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Stokes Croft – Historical Bristol Street Directory 1871
molds make maker china
Image by brizzle born and bred
Mathews’ Bristol Street Directory 1871

Stoke’s Croft, North Street to Cheltenham Road

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/5063962403/

One of the shops which was demolished was where Arthur Holborn ran his photography business for about 40 years. He specialised in portraits which bore his elegantly engraved advertisement on the back. Four doors away art of a different type was produced by Thomas Colley, who was a sculptor and his specialities were ‘monuments, headstones, crosses and memorials of all descriptions’. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/6174492981/

1. H. Lester, register oflice for servants
2. Richard Pearce, teacher of music
3. William Hagen, painter
4. Oliver Sheppy, family grocer
5. William Corbett
6. Miss Jennings, milliner
7. Walton King, wine & spirit merchant
8. J. Bennett, plumber
9. John Rice, teacher of dancing
10. Thomas Colley, sculptor
11. Benjamin Hamilton, music warehouse
12. Miss Moulding, dress maker
13. Mrs W. Cook, teacher of music, etc
14. William James
15. J. Dilke, house painter
16. George Poole, dentist
17. J. F. Davis, undertaker, etc
18. Richard F. Jones
19. Capt. John Way
20. Mrs Broad
21. Joseph Richards, carpenter
22. Richard Slade, painter, etc
23. James Webber

Brooks Dry Cleaners Ltd St Werburghs Bristol www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2046815682/

24. Henry Bishop, Bevan, vict, Antelope (pub) 1837 – 44 John Thomas / 1847 – 59 William Salter / 1860 – 63 Ann Salter / 1865 – 66 James Ricketts / 1867 – 69 Andrew Lewis 1871 – 76 Henry Bishop / 1877 to 1878 T. Gall / 1879 Charles Tovey & Co. / 1882 – 83 Thomas Sedgebeer / 1885 Eliza Perry 1886 J. Machan / 1887 to 1888 George Thomas Mills / 1889 Charles George / 1891 William Northam / 1892 – 96 Henry Burrow 1899 Thomas White / 1901 Nellie Jenkins.

In the 1880s the consecutive numbering system of Stokes Croft changed to odds on one side, evens on the other. In 1873 Charles Board cabinet maker and billiard table manufacturer was listed at no 20. He was still in the same premises as a billiard table manufacturer in 1906, but it was now no 37. Next door (building in scaffolding) had three different occupiers between 1873 and 1906 – Joseph Richards, carpenter had gone by 1888, replaced by Staffordshire Supply Store and by the 1900s Wall and Co, furniture dealers.

25. G. Evans, flour dealer
26. Waters & Co. wine & spirit merchants
27. William Pepper, hosier, etc
27. Thomas Crew, porter stores
28. James Brown, baker
29. William Thomas
30-31. William Merson, saddler
Charles Latham, attorney
31. John Milton, venetian blind maker
33. William Robins, painter, etc
34. www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/10383609634/
36. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/9280249203/
39. James Morse & Co. grocers

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10380679115/

40. George Stallard Nipper, builder
41. William Chapman, painter, etc
42. Selina Chapman, earthenware dealer
43. Charles Phillips, greengrocer
44. Charles Williams, boot maker
44. Theodore May, dyer
45. Nathan Palmer, soap and candle dealer

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10381070043/

46. Thomas Prewett, baker
47. George Gillingham, painter, etc
48. T. W. Lansdown, greengrocer
49. Edward Brown, greengrocer
50. George Pymm
51. John Sprod, grocer
52. Ann Warley, greengrocer
53. Daniel Taylor, smith and bell hanger
54. William Holbrook, fishmonger and poulterer
55. J. C. Hewitt, goldsmith & jeweller

56. Mary Tossell, vict, Little Swan (pub) 1848 – 66 John Tossell / 1866 – 72 Mary Tossell / 1874 – 89 John Jenkins Eastman / 1890 Clara Eastman / 1891 Clara M. Symes 1892 to 1893 Martha Street / 1894 – 1901 Donald Barry / 1904 – 09 George Rexworthy / 1914 Bridget Spencer / 1917 – 25 Albert Alder 1928 – 31 Alfred Scott / 1935 – 37 Jeremiah McCarthy. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/

57. Charles Taylor, hair dresser
58. William Rokins, greengrocer

58-76 Stokes Croft www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10383296583/

59. James Hewitt, vict, Swan Hotel Near the corner with Nine Tree Hill the Swan Hotel is still trading, but is now known as the Croft. bristolslostpubs.eu/page195.html

60. Charles Davis, confectioner

Vincent Skinner, horticultural builder

Tucketts Building

On the corner of Ashley Road stands 108, Tucketts Buildings an ebullient example of late Victorian commercial premises. It is said that human bones were dug up in the foundation trenches, probably from the victims of the gallows which once stood here.

The Tuckett’s Buildings 108 Stokes Croft sweep around the Ashley Road corner.

Named after Coldstream Tuckett who developed the site and opened his grocery and provisions shop there in the 1890s. During the excavations two skeletons were found. It was suggested that they were 17th/18th century suicides who, according to the custom of the time, had been buried at the crossroads.

F. Coldstream Tuckett had his grocer’s shop in part of this building until about 1920. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Bristol & District Grocers’ & Provision Dealers’ Association. When the Grocers’ Federation of the United Kingdom held their Summer Conference in Bristol in July 1900 he was Press Steward and half of the two-man Entertainment Committee.

In 1911 two boys named Cooper and Hardwick were charged at Bristol Police Court with breaking into his premises through Skinners Yard at the back. They stole a bottle of port and some pork pies. The court sentenced them to a birching.

Although a route through Stokes Croft is likely to have existed for centuries earlier, the first reference is in a deed of 1579. The land is recorded as a field containing one little lodge, a garden and pasture, with a footpath running through the grounds. In 1618, the city received 6d for mending holes in the stile.

61. T. J. & J. F. Perry, carriage builders
62. Charles S. Davey, corn and flour dealer
63. Pugh and Son, grocers
64. James Kebby, butcher
65. M. A. Alexander
66. John Smith, porter stores
67. Isaac Thomas, bookseller
68. Thomas Mann, tailor
69. J. Sampson, boot maker
70. James Melhuish, pork butcher

71. E. J. Hatherley, builder, Stokes croft house www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/6174888582/

72. Edwin Peacock, chemist
Baptist College – Rev. Dr. Gotch
73. Joseph A. Cortisi, confectioner
73. George Park, toy warehouse

76-74 Stokes Croft www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10382901475/

74. John Parry, boot maker
75. J. Greenham, tobacconist
76. Misses Wallington, fancy repository

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10381417373/

77. Miss E. Wallington, milliner
78. J. Cluett, china warehouse

(North Parade)

6. A. Willis, butcher
5. Eleanor Ford, fancy draper
4. Robert G. Whiting, boot maker
3. George A. Peacock, fishmonger, etc
2. S. Palmer, spirit dealer
1. John Howe, boot maker
1. W. Greening, druggist

(City Road Intersect)

Foll and Abbott, Stokes Croft Brewery www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10383594583/

77. Charles and Wakefield, tailors, etc
78. George Nelson Naish, boot maker

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10381553633/

79. W. H. Hawkins, plasterer & painter
80. S. Bruton, music warehouse
81. Henry O. Richards, boot maker

82. Robert Tyler, wine & spirit merchant www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10380482016/

83. J. W. Sane, ladies’ outfitter
83. Frederick Calder, confectioner
84. Anthony Power, berlin and fancy depository

85. W. J. Exon, baker www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/6174410583/

86. Charles Tovey & Co, wine merchants
87. A. M. Withers, ironmonger
88. Francis Virtue, bookseller
89. John Parnall, ladies’ outfitter
90. Unitarian Almshouses & School

Stokes Croft School www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2049372251/

91. Isaac Simmonds, plumber, etc
92. John H. Diggs, tobacconist
93. Sarah Mountjoy, fancy depository
94. George King, grocer
95. Edward Hunt, ironmonger, etc

Walter James Hooper & Co. fish and poultry market. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10381994874/

97-99. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10381685406/

101. The Post office www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10382010883/

Stokes Croft Court, 28, Stokes Croft

Stoke’s Croft Place, Stoke’s Croft

Mrs Spurse
Catherine Parsons
Alfred Jones
John Weeks, 2, Vine cottages
W. C. R. Bailey, 1, Vine cottages
Mrs Duance
John Pottow, farrier

Notes

Ann Barnes – Wife of Mr Barnes wheelwright living near Stokes Croft turnpike Died January 11th 1816 in 22nd year of her age of consumption.

William Chaffe 1753 Died ‘of lunacy’ Inquest held at Full Moon, Stokes Croft

Joseph Church of Newfoundland Gardens, fell down a flight of steps in Stokes Croft in December 1847 and fractured his leg. Admitted to Bristol Infirmary.

Mr Fry Schoolmaster of Stokes Croft married Mrs Dickson of Broad Street at St James’ Church on Friday Nov 7th 1766.

Joseph Glascodine 1793 carpenter and millwright, Stokes Croft.

Edward William Godwin 1833-1886 Born at 12 Old Market Street, alter living at 21 Portland Square. One of his best-known designs is the Carriage and Harness Factory in Stokes Croft.

George Longman of Stokes Croft., married Mrs Mary Clampit of Catherine Place February 3rd 1829.

William Morgan – Recommended for receipt of parish relief (St James) in 1814. He was a tailor with a wife and 4 children who had worked for John Rice of 23 Stokes Croft for some years. Rice could no longer employ him due to ‘work being dead’.

Henry Parker, cab driver, he was charged at Bristol Police Court in January 1899 with ‘furious driving’ in North Street and Stokes Croft. As he had been in trouble before he was fined 10s and costs.

Samuel Parry (d. 1839) Aged 88, of Stokes Croft was buried at St Paul, Portland Square on January 20th 1839.

James Sadler 1753-1828 Originally from Oxford where his family had a confectionery business. Interested in engineering and chemistry. Made several balloon flights before his ascent from Stokes Croft in Bristol on September 24th 1810., accompanied by William Clayfield Watched by a large crowd the balloon rose up and was carried over Leigh Down, where they dropped a cat in a basket attached to a parachute. (The cat was rescued by a watching limeburner. The balloon eventually landed in the Bristol Channel near Lynton.

John Stoke, Mayor 1364, 1366 and 1379. His will was proved in 1382. Stokes Croft, originally known as Berewyke’s Croft was named after him.

Isaac Van Amburgh, Lion tamer, who gave an exhibition at Bristol Zoo in July 1839 and met with an ‘accidental injury whilst thrusting his hand into a lion’s mouth’. A newspaper report stated that he was completely recovered and would give some more performances before continuing with his tour. This was no means his only visit to Bristol. In August 1842 there were newspaper reports of how he ‘made an entrance into the city driving 8 beautiful cream coloured horses in hand’. The procession of vans was accompanied by an elephant. And made its way to Backfields, Stokes Croft where a spacious pavilion was erected.

Archy Walters, Elder of two young brothers who walked from Stokes Croft to Horfield and lost their way in the fields as night fell. As it grew colder and colder they took shelter under a hedge and Archy wrapped his brother in his own clothes to keep him warm. They were found next morning, but too late to save Archy, although his brother survived thanks to his selfless act.. References: Memorial stained glass window in Horfield Parish church,

Wimble (d. Nov 1766) Died at his house in Stokes Croft.

Schools

Misses Armstrong’s Boarding School for Young Ladies, Wellington Place, Stokes Croft Listed 1847.

Mrs Baker’s School for Ladies, 4 Wellington Place, Stokes Croft. Mrs Baker gave the establishment her ‘strict personal attention’ according to newspaper notice of 1830 which stated that teaching was ‘conducted on a plan approved by men of learning which renders abstruse studies comprehensible and entertaining’.

Churches

Stokes Croft Chapel, Stokes Croft (Christian Brethren) This was originally a skating rink and was purchased on 8th July 1879 by the ‘friends worshipping in Bethesda Chapel and Salem Chapel St Augustine’. It was fitted up as a place of worship in lieu of Salem, which was then vacated. It accommodated 500 people and was ‘neatly fitted up at the expense of £500-600’.

Businesses

Wyndham Lewis, 102 Stokes Croft Baker and Confectioner.

Massingham – Red House Boot Stores, 77 Stokes Croft. trading in 1901.

W E Pritchard, 95 Stokes Croft. Fishmonger & Poulterer. Trading in May 1901.

E K Vaughan, 56 Stokes Croft, Jeweller and Watchmaker Trading May 1901.

New Zealand quotations (3)
molds make maker china
Image by PhillipC
Ronald Allison Kells Mason was born in Penrose, Auckland, on 10 January 1905, the son of Francis William Mason and his wife, Jessie Forbes Kells. His father, a perfume maker, died of an accidental overdose of opium in 1913 and he and his elder brother were sent to live with an aunt, Isabella Kells, in the south Waikato settlement of Lichfield. She taught the boys until 1915, when Mason returned for one year’s primary schooling at Panmure before attending Auckland Grammar School from 1917 to 1922 (in 1919 and 1921 for only one term each year, apparently for economic reasons). He distinguished himself in English and Latin, and began writing verse. His translation of Horace’s ‘O fons Bandusiae’ (‘O fair Bandusian fountain’) was evidently a class exercise done in the fifth form. In that same year he first encountered A. R. D. Fairburn, with whom he formed a close association over the next decade.

Soon after leaving school Mason took a position as a tutor in Latin, economics and civics at the University Coaching College, a private tutoring school where he was to be employed for six years. In 1923 he prepared a handwritten collection of poems which he named ‘In the manner of men’. This was followed in 1924 by his first published volume, The beggar , which contained versions of many of the poems written during his school years. They are precocious, often morbid poems that reflect the highly rhetorical styles of the Victorian poets, but some are of lasting value. The beggar found almost no market in New Zealand. It did, however, reach the English anthologist and editor Harold Monro, who reprinted two of its poems in the 1924 issue of the Chapbook , and two more in the 1929 anthology Twentieth century poetry .

In 1925 Mason published a pamphlet, Penny broadsheet , containing five further poems. In 1926 he enrolled at Auckland University College, majoring in Latin and French. He studied full time that year and from 1928 to 1930, eventually graduating BA in 1939. Mason evidently continued to support himself by tutoring until near the end of his full-time studies. He continued to write poems, some of which were published in the local newspapers, the Sun and the Auckland Star , and wrote several short stories, published in Kiwi , the Phoenix and Tomorrow ; He also drafted two novels, which remained unpublished.

After completing his full-time studies he worked for a season in Lichfield as a harvester before returning to Auckland to a variety of labouring jobs, and to close association with friends active at the university. In the first months of 1931 he travelled to Tonga and Samoa to study the conditions on those islands, and particularly the circumstances of the Mau uprising in Samoa. This trip he described as beginning his disillusionment with New Zealand nationalism, which was to culminate in 1947 with the publication of the pamphlet Frontier forsaken: an outline history of the Cook Islands .

Between 1931 and 1933 Mason contributed regularly to Kiwi and to the Phoenix , a student publication printed by Bob Lowry at Auckland University College. The first two issues in 1932, edited by James Bertram, emphasised cultural and aesthetic issues. Mason assumed the editorship in 1933; under him the third and fourth issues had a more directly political emphasis, and the magazine’s controversial nature made it the focus for attack from the conservative press.

By this time Mason’s interests had clearly moved from the poetic to the political. Although he was to publish three books of verse in the next 10 years, all but about 12 of the poems eventually collected under his name had been written by 1933. No new thing (1934) contained 25 poems from 1924 to 1929. The book was printed by Lowry at the Unicorn Press, but problems with binding meant that only a few copies were issued for sale. Mason retained his business association with Unicorn for a short time, but the Caxton Press published his poems from then on. End of day (1936) printed five new poems, and a further five were included in Caxton’s Recent poems (1941). This dark will lighten: selected poems, 1923–41 was Mason’s first substantial selection of his work and the first to make it widely available. In it he stripped down the typography and punctuation, making increasing use of the hanging indent that he had first used a decade before, and paring down the rhetorical diction and flourishes of some of the earlier poems.

Mason’s writing after the mid 1930s was mainly political journalism and didactic plays for the stage, radio and dance theatre. At least 10 plays were written; two were published separately, Squire speaks in 1938 and China: script…for a dance-drama by Margaret Barr in 1943. He wrote political and social commentaries extensively, using both his own name and ‘PWD’. He published in Tomorrow , the Workers’ Weekly and the People’s Voice , the communist weekly newspaper. When this was banned by the government in 1941, Mason edited, printed and published its successor, In Print. He was briefly the publisher of the revived People’s Voice in 1943–44 and then publisher of Challenge , the weekly journal of the Auckland District Labourers’ Union. He is also recorded in 1950 as the publisher of a union paper, Congress News , the journal of the New Zealand Trade Union Congress. He made another trip to the Pacific islands prior to the publication of Frontier forsaken in 1947. In the years immediately after the war he was a strong advocate of the establishment of a national theatre.

Ill health forced Mason into semi-retirement in 1956, though for several years he continued to work a little as a landscape gardener. In that year he welcomed a troupe of the Classical Theatre of China to Auckland, and in 1957 he was a member of a New Zealand delegation invited to the People’s Republic of China.

In 1962 Pegasus published his Collected poems. The book drew together all the published and unpublished poems he wished to retain, while the last of the earlier poems were revised for republication. In the same year he held the Robert Burns Fellowship at the University of Otago. Three poems were printed in the students’ association’s Review and ‘Strait is the gate’, a play with strong Otago themes, was performed and later recorded for radio. Also that year, on 27 August, he married his long-time companion Dorothea Mary Beyda (known by her maiden name of Dorothea Mould). They remained in Dunedin until 1965, when they returned to Auckland, living in Takapuna where Mason taught part time. In 1969–70 the New Zealand Literary Fund Advisory Committee discussed a recommendation that a pension be paid to him in recognition of his achievements, but he died on 13 July 1971 before this could be done. He was survived by his wife.

In his own lifetime Mason was respected for his commitment to the trade union movement, and for his dedication to the principles of Marxism as a political philosophy. Although it is as a poet that he is deservedly best remembered, the ethical and existential questions that the poems confront seem to have been answered for Mason by his espousal of Marxist principles, and the transferral of energy from poetry to politics in the mid 1930s was a part of this process. Mason’s poetry was humanistic and sceptical, concerning itself with the quest for purpose in a universe which appeared to be essentially mechanistic or godless. The earlier poems are frequently concerned with a sense of despairing mortality, and a feeling that the poet is the plaything of history. The later poetry, often focusing on the figure of a secular suffering Jesus, who is human rather than divine, poses dramatised questions about the consequences of ethical choice and the problems faced by the good man in a morally indifferent society.

Stylistically and thematically much of Mason’s poetry marks him as an inheritor of the Victorian tradition, although equally he was influenced by the Georgian practices of his time. His work stands somewhat apart from the more overtly nationalistic writings of his contemporaries, though he shared with them a sense of romantic alienation and a view of poetry as primarily a morally instructive art. His poems from The beggar on also mark the beginnings of serious modern poetry in New Zealand, and his best poems remain numbered among the finest in New Zealand literature.

Benn & Adelaide Pitman Bedstead
molds make maker china
Image by elycefeliz
www.discoveringthestory.com/goldenage/bed/background.asp

This mahogany bedstead was designed by Benn Pitman on the occasion of his marriage to his second wife, Adelaide Nourse. Adelaide carved the decorative motifs on the bed, which was made for the Pitman home on Columbia Parkway. The interior of the home was decorated with carved floral and geometrical motifs based on native plant life. Everything in the home was carved by hand, from the baseboards to ceiling moldings and all its furniture.

The bedstead is Modern Gothic in style and is composed of a headboard, footboard, and two side rails. The headboard is divided into three sections: two lancet panels with egg molding and a central trilobate arch. The central panel is carved with a flock of swallows flying in the evening sky. The birds are depicted in various stages of relief, some nearly four and a half inches from the headboard. Others are shown in low relief to suggest a sense of depth. Just below and to the right of the birds is a crescent moon in low relief. Hydrangea blossoms in high relief are carved into the lower section of this panel. In the lower left is a carved inscription that reads, "Good night, good rest." Extending above this is an arched hood that is carved with four panels of overlapping daises. The four finials of the headboard are carved in the shape of wild parsnip leaves.

In the two lancet panels on either side are painted images of human heads on gold discs representing night and morning. These panels were painted by Elizabeth Nourse (1859-1938), Adelaide’s twin sister, who was an internationally acclaimed painter. To the left is Morning, surrounded by painted white azaleas. To the right is Night, surrounded by balloon vines. The corners of these side panels are carved with stylized leaves and berries.

This bed, which occupied the Pitman’s bedroom, was meant to symbolize and celebrate sleep. Soon after its completion, it received much acclaim and was exhibited in 1883 by the Pitmans at the Fifteenth Annual Exhibition of the Work of the School of Design of the University of Cincinnati and also at the Cincinnati Industrial Exhibition. In 1909 the bedstead and the rest of the bedroom were described in the Cincinnati Commercial Gazette: "It is such a room in which a sufferer of insomnia would totter drowsily upon entering. The entire combination is made to symbolize "night" and so faithfully is repose portrayed that sleep nearly overcomes one within the door. The bed is a masterstroke of human genius…and the entire combination seems covered with such a consistent nocturnal veil as to make the words "good night" at the bottom quite unnecessary."

72.249.182.183/collection/search.do?id=15453&db=objec…

Artist/Maker Benn Pitman (American, b.1822, d.1910)
Elizabeth Nourse (American, b.1859, d.1938)
Adelaide Nourse Pitman (American, b.1859, d.1893)
Date 1882-1883
Medium American black walnut and painted panels
Credit Line Gift of Mary Jane Hamilton in memory of her mother Mary Luella Hamilton, made possible through Rita S. Hudepohl, Guardian

Benn Pitman, an expatriated Englishman, arrived in Cincinnati from Philadelphia in 1853. Although trained to be an architect, he traveled to America to promote the phonetic shorthand system developed by his brother Sir Isaac Pitman. Sometime between his arrival and 1872, he developed an extraordinary interest and skill in woodcarving. Pitman embraced the Aesthetic Movement and turned to nature for inspiration.

In 1872, carved furniture, doors and baseboards made by the Pitman family, including his wife, Jane, and daughter Agnes, were exhibited at the Third Cincinnati Industrial Exposition.

He taught woodcarving at the School of Design of the University of Cincinnati (later the Art Academy) from 1873 to 1892. He also invented an electrochemical process for relief engraving (1855), was court recorder for the Lincoln assassination trial (1865) and wrote a biography of his brother (1902).

Adelaide Nourse Pitman, the twin sister of Elizabeth Nourse and youngest of ten children, was born on October 26, 1859, in the Cincinnati suburb of Mt. Healthy. Her parents had moved to Cincinnati from Massachusetts in the early 1830s. Her father, a banker, suffered serious financial losses after the Civil War. As a result of this loss, the girls were required to support themselves. The twins enrolled in the University of Cincinnati School of Design, which charged only minimal tuition. While at the University, Adelaide joined Marie Egger’s china painting class and began several years’ study of wood carving under Benn Pitman. She worked on the carving of the Cincinnati Music Hall organ screen, carved a number of architectural elements for the interior of the Ursuline chapel in St. Martin, and received a silver medal at the 1880 Cincinnati Industrial Exposition.

On August 10, 1882, Adelaide married Pitman in Sandusky, Ohio. She was twenty-two and he was sixty. After their marriage, she continued to work, under his supervision, in copper, silver, and brass, as well as on decorative wood carvings for the Pitman home on Columbia Parkway.

In 1883 she gave birth to her first child, who died in infancy. The couple’s second child, born July 5, 1884, was named Emerson. The third and final child born to the couple was their daughter, Melrose, born on November 5, 1889.

Tragically, Adelaide Pitman died on September 12, 1893 of tuberculosis. She was only thirty-three years old.

Elizabeth Nourse was a painter, sculptor, wood-carver, etcher, illustrator and decorative artist who achieved her greatest success after 1887 as an expatriate in Paris. Born a twin in Mount Healthy, she enrolled in 1874 at the Cincinnati University School of Design, graduating in 1881. She had planned to continue her studies in New York, but with the death of her father and the marriage of her sister, Adelaide, to furniture-maker Benn Pitman her plans changed.

Nourse studied for a few months at the National Academy of Design and from 1883-86 worked as a portrait painter spending part of each summer sketching and painting in the mountains of eastern Tennessee. It was the local people who would become her subjects. In 1887 she exhibited four watercolors at the Cincinnati Industrial Exposition and soon after she and her older sister, Louise, left for what was to be a visit to France. They spent the rest of their lives abroad.

www.cincinnatiartmuseum.org/

PET Molds Boost Indian Packaging Market

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Katie Suze is a reader, blogger and writer interested in penning down her views about diverse subjects like Company, Manufacturing, PET Preform Bottle Industries
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Associated Automotive Molds Makers Articles

Cool China Automobile Molds images

Cool China Automobile Molds images

Some cool china automobile molds images:

X001 Chevrolet Caprice – USA Police generic
china automobile molds
Image by conner395
1:28 China

I picked this a single up &quotfor a song&quot at a auto boot sale locally. The Sound+Light no longer functions and it appears as though a preceding junior owner may possibly have taken it into the bath with him. it did howevber clean up rather properly and looks good on show. The decals are all appararently moulded in to the plastic (rather than paper stickers) and therefore they nonetheless appear sharp.

叉车司机
china automobile molds
Image by zhangmirror
朋友叫他猴子。塑料膜用来挡风雨。
friends call him &quotMonkey&quot.
he use the plastic mould to avert rain and wind. he crawls in and out of the car

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Get in touch with Reliable Plastic Injection Moulding Manufacturers for High High quality Molds

To design and style products with intricate style you can opt for plastic injection molding. For the proper mold speak to a trusted plastic injection moulding makers.

Plastic injection molding method is a broadly utilized method which has many advantages more than other sorts of molding. With injection molding, you can attain high rates of production. It is a good thought to use inserts inside the mold when you make a solution. To add strength, you can make use of fillers. In situations of co-injection molding, more than one particular material can be utilised with ease. Upon ejection from the mold, the plastic parts have a higher level of finish. This minimizes the post production function. The scrap can be reused effortlessly resulting in very tiny waste. With injection molding, you can accomplish full automation.

A trustworthy molding procedure

In each day life, a series of plastic items are employed. From combs, mugs, brushes and sunglasses all are plastic items. These merchandise are manufactured by injection molding. Owing to its positive aspects manufacturers adopt this molding process. In comparison to other kinds of molding, this procedure is simple versatile and efficient. It is more dependable than other molding processes. In plastic injection method, molten plastic is shaped into a desired geometry. Raw plastic pellets are put into the mold under high stress.

Understanding injection molding

Soon after the molten plastic is placed in the mold, it is allowed to cool and solidify. After the plastic solidifies, the item is ejected by opening two halves of the mold. With this approach, you can produce plastic parts which have correct dimensions. You can make contact with plastic injection moulding companies if you want to produce toys, automotive parts, furniture and housewares. Themachines with which the injection nodding method is carried out typically operate under high pressure. As the molten plastic presses tough against the mold, the design has greater details.

An array of benefits

For Auto Parts Mould, manufacturers make use of the injection approach. The components can be developed in bulk at low labor fees. When this method is employed much less time is needed to create the various plastic components. A huge number of products can be generated from the very same mold. The plastic injection molding process is totally automated. This molding process is much less complicated than other molding processes. For plastic injection moulding to be successful, the polymer requirements to be injected into the hollow mould with a force.

The procedure in particulars

Clamping the mold is the initial step of the injection molding method. The three regular components are camping unit, injection unit and the mold. A clamp is utilised to hold the mold when the melted plastic is injected. The plastic pellets are placed in the hopper where they are heated till they melt. The molten plastic can be fed into the mold with ease. The mold is clamped and kept beneath pressure till the plastic cools. In the dwelling phase, you have to make confident that all the cavities are filled.

This post is written by Jacob Williams on behalf of HQMOULD. His understanding in plastic moulding market has observed him contribute to and create a number of articles on topics like Plastic Mould, plastic injection moulding manufacturers, Custom Mould, Mould China and Auto Parts Mould and so forth.
Cool Auto Molds Made In China pictures

Cool Auto Molds Made In China pictures

Verify out these auto molds made in china pictures:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: View of south hangar, such as B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay”, a glimpse of the Air France Concorde, and a lot of other folks
auto molds made in china
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress &quotEnola Gay&quot:

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the 1st bomber to residence its crew in pressurized compartments. Though made to fight in the European theater, the B-29 discovered its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-constructed B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic weapon utilized in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. 3 days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum close to Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance climate reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
General: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 five/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Materials:
Polished all round aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish all round, normal late-Globe War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin 509th Composite Group markings painted in black &quotEnola Gay&quot in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Nice China Automobile Molds Factory pictures

Nice China Automobile Molds Factory pictures

Check out these china automobile molds factory images:

Stalinorgel. Stalin’s Organ. Сталинский орган.
china automobile molds factory
Image by Peer.Gynt
Katyusha multiple rocket launchers (Russian: Катюша) are a variety of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in Planet War II. Compared to other artillery, these numerous rocket launchers deliver a devastating quantity of explosives to an location target speedily, but with decrease accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but low-cost and easy to produce. Katyushas of World War II, the initial self-propelled artillery mass-made by the Soviet Union,[1] have been usually mounted on trucks. This mobility gave Katyushas (and other self-propelled artillery) one more benefit: getting capable to provide a big blow all at once, and then move prior to being positioned and attacked with counter-battery fire.

Katyusha weapons of Globe War II included the BM-13 launcher, light BM-8, and heavy BM-31. These days, the nickname is also applied to newer truck-mounted Soviet numerous rocket launchers—notably the typical BM-21—and derivatives.

The nickname

Initially, the secrecy kept their military designation from becoming recognized by the soldiers who operated them. They had been known as by code names such as Kostikov Guns (soon after the head of the RNII), and lastly classed as Guards Mortars.[two] The name BM-13 was only permitted into secret documents in 1942, and remained classified until right after the war.[three]

Due to the fact they have been marked with the letter K, for Voronezh Komintern Factory,[3] Red Army troops adopted a nickname from Mikhail Isakovsky’s well-known wartime song, Katyusha, about a girl longing for her absent beloved, who is away performing military service.[4] Katyusha is the Russian equivalent of Katie, an endearing diminutive form of the name Katherine: Yekaterina →Katya →Katyusha.

German troops coined the sobriquet Stalin’s organ (German: Stalinorgel), soon after Soviet leader Joseph Stalin for its visual resemblance to a church musical organ and alluding to the sound of the weapon’s rockets. They are known by the identical name in Sweden. [four]

The heavy BM-31 launcher was also referred to as Andryusha (Андрюша, “Andrew”, endearing diminutive).[five]
Katyushas of Planet War II

Katyusha rocket launchers have been mounted on several platforms throughout Planet War II, which includes on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as properly as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons.

The style was relatively simple, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Every truck had amongst 14 and 48 launchers. The 132-mm diameter M-13 rocket of the BM-13 program was 180 centimetres (70.9 in) long, 13.2 centimetres (five.two in) in diameter and weighed 42 kilograms (92 lb). Initially, the caliber was 130 mm, but the caliber was changed (initial the designation, and then the actual size), to avoid confusing them with normal artillery shells[3]. It was propelled by a solid nitrocellulose-primarily based propellant of tubular shape, arranged in a steel-case rocket engine with a single central nozzle at the bottom finish. The rocket was stabilised by cruciform fins of pressed sheet steel. The warhead, either fragmentation, high-explosive or shaped-charge, weighed around 22 kg (48 lb). The range of the rockets was about five.four kilometres (3.4 mi). Later, 82-mm diameter M-8 and 310-mm diameter M-31 rockets were also developed.

The weapon is much less accurate than standard artillery guns, but is really successful in saturation bombardment, and was particularly feared by German soldiers. A battery of 4 BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered four.35 tons of high explosives over a 4-hectare (ten acres) effect zone.[two] With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new place immediately following firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries were often massed in quite huge numbers to generate a shock impact on enemy forces. The weapon’s disadvantage was the lengthy time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to conventional guns which could sustain a continuous low price of fire.

The sound of the rocket launching also was distinctive in that the continuous &quotwoosh&quot sound that came from the firing of the rockets could be employed for psychological warfare. The rocket’s devastating destruction also helped to decrease the morale of the German army.

Development
Katyushas of Planet War II

Katyusha rocket launchers were mounted on numerous platforms in the course of World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as nicely as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons.

The design and style was relatively easy, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Each truck had in between 14 and 48 launchers. The 132-mm diameter M-13 rocket of the BM-13 method was 180 centimetres (70.9 in) extended, 13.2 centimetres (five.2 in) in diameter and weighed 42 kilograms (92 lb). Initially, the caliber was 130 mm, but the caliber was changed (initial the designation, and then the actual size), to keep away from confusing them with typical artillery shells[three]. It was propelled by a solid nitrocellulose-based propellant of tubular shape, arranged in a steel-case rocket engine with a single central nozzle at the bottom end. The rocket was stabilised by cruciform fins of pressed sheet steel. The warhead, either fragmentation, higher-explosive or shaped-charge, weighed about 22 kg (48 lb). The range of the rockets was about five.four kilometres (three.4 mi). Later, 82-mm diameter M-8 and 310-mm diameter M-31 rockets were also developed.

The weapon is significantly less correct than conventional artillery guns, but is incredibly successful in saturation bombardment, and was especially feared by German soldiers. A battery of 4 BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered four.35 tons of high explosives over a four-hectare (10 acres) impact zone.[two] With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new location quickly after firing, denying the enemy the chance for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries have been usually massed in extremely large numbers to produce a shock impact on enemy forces. The weapon’s disadvantage was the long time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to standard guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire.

The sound of the rocket launching also was unique in that the constant &quotwoosh&quot sound that came from the firing of the rockets could be utilised for psychological warfare. The rocket’s devastating destruction also helped to reduced the morale of the German army.

Combat history
BM-13 battery fire, throughout the Battle of Berlin, April 1945, with metal blast covers pulled over the windshields

The a number of rocket launchers had been top secret in the starting of World War II. A specific unit of the NKVD secret police was raised to operate them.[2] On July 7, 1941, an experimental artillery battery of seven launchers was 1st used in battle at Orsha in Belarus, below the command of Captain Ivan Flyorov, destroying a station with several provide trains, and causing enormous German Army casualties. Following the achievement, the Red Army organized new Guards Mortar batteries for the help of infantry divisions. A battery’s complement was standardized at 4 launchers. They remained below NKVD handle till German Nebelwerfer rocket launchers became widespread later in the war.[six]
A battery of BM-31 multiple rocket launchers in operation

On August eight, 1941, Stalin ordered the formation of eight Special Guards Mortar regiments under the direct manage of the General Headquarters Reserve (Stavka-VGK). Each and every regiment comprised 3 battalions of three batteries, totalling 36 BM-13 or BM-8 launchers. Independent Guards Mortar battalions were also formed, comprising 36 launchers in 3 batteries of twelve. By the end of 1941, there had been eight regiments, 35 independent battalions, and two independent batteries in service, holding a total of 554 launchers.[11]

In June 1942 Heavy Guards Mortar battalions were formed about the new M-30 static rocket launch frames, consisting of 96 launchers in three batteries. In July, a battalion of BM-13s was added to the establishment of a tank corps.[12] In 1944, the BM-31 was used in Motorized Heavy Guards Mortar battalions of 48 launchers. In 1943, Guards Mortar brigades, and later divisions, have been formed equipped with static launchers.[11]

By the end of 1942, 57 regiments have been in service—together with the smaller independent battalions, this was the equivalent of 216 batteries: 21% BM-8 light launchers, 56% BM-13, and 23% M-30 heavy launchers. By the end of the war, the equivalent of 518 batteries had been in service.[11]
[edit] Katyushas since World War II
Russian forces use BM-27 rocket launchers during the Second Chechen War

The accomplishment and economy of multiple rocket launchers (MRL) have led them to continue to be created. In the course of the Cold War, the Soviet Union fielded a number of models of Katyushas, notably the BM-21 launchers fitting the stereotypical Katyusha mould, and the larger BM-27. Advances in artillery munitions have been applied to some Katyusha-type a number of launch rocket systems, like bomblet submunitions, remotely-deployed land mines, and chemical warheads.

With the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited most of its military arsenal such as the Katyusha rockets. In recent history, they have been used by Russian forces in the course of the 1st and Second Chechen Wars and by Armenian and Azerbaijani forces during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. Georgian government forces are reported to have utilised BM-21 or related rocket artillery in fighting in the 2008 South Ossetia war.[13]

Katyushas were exported to Afghanistan, Angola, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, East Germany, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Poland, Syria, and Vietnam. They were also constructed in Czechoslovakia[14], People’s Republic of China, North Korea, and Iran.[citation necessary]

Katyushas also saw action in the Korean War, utilised by the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army against the South and United Nations forces. Soviet BM-13s had been identified to have been imported to China prior to the Sino-Soviet split and had been operational in the People’s Liberation Army.

Israel captured BM-24 MRLs for the duration of the Six-Day War (1967), used them in two battalions in the course of the Yom Kippur War (1973) and the 1982 Lebanon War, and later created the MAR-240 launcher for the identical rockets, primarily based on a Sherman tank chassis. For the duration of the 2006 Lebanon War, Hezbollah fired between 3,970 and 4,228 rockets, from light truck-mounts and single-rail man-portable launchers. About 95% of these have been 122 mm (four.eight in) Syrian-manufactured Katyusha artillery rockets, which carried warheads up to 30 kg (66 lb) and had a range of up to 30 km (19 mi).[15][16].[15][17][18] Hamas has launched 122-mm “Grad-type Katyusha” rockets from the Gaza Strip against a number of cities in Israel,[19] even though they are not reported to have truck-mounted launchers.

Katyushas have been also allegedly utilized by the Rwandan Patriotic Front in the course of its 1990 invasion of Rwanda, by means of the 1994 genocide. They were successful in battle, but translated into much anti-Tutsi sentiment in the neighborhood media.[20]

It was reported that BM-21 launchers had been employed against American forces for the duration of 2003 invasion of Iraq. They have also been utilized in the Afghanistan and Iraq insurgencies. In Iraq, according to Related Press and Agence France-Presse reports, Katyusha rockets had been fired at the Green Zone late March 2008.[21][22]