer
Benjamin Canning, cabinet maker
David Keely
Thomas Beedell
Presbyterian Night School
George Cavil, grocer
Charles Slade, vict, Canon Tavern (pub)

Cannon Tavern, Canon Street

1775 James Nowell / 1837 – 39 J. Bidgood / 1840 J. Hurbert / 1844 Maria Collier / 1847 – 48 William Jones / 1849 George Baggott 1851 Joseph Jarvis / 1853 – 56 James Fouracres / 1857 to 1859 Robert Green / 1860 – 65 Richard York / 1867 – 69 John Lewis 1871 Charles Slade / 1872 to 1877 Christopher Broom / 1878 – 79 James Kemp / 1882 – 83 Charles Lapham / 1885 Chris. A. Broome 1886 K. Scriven / 1888 George Cornish / 1891 – 93 James Hole / 1896 John Crocker / 1897 – 99 Henry Wyatt.

James Webber
Henry Street
Thomas Knill
Charles Ley
William Evans
Presbyterian School
James Porch
Evan Francis, boot maker
Richard Mountain
Thomas Bucknall
George Gillard
Mrs Walsh
?. Hall

Canons’ Marsh, Gas works to Butts

The Bristol Gas Works
William Brent
George Rogers Thomas
Jones &amp Nash, timber merchants
F. K. Barnes and Sons, timber merchants
James Temple and Sons, slate and marble merchants
Liverpool Steam Packet Co. – G.W.H. Evans, agent
William Baker and Co. builders
Thomas Tyley, marble functions
James and William Peters, ship builders, Canons’ Marsh Graving Dock
Heber Denty, timber merchant
George H. Rains &amp Co. wire, hemp, rope and sail, companies
Charles Roach
John Wickham
John William King
Thomas Bowyer, vict, King George (pub)

King George Tavern, Canons’ marsh

1800 Elizabeth Bevan / 1816. John Bevan / 1820. John England / 1822 – 23 George King / 1826 – 31 John Bryant 1832 – 34 Ann Thorne / 1837 – 53 William Luens / 1854 – 67 William Winter / 1868 – 72 Charles Lea / 1874 – 78 Thomas Bowyer 1879 – 89 Ellen Godfrey / 1891 – 97 Richard Hancock / 1899 Eliza Hancock / 1901 Elizabeth Nichols John England also traded as a tiler and plasterer, in Rosemary Street.

William Howell
Ford and Canning, coopers and warehousemen
George Church
Michael Clark, grocer
William Lee, builder &amp slate merchant

Canynge‘s Road, Harley Location, Clifton Down to Durdham Down

Charles Arthur Jacobs, livery stables
Misses Fitton, Wellington villa
James Siston
William Baker
William Powell, Norland home
Mrs E. Graham
Robert Coles
(Somerset Spot – Somerset cottage)
Miss Harriet Spiring
Edward Bevan
William Beatson, M.D.
Mrs Buckingham, lodging house
Mrs Jane Waygood, lodging property
Miss Lane
Mrs A. Jameson
Charles Arthur Jacobs, riding master and livery stable keeper
John Pearce, dairyman
Mrs Hutton, Prospect home
The Misses Hendley, Somerset property
Thomas Proctor, Elmdale home
James Christopher Wilson, Farfield
Rev. Richard William Randall
Capt. Harry John Curteis, Clarendon villa
William Frederick Phillips, Coniston lodge
Alfred Newton Herapath, Penleigh villa
Charles Somerton, Norman villa
Dr. William Trotman, Energlyn
(Harley Place Reduced)
Miss Catherine Burges, Enfield villa
Mrs Louisa Pryor, Litfield villa
Capt. William Philips, Salisbury lodge
Mrs John Rickards, Trafalgar villa
Samuel Worsley, Arno’s villa
William F. Trimnell, Walton lodge
Edward Taleur Salt, Cambria villa
Mrs Fanny Waters, Preston villa
Miss Fenton, St. John’s villa
Mrs Evered, Brighton lodge

Canynge Street, Portwall Lane

Named after William Canynges, whose mansion once stood in nearby Redcliffe Street.

Christopher Roberts &amp Co. drysalters and oil merchants

Henry Purnell, vict, Globe &amp Foresters (pub)

The Globe &amp Foresters was on the corner of Portwall Lane and Canynge Street. The buildings on this corner were demolished about 1980 and replaced with a vehicle showroom.

Cann’s Court, Trenchard Street, St. Augustines

Canning Street, Pennywell Road

Canning Street was off Pennywell Road if you had been travelling North, then it was on the left just previous the correct fork with Goodhind Street.

Captain Carey’s Lane, Old Marketplace Street to Ropewalk

Captain Carey’s Lane ran from Old Industry to Redcross Street/Ellbroad Street and was lost when the alterations had been made to construct the underpass and Old Market place roundabout (Temple Way underpass). So it would have been not too far from Penn Street.

John Herbert Crates, plumber
John Thomas
John Shea, marine shops
Richard Crocker, mason
Joseph Nicholls
Thomas Robins, last maker
Russell J . Thompson, boot maker
William Cardwell
Stephen Allen, locksmith
William Tull, marine stores
Harry Bessell, mattress manufacturer
Thomas Brookes, soda water manufacturer

Carlisle Court, Thomas Street

Carlton Place, North St. Bedminster. close to Hen &amp Chickens

Carlton Location, Victoria Street, Clifton

Carlton Spot, Queen’s Road, Richmond Park, to Park Place

William Hammond, Carlton villa
Mrs Mary Elizabeth Thackery, Carlton lodge
Mrs Mary Ann Spencer, lodging home
Joseph Spencer, florist
Mrs Elizabeth Tolkein
William Leaver, lodging property
Christopher Baugh
Rev. James Charles Stafford
The Misses Cripps
Counsell &amp Fewings, lodging house
Mrs Shepherd
Miss Haynes
Mrs and Miss Simpson
Miss Bush
William Wilberforce Jose, Weston villa
Myles A. Clark, Carlton residence
William Francis de Viemes Kane, Buxton villa
George Brittan, Albion villa

Carlton Location, Pennywell Road

Carmarthen or Grays Court, Temple Street

Carolina Avenue, Carolina Row

Carolina Row, King Square to Gay Street

Lewis James Hill
?, Strange
William Burt, tailor, and so on
H. Woolford
Charlotte Hart
George Denny
Mrs Eliza Partridge
John Bowden
Thomas Durant and Son
(Carolina Avenue)
Francis William Loft
Eliza Chandler
Edwin Tucker
Charles Crocker
Samuel Lewis, agent for European Insurance Company

Caroline Row, Highland Location, Durdham Down Blackboy

George Parsons
Henry Hughes, mason
Mrs tephens
Samuel Yeeles
Francis Pillinger
Jabez Bownce
Joshua Edwards
Mrs Tudball

Caroline Location, Hotwell Road, opposite Brunswick Location

Edwin Godfrey
Mrs Wilds
Thomas Evans
James Whitlow
James Stooke
George Davis, carpenter
Mrs MacCullook, lodging house
M. Nathan, lodging property
Joseph Randall, vict, Packet Home (pub)

Packet Residence Tavern, Caroline Spot

1839 – 42. William Capper / 1848 – 49. Samuel Cross / 1851. William Court / 1853 – 69. William Davies / 1871 – 87. Joseph Randall 1893. Agnes Randall / 1899. Priscilla Hamilton / 1901 – 09. Richard Thorn / 1914. Mrs. E. Ashford / 1921. Edward Jones.

William Seville
William Wookey, coal merchant
Edward Hunt
James Cavill

Caroline Location (Little), Hotwell Road

Carpenters Court, Horsefair

Carpenters Court, Haberfield Street, St. Philips

Cart Lane, Temple Street

Carters Buildings, Portland Street, Clifton

Castle Court, Quarry, Durdham Down

Castle Green, Narrow Wine Street to Castle Street

Harry Pethybridge, vict, Odd Fellows’ Hall (pub)

Odd Fellows’ Hall, Castle Green

1863 James Walker / 1866 Alfred Dyke / 1867 Alfred Osborne / 1868 to 1876 Henry Pethybridge / 1877 E. McGill 1879 – 86 Thomas Beavis / 1887 to 1888 Walter Burridge / 1889 Ellen Elizabeth Atkinson / 1891 Harrison Leggett 1892 – 1901 George Harris / 1904 – 06 George Derbey / 1909 Walter Hale on the 25th March 1888 the Odd Fellows’ Hall was taken on a 14 year lease at a rent of £24 per annum by James Lockley, brewer of Lewin’s Mead. The lease was one particular of 22 sold by James Lockley to the Bristol United Breweries Restricted on the 25th March 1892 for the total sum of £11,000.

G. Smith, Sutton &amp Co. parcel o?ice
Mrs Gitson, dress maker
Carver, Jefferis &amp Co. hat companies
James Smith &amp Sons, boot &amp shoe makers
Hellier, Wills, &amp Hurndall, oil, color and varnish merchants
Bristol Dispensary, W. Pollard
Thomas Glass &amp Co., hat and cap producers
Castle Green Day School, Masters, Thomas David Hirons and James Smalley
Methodist New Connection Chapel
James Habgood, iron &amp metal merchant
Stabbins &amp Tyler, hat &amp cap producers
Harding &amp Vowles, builders
John Charley
Ann Jenkins, lodging house
Robert Williams
Henry Gregory, functioning silver-smith and engine turner
Mary Spring, cooper
George Popham, ironmongers
?, Pearson, hat manufacturer
James Triggs, brush maker
Edward Kent, printer
Stephen West, glazier
George Hewlett
Joseph Brunt, vict, Friendship (pub)

Friendship, Castle Green

1853 – 60 Thomas Collings / 1863 – 67 Elizabeth Collings / 1868 – 71 Joseph Brunt / 1871 Elizabeth Collings / 1872 – 89 Matilda Brunt 1891 Edward Coome / 1892 – 96 Thomas Beavis / 1899 Sarah Beavis.

Mrs Culverwell, school
James Mizen
Mary Davis
Castle Green Sunday College
Glass and Betty, hatters
James Jones, printer
Castle Green Congregational Chapel
George Thomas Harris, working jeweller
Smith &amp Marsh, hat companies
Charles Hoskens, boot maker
Llewellins &amp James, coppersmiths, engineers, etc
George Henry Webber, vict, Cat &amp Wheel (pub)

On the corner with Tiny Peter Street, standing in 1606 the Cat &amp Wheel was re-built in 1900, some bits &amp pieces had been salvaged and are now housed in the Bristol City Museum. The later creating was demolished in 1969 for a new museum complicated which was never ever constructed. If standing these days it would be in Castle Park just opposite the entrance to the Galleries vehicle park in Newgate. The name above the door in this picture is W.T. Beavis which dates it to about the time of the inn’s demolition.

Castle Green Terrace, Castle Green

Castle Mill Street, Merchant Street to Narrow Wine St

Emanuel Long
Edward Lockstone, chemist
Thomas Beavis, beer retailer
Thomas Barriball, leather merchant
William Somers, engraver, etc.
John Powell, butcher
J . Smith, confectioner and baker
Amelia Bayntun, refreshment house
William James, carpenter
Jane White, shopkeeper
Henry Dyer, cabinet maker
Henry G. Parnall &amp Sons, scale beam &amp weighing machine manufacturers
James &amp Son, boot and shoe makers
Walter Fisher, ticket-writer &amp printer
W. Starr, wardrobe dealer
Henry G. Bishop, vict, Castle and Mill (pub)
Robert Price tag, timber merchant

Castle Street, Peter Street to Old Industry

John Williams, china warehouse
Henry Mundy, general ironmonger
Robert Pine, baker
John Thatcher, cabinet maker
S. C. Rossiter, linen draper
W. H. Vowles, brush &amp basket producers
Daniel Underwood, grocer
Rd. Batten Edgeworth, ironmonger
James Rogers, boot maker
George Bragg, ironmonger
Payne &amp Thompson, wholesale haberdashers
Llewellins &amp James, brass founders
William Hadden, butcher
George Popham, dining rooms
Robert Hill, cutler
John Edwin Saunders, milliner, etc
R. King, child linen warehouse
Edwin Parnall, sailmaker, and so forth
S. Wright, boot maker
Samuel Kendrick, fancy goods wholesale
J . Collins &amp Sons, tobacconists
Esau Callow, baker
William Edward Vaughan, dyer &amp scourer
Smith &amp Son, cabinet makers
J . Way, tobacconist
Frederick Snary, photographer
Henry Higgs, hatter
Alice Tilley, porter stores
Thomas H. Pengelly, printer
Isaacs Bros., Birmingham warehouse
William White, provision curer
William Ring &amp Co., grocers
A. Nicholls, Birmingham warehouse
John Saunders, clothier &amp outfitter
Albert H. Sage, hatter
John Howe, boot maker
A. Webb, hat manufacturer
Charles Clarke, confectioner
Mrs F. Maggs, milliner
John Wrentmore, bedding makers
T. B. Reeves, beer retailer
Warren and Carle, file companies
William Burton, baker
Henry Perry, pie house
Susan Davie, dairy .
Thomas H. W. Hall, confectioner
Thring &amp Co., grocers
Robert Salter, baker
Frederick Rees, vict, George and Dragon (pub)

George &amp Dragon Castle Street, corner of Queen Street

1753 John Woolfe / 1792 – 1800 Richard Cox / 1826 – 31 John Gifford / 1834. J. S. Rowe / 1837 M. Hazeldine / 1839 – 48 John Shave 1849 John Downing / 1851 Caroline Neale / 1853 – 55 William Kirk / 1856 – 60 William P. Tapp / 1863 Sarah Nichols / 1865 W. Miles 1866 William Griffiths / 1867 – 68 Richard Mallard / 1869 Frederick Clark / 1871 – 76 Frederick Rees / 1877 to 1885 Rueben Stephens 1886 – 1904 Michael Clune / 1906 James Russell / 1909 Charles Godfrey / 1914 Alfred Caines / 1917 Lily May possibly Caines 1921 Thomas Quigley / 1925 – 28 George Tyler.

Fardon &amp Townshend, drysalters (Drysalters have been dealers in a range of chemical products, such as glue, varnish, dye and colourings)
Harry Lorymore Howell, soap companies
Cowley A. Tyndall, ironmongers
A. Caird, druggist
William Hatch, boot maker
James Bessell &amp Sons, linen drapers
Lane &amp Co, wholesale keep makers
Charles Stevens, vict, Old Castle Tavern (pub)

The Old Castle was destroyed by bombs throughout the world war two, along with the rest of Castle Street and surrounding region. J W Lane, Castle Street were listed in 1870 they were trading as staymakers at the same address as the Old Castle Tavern.

Howes Bros, hat companies
Prince, Son, &amp Holloway, undertakers
Priscilla Nott, boot maker
Thomas Gale, currrier
George Jones, hat manufacturer
Richard Fox Gee, pawnbroker
William Pingstone, basket maker
Alfred Brooks, dyer, cleaner, and furrier
John M. S. Tozer &amp Co. grocers
John Wilmot, carpenter
Samuel Stanmore, vict, Three Cups &amp Salmon (pub)

Three Cups &amp Salmon, Castle Street

1851 – 67 James Fisher / 1868 to 1883 Samuel Stanmore / 1885 – 89 John Clark / 1891 – 96 Arthur Chapman / 1897 Albert Sampson 1899 James Thomas / 1901 Jesse Thomas / 1904 James Attwood / 1906 William Rogers / 1909 Jessie Maxwell Taylor 1914 – 25 William Peters / 1928 – 35 Samuel Warren / 1937 – 38 Annie Warren.

James W. Pascoe, japanner, &amp metalworking
Thomas Lansdown Day, china dealer
Joseph Michael, pawnbroker
William Henry Cowlin, boot maker
Collins and Champion, cork cutters
Charles Jackson, boot maker
Schweppe &amp Co., soda water companies
Keeping &amp Co. tobacconists
Thomas Stroud, plumber
William Hall, grocer
George William Skinner, cap manufacturers
George D. Whereat, ironmonger
Thomas Tanner, ale shops
George Edward Fear, furrier
Stopford &amp Co. hat manufacturers, Castle house
J . Skeates, saddler
William Skeates, jeweller
Charles Irvine, boot warehouse
Gordon &amp Co. clothiers &amp outfitters
Printers Library
Specific Baptist Meeting Property
Naish &amp Co., mfrs. patent cotton
Lugg &amp Co. wholesale boot companies
Webb, Fardon &amp Co, druggists
Charles Thomas Ovens, haberdasher
John Cory Withers, hatter
Coalbrookdale Co, iron casting warehouse
T. Harris, gasfitter
Price &amp Eastman, wire blind maker
H. Goldsborough, embroidery maker
William Edward Goldsbrough, tobacconist
G. Garlick, hatter
W. Jennings, draper

Castle Street (Lower), bottom of Castle Street to Broad Weir

1859 Henry Blackburn, four Reduce Castle Street, Bristol

Cate’s Cottages, Black Horse Lane, Clifton

Cathay, Colston Parade, Redcliff Hill to Langton Street

Being close to the river this street was possibley named in connection with trading routes to China. The once lawless and notorious district of Cathay where the Pirate Blackbeard was born and bred.

Samuel Webber, grocer
Thomas Osmond Mills, baker
William Kenvin, tailor and draper
Sarah Eve, goldsmith and jeweller
Mrs Rachel Morgan
William Coumbe
Robert Gast
Edward and James Charles, tailors, and so forth.
Charles Thomas
William Winter, lodging house
Henry Carey, relieving officer, registrar of births and deaths
Henry Hunt, vict, Rising Sun (pub)

Rising Sun, Cathay, Redcliff

1837 – 39. Benjamin Williams / 1840 to 1848. Sarah Williams / 1849 to 1854. George Roe / 1855. George Woolcott 1858. William Britton / 1860 – 69. Charlotte Warburton / 1871 – 77. Henry Hunt / 1878 to 1891. Joseph Hawkins 1892 – 99. Alfred Hussey / 1901. Rose Hussey / 1904 to 1922. William Spratt / 1923 to 1935. Mary Spratt 1935 to 1937. Catherine Spratt / 1938 to late 40’s. Ada Drake / 1950 – 53. Thomas Sayers portion of an e mail sent in by Mike Meechem: Catherine Spratt followed Mary Spratt in 1935 until 1937 when my grandfather sold the pub to the Drake Family members. Mrs Ada Drake was the publican until the late 1940’s. It suffered bomb harm throughout the war and a fire in the roof. Owing to a lack of water at the time attempts have been made to manage the fire with beer!!!

Charles Very good, commission agent
James Jeffery
William L. Harris, marble and stone sculptor
William Banner, builder &amp undertaker
William W. Smith, accountant
Thomas Spurl, ship rigger
Elizabeth J . Tucker, school
Daniel Richards
William Edward Coombs, carpenter
Charles Grimsbey
Benjamin Harding, grocer, and so on.
William Dyment, boot maker
John Lewis

Elizabeth Jenkins, vict, Kings Head (pub) On the corner with Somerset Spot the King’s Head was demolished in 1959 when the area was redeveloped.

(Somerset Spot)

Walter Sellick
John Holder, railway guard
Thomas Coates, bookbinder
Samuel Farley, pork butcher
Henry Web page, greengrocer
Mary Hardwidge, shopkeeper
William Kinnersly, tea dealer &amp grocer
Martha Edwards, news-agent
James Low, baker
William Tuck, butcher
Richard Lewis, Cathay brewery
Henry Brice, butcher
Edward Robertson, carpenter &amp grocer
William Wreford Palmer
Charles Usher, shopkeeper
Joseph Thatcher
Benjamin Smith, vict, Ship (pub)

Ship Inn, Cathay

1775. William Wyatt / 1792. William Hughes / 1794. Edward Carter / 1800 – 06. Thomas Smith / 1816 – 23. John Harford 1826 – 34. William Gammon / 1837 – 40. John Hathaway / 1841 – 42. William Brown / 1844 – 53. George Godfrey 1854 to 1891. Benjamin Smith / 1892 – 99. Thomas Hookway Gange / 1901. Henry Hulbert / 1904 – 09. Walter Pomphrey 1914. Henry Walters / 1917 – 21. Thomas Thomas / 1925. Alfred Tapper / 1928. Joseph Glennell / 1931. Edward Sanders 1935 – 44. George Sixsmith / 1950 – 53. Lilian Sixsmith / 1960 – 62.
Dennis Roberts.

Cathay Parade, Cathay, Redcliff

Robert Atkins, accountant

Catherine Mead Row, Catherine Mead Street to Dean Lane

The following extracts from the ‘Homes of the Bristol Poor’ – published by the Bristol Mercury in 1884 – are initial hand accounts of circumstances prevailing in the imply streets of the time.

The great army of the poor in Catherine Mead Street, has elevated, and none but those who are continually in their properties can have any conception of the hopeless lot of several with empty rooms, blank firesides, bare cupboards and hungry youngsters, whose bodies are scarcely covered by the few rags drawn over them.

There is a wholesome horror of the workhouse.

Catherine Place, Cheltenham Road, Stokes Croft

Catherine Street, Richmond Road to Church St, St Philip’s

H. Wright. beer retailer
Hannah Luff, beer retailer
Ellen Bryant, rope and twine maker
A. Lombardini, beer retailer
George Davis, grocer

Catherine Mead St. East St. to Dean Lane, Bedminster

Chas. Selway, baker
William Sandy, tobacconist
William Giles, grocer
Harry Gunning, tailor and draper
Rebecca Rice, vict, Catherine Home (pub)

Cattle Market Road

The cattle marketplace was established right here in 1830. In 1874 the Fantastic Western and Midland Railways boards reconstructed it.

Cave Street, Portland Square to Wilder Street

Stephen Cave, resided in Brunswick Square.

John Cave &amp Co. colour companies have been listed in 1793.

Samuel Platnaner
Thomas Jewell
Thomas Gibbs
S. Hodges
Edwin P. Green
Mrs Hawkins
Alfred Munro
Portland Coaching Academy, Thomas Bibbing
Alfred Sharland
Mrs Evans
John Vaughan
Benjamin T. Gough
Hemy Merry
William B. Lanham
Mary Wensley
John Thomas Chase
John P. Donovan

CH – CI – Bristol Street Directory 1871