Cool Plastic Fan Mould Maker images

Cool Plastic Fan Mould Maker images

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memories of the Eighties!
plastic fan mould maker
Image by brizzle born and bred
I started with the 1950s then the 1960s and the 1970s and continue with the 80s.

God it all comes rushing back! I thought it was all just a bad dream!. (A sure sign of the ageing process)

It was a time when Don McClean’s version of Roy Orbison’s ‘Crying’ sat atop the singles chart, its glum chorus summing up a country struggling to emerge from the late-70s doldrums.

GDP had dropped by -1.8 per cent while unemployment, at 5.8 per cent or 1.56million, was still some 0.3 per cent or 360,000 short of today’s more painful figure.

While Britons got by on an average wage of £6,000 (the equivalent of about £19,000 today), petrol cost 28p a litre (90p), a pint of beer was 35p (£1.10), a loaf of bread 33p (£1.10) and a pint of milk 17p (54p).

At the month’s end, the pre-decimal sixpence was withdrawn from circulation. Later that summer, Alexandra Palace in London was part-destroyed by fire.

The British Olympics team returned from Moscow with a medal haul – including five golds – that left them ninth in the table, below Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. The USSR finished top with 80 golds.

Earlier in the year, the first episode of Yes, Minister had been broadcast by the BBC and SAS officers ended a hostage crisis by storming the Iranian Embassy in London, killing five terrorists and free all the captives.

Political events were to prove emblematic of the coming decade. In June it was announed that nuclear weapons were to be stored at RAF Greenham Common, prompting years of protests from the CND.

The 1980s set the mould for Britain today!.

It was the decade of Thatcher, yuppies and big phones.

In October, amid murmurs that she would be forced to make a U-turn in her economic policies, Margaret Thatcher, the prime minister, told the Conservative Party conference: "You turn if you want to. The lady’s not for turning."

In November, Ronald Reagan, the Republican former actor and Governor of California was elected US president, defeating by a landslide Jimmy Carter, who had presided over a sharp economic decline.

Back in Britain, after the resignation of Jim Callaghan, Labour elected the left-winger Michael Foot as leader, opening a generation of in-fighting that would see them fail to retake power for another 17 years.

In sport, while England failed to progress past the group stages of the European football championships in Italy, there were also then-unknown reasons for long-term optimism: future stars Steven Gerrard, John Terry and Ashley Cole were all born during the year.

Meanwhile, the assassination in December of John Lennon outside his New York apartment building capped a year of terrible losses to British arts. Among others who died were the film-maker Sir Alfred Hitchcock, the photographer Sir Cecil Beaton, the actors Peter Sellers and Hattie Jacques, and the musician Ian Curtis.

But for many of you reading this, it was all about BMX bikes, big hair, bright socks and New Romantics.

I remember the 80s as a consumerist paradise with massive phones, filofaxes and flash suits. There were also downsides outside of London, with riots and unemployment but to be honest the UK was rightfully feasting on Jambon at the table of European Commercialism and Progress.

Thank God I was an adult (in age anyway) in the 80s!

Being born in 1949 and then growing up during the 50s, 60s and 70s I found the 80’s a huge disappointment!

In the 60s we had free love, drugs, wild new music, in the 70s Glam and Punk rock, more free love, fun clothes.

But just as you were getting old enough to enjoy yourself without parental supervision! The 80s gave us Thatcherism, Aids, poncey poodle fashions and the most celebrated music star – Boy George telling us ‘War, War is stupid…’

It was the decade of spend, spend, spend, for some of 80s Britain.

The Cold War

A poll conducted in 1980 found 40 per cent of adults said they believed a nuclear war was likely in the next 10 years.

Yes deep insecurities were being sown in people’s minds as tensions between East and West heightened.

In the early 80s there was an intense awareness of the Cold War. Every move of the Kremlin was watched by the media at the time, should some crisis in Central America or the Middle East ignite World War Three.

Ronald Reagan was the president, talking of the evil empire, and spending huge sums on the military. Cruise missiles were being delivered to Greenham Common and Molesworth to much protest at the time.

As an adult now, you can appreciate the doctrine of "outspending, outperforming" the communist bloc which in the end hastened its demise. But at the time, watching the Soviet soldiers marching through Red Square in front of Brezhnev, you did wonder what might happen.

The nuclear threat was addressed in pop music with Nena’s 99 Red Balloons and Frankie Goes to Hollywood’s Two Tribes, on television with The Day After and Threads and in films such as Defence of the Realm and WarGames.

Britain busy being born

The Eighties were more subtle and significant: there would be no Katie Price without Samantha Fox, no Lady Gaga without Madonna, no Simon Cowell without Stock, Aitken and Waterman and no David Cameron without Margaret Thatcher.

The Eighties marked the death of one Britain and they hinted at another Britain busy being born.

The Eighties can appear endearingly unfamiliar. What did we do with our hands when we didn’t have smart phones? How did we waste time before Twitter?

Britain in turmoil

There was massive unemployment, whole of Britain in turmoil under thatcher, lads like me off to a phony war for political gain, and criminals like Archer and Maxwell running riot with Justice…I lost some respect I had for the police in the 1980s, following their handling of the 1984-85 miners’ strike.

It struck me that they were quite happy to stand back and watch football hooligans run riot on match days, for example (a genuine disturbance of the peace issue), but were overly keen to viciously truncheon miners and charge them with horses as and when required (a legal dispute between employees and employers).

The police should only be used to enforce the law and not be used to implement a political agenda (in this case, Thatcher’s destruction of our coal mining industry).

I remember huddling around a small battery-operated black and white TV by candlelight through yet another electricity strike, watching news reports of rats collecting around piles of uncollected rubbish in the streets.

Everyone lived at the mercy of the trade unions, employers could not remove lazy workers, and British manufactured goods, famous for their poor quality, were a worldwide joke.

The rise of capitalism, the inner city riots, rise of city yuppies and estate agents, we eventually saw the dark side of capitalism, where money, greed and power became more important than anything else. The eventual collapse of the banking system was the inevitable result of an economy reliant on money which did not actually exist.

From the miners’ strike, the Falklands War and the spectre of AIDS, to Yes Minister, championship snooker and Boy George.

Falklands War, the Miners’ Strike and the Brixton riots, as well as those reflecting on industry in the 1980s, unemployment and redundancy, and HIV and Aids.

Britain changed more in the 1980s than in almost any recent decade. The rise of the City and the fall of the unions, the wider retreat of the left and the return of military confidence, the energy of a renewed entrepreneurialism and the entropy of a new, entrenched unemployment.

The 1980s, destined to become the darkest decade for English football, opened with a portent of things to come when England travelled to the European Championships in Italy.

The rioting on the terraces during that tournament was a sight that was to become commonplace whenever the national team travelled abroad in the ensuing years.

You name a European city and it will have experienced so-called England fans terrorising stadiums or rampaging through the streets and squares.

It is good on music, showing how music evolved from political protest songs by the Specials and UB40 in the early 80’s, through to Live Aid in 1985 and then to Stock, Aitkin and Waterman whose musical production line with songs by the likes of Kylie and Rick Astley dominated the last few years of the decade.

Any memeories of Britain in the 1980s must inevitably revolve around the former Conservative Prime Minister and Thatcherism.

The Thatcher years

Yet Thatcherism was the bell-ringing herald of an age of unparalleled consumption, credit, show-off wealth, quick bucks and sexual libertinism. When you free people, you can never be sure what you are freeing them for.

Ted Heath had fought and lost an election on the question of ‘who governs?’ in the 1970s; and Thatcher was determined history would not repeat itself. Those on the right will regard her as a heroic figure that dragged Britain kicking and screaming into the modern age.

"Thatcher the milk snatcher" had the reins – and there was a sad anticipation that things were not going to get better.

Elected just after the industrial unrest of the "Winter of Discontent", she embarked on a tough reform programme with the top priorities of tackling inflation and the unions.

The Eighties did not begin on January 1 1980; they began on May 4 1979 with the arrival of Margaret Thatcher in Downing Street.

Queen Elizabeth may have reigned but it was Thatcher who ruled the Eighties

She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century and is the only woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist called her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.

She was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979. Arriving at 10 Downing Street, she said, in a paraphrase of the prayer Make Me an Instrument of Your Peace:

"Where there is discord, may we bring harmony. Where there is error, may we bring truth. Where there is doubt, may we bring faith. And where there is despair, may we bring hope".

Falklands War

The defining event of her premiership was the conflict over the Falkland Islands. In many respects the Falklands War was a bizarre conflict: as Ronald Reagan was moving towards promulgating a missile defence system that would involve space-based interceptor missiles, Britain found itself embroiled in a conflict ‘whose origins owed more to the preoccupations of the nineteenth century … in that it was about the ownership of territory’

The weapons that both sides used were by and large still those of the Second World War; and newspapers were the most immediate means for the public to gain information about the conflict.

The ‘last of the good-old fashioned wars’; a throwback to the days before humans became so good at killing each other that conflict now potential involved the destruction of the entire planet. And ultimately, the conflict was a more close-run thing than popular memory allows. It should also be noted that some people claim that reports of a ceasefire in the Falklands conflict began to emerge during the 1982 World Cup final. This is highly unlikely, given that the ceasefire was signed on 14 June and the World Cup final took place on 11 July.

Although it undoubtedly played its part, victory in the Falklands War was not entirely responsible for Thatcher’s re-election in 1983. Opinion polls suggest the tide had begun to turn at the start of 1982, with the unemployment rate still growing – but more slowly – and the economy beginning to turn around. That said, the Falklands transformed Thatcher from a unreliable quantity into the Tories prime electoral asset. In contrast, opposition leader Michael Foot attracted large amounts of derision, with one Times columnist describing him as the sort of man ‘unable to blow his nose in public without his trousers falling down’

Meanwhile the novelty of the SDP had quickly worn off after its formation in the early 1980s – there was now no need for ‘for the media to dispatch a camera team every time Shirley Williams stepped deftly from a railway carriage onto a station platform’

Thatcher’s Children

But many of you were oblivious to the political drama and the social changes sweeping Britain because you were growing up.

The Eighties. What do you remember?

See below for childhood memories in the 80s.

BMX bikes, Rent-a-Ghost and ZX Spectrum computers were more important.

Digital watches that were usually made by Casio, and which sometimes doubled as calculators.

Gordon the Gopher (and the Broom Cupboard) Phillip Schofield’s adorable squeaking sidekick

Back to the Future or anything involving Michael J Fox

Ghostbusters

Heavy Metal

Wham! George Michael and Andrew Ridgeley (aided and abetted by Pepsi and Shirley) sold 25 million records worldwide between 1982 and 1986. A similar number of British market stalls sold knock-off ‘Choose Life’ T-shirts.

Sun-In The best thing to happen to ’80s hair along with the perm, Sun-In turned your barnet blonde (or more likely, orange) in an instant.

Arcade/computer games Pac-Man, Frogger, Donkey Kong, Pole Position… If you weren’t playing them at home, you were playing them down the arcade. Pocket money was never spent so quickly.

The Young Ones Even if we were too young to understand all the jokes (especially the rude ones), ‘The Young Ones’ was an unforgettable – and incredibly quotable – comedy feast for us ’80s kids.

Torvill And Dean Bolero. Mack and Mabel. And here, Barnum. Suddenly, ice skating wasn’t just a sport but a moving, musical spectacle.

PEZ sweet dispensers Dispensing little tiny fizzy sweets was never so much fun!

Sinclair Spectrum.

Commodore 64.

Madonna She chewed gum, snogged boys and showed her bra – all while singing and dancing. We British children had never seen the likes of it, and were forever changed.

Transformers Transformers – more than meets the eye! Transformers – robots in disguise! And so on.

Slush Puppies The best way to get brain freeze as a child in the ’80s.

Grange Hill In the ’80s, British children liked nothing more than coming home from school to watch a show about children at school. Which was perfectly understandable, because that show was ‘Grange Hill’.

Bucks Fizz They won the Eurovision Song Contest in 1981 with an audacious display of catchy pop, fluffy hair and skirt-losing. And lo! British kids had four new pop heroes.

Neighbours A must-watch for British schoolchildren at lunchtime, after school, or both.

Duran Duran Did we know what they were singing about? No. Did we care? No. They had great tunes, and ever greater hair.

The Sony Walkman Which enabled us to listen to Duran Duran everywhere. Hoorah!

John Hughes’ movies Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, Pretty In Pink, The Breakfast Club… Hughes’ movies weren’t just relatable, they were a slice of cool American escapism.

He-Man …and the masters of the universe, of course. "By the power of Greyskull!"

Five Star "Britain’s answer to The Jackson Five" weren’t really that. But they were fine purveyors of kid-friendly bubblegum pop and shoulder pads.

BMX bikes What the Chopper was to the ’70s, so the BMX was to the ’80s. Especially after we all saw ‘E.T.’

The Adventure Game The same tasks each week, yet never a moment of dullness? It had to be the delightful, Douglas Adams-esque ‘The Adventure Game’.

Trivial Pursuit At last! British families had another board game to play apart from Monopoly. And it really sorted out the smart people from the, erm, people who regularly got stuck on blue Geography questions, ie everyone.

Breakdancing As popularised in the movie ‘Breakdance: The Movie’ and attempted, badly, by children at school discos throughout Britain.

Dangermouse!

The Royal Wedding/Princess Diana British girls now had a pretty princess to coo over, British boys now had a member of the royal family they could actually fancy, and British kids everywhere got a day off school. Hoorah!

Saturday Superstore The tradition started by ‘Multi-Coloured Swap Shop’ continued with ‘Saturday Superstore’, which ran from 1982 to 1987 and was hosted by Mike Read (he of the colourful glasses), Sarah Greene (she of the hair scrunchies) and Keith Chegwin (he of the annoying laugh).

Culture Club "Is it a boy? Is it a girl?" No sooner had Boy George confused British kids with his androgyny than he’d swept them off their feet with a string of catchy hits. Marvellous.

The Rubik’s Cube There was only one question on kids’ lips in the ’80s. And that was: "Can you do it?"

Now That’s What I Call Music… The best music compilation albums ever? Back then – when they were being sold to us by a pig voiced by Brian Glover – most certainly, yes.

Fame The ‘Glee’ of the ’80s. Hands up who didn’t dream of flying to New York, auditioning for the High School Of Performing Arts and dancing on top of a yellow taxi? We know we did.

Acne, puberty, A-Team, Night Rider, Young Ones, Only Fools & Horses, Miami Vice, XR3i and the Lamborghini Countach.

Wham, many young girls were so in love with George Michael. All that lusting, then you find out he’s gay!. Remember the "lewd act" in a public lavatory!.

The A-Team and Mr T

Michael Jackson and the huge anticipation around the release of the Thriller video. The album probably remains the best selling of all time.

Airwolf

Street Hawk

Waca-Day & Timmy Mallett

10p sweetie mix-ups

Liverpool FC & John Barnes/Ian Rush

Wimpy burgers

Atari consoles & Space Invaders

Thriller & the moonwalk

Roland Rat

Campri ski-jackets

Robin Of Sherwood

Hoddle & Waddle

Tea-bags

Different Strokes

‘VW’ badges

Newcastle FC/Brazil pom-pom hats

The Karate Kid

Mexico 86 & Gary Lineker’s wrist bandage

Music was loud and often involved electric pianos the size of Wales.

TVs were multiplying as well as getting bigger

Top loading video recorders and huge microwave ovens appeared whilst trim phones disappeared.

Monster record players started to shrink and CD players started to grow.

Home computers spread like wildfire

Work computers often filled entire rooms but started to shrink.

Cars still fell apart (unless Japanese or German) but started getting demographically faster with 205 and Golf GTi, more valves and the occasional turbo. Diesels still smelt and were usually lorries. People started to forget what a choke was, and only owned a 4×4 if they had a field or hillside to drive it over.

Pizza was suddenly the "in" food. Of course in the early days it was usually your typical frozen ones. They were great for dinner during school holidays, a real change to boring sandwiches.

Rubik cubes, the rise of 1980s hair. LA Hair Metal and the death of Punk, the original Live Aid concert. Big shoulder pads, thanks to Dallas – which also started the "I Shot JR". BMXs, cassettes and LPs were still on the go. Boy George and Adam Ant doing the "Prince Charming"

Sinclair Spectrum computers, Commodore 64s and Amstrad 1640, BBC Computers and Acorns and the rise of the Apple Mac. Pretty in Pink, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, the conclusion of the Indiana Jones trilogy, Back to the Future and Gremlins.

The series finale of M*A*S*H and such classics Dallas and Cheers.

Ray Ban sunglasses. The must-have designer labels on clothes. The "I must have MTV". The Michael Jackson and his groin-grabbing routines. The Madonna and her controversial music videos.

Seeing ET in the cinema and crying at the end!

Being madly in love with Simon le Bon and wanting to be like Madonna, riding around on a battered BMX, watching Live Aid on telly, Marathons in a selection box every Xmas, drinking Quantro and trying to get drunk on Top Deck. Being a teenager when the second summer of love happened in 89…Happy days!!

Ra-ra skirts, po-go sticks, Dallas, Tenko, Soda-stream, Wagon wheels and the slipper at school!

The Smiths

…ah, Heaven…80’s weren’t bad after all!.

More memories of the 80s

Being worried about getting Aids from banknotes; trying to persuade dad to build a nuclear bunker; and Jimmy Knapp the hero of London commuters who stopped us being able to get to work during the summer of 1988 and 1989!

Ah, the thawing of Cold War. The collapse of communism in Europe. The intifada in Israel and its disputed territories. The revolving door of Soviet Union leaders spinning faster than ever. The stock market crash of 1987.

Coal. Snow. Cold winters in the south. No radiators. Hair gel and shellsuits. White socks, white trainers and Run DMC style wearing the tongues out of the laces. Multicoloured luminous and mismatched socks and Bruce Lee Kung Fu slippers. Betamax and VHS. Madness and The Young Ones.

Women could wear fur coats without the Anti brigade being very hypocritical, ie wearing leather and saying fur was bad! Choppers (bicycles)! Huge Video Cameras, even bigger phones, shiny suits and cool cars.

More bits of plastic in the wallet. In turn followed by interest rate hikes, less work, negative equity.

Memories of a phone box as the privatisation improved telecoms beyond recognition. Shops no longer closed Wednesday afternoon, and power cuts caused by strikes.

The music and popular culture of that decade (especially the New Romantic early 80s) made such a vivid contrast with the nihilism of the late 70s punk era. Boys started wearing pastel pink and yellow and still looked cool (in spite of the mullet hairstyles).

The North/South divide was at its height in the 80s.

The age that made cocaine, political and financial incompetence, nepotism and tasteless extravagance acceptable.

Flying a Union jack when the Falklands War started.

Miners Strike going on forever, Cruise Missiles and strikes at News International.

The fear of nuclear annihilation being a topic for normal conversation at work.

The Smiths, Billy Bragg, the first truly successful global political campaign, the anti apartheid movement and a generation of dedicated and hard-working young people opposed to the wanton greed of Thatcherism and ‘Thatcher’s Children’.

Boys from the Blackstuff. The dole and a wee bar job on the side. And yes I had a filofax, a Marxism Today filofax, if you will.

The miner’s strike – the one thing that galvanised the left (briefly) and polarised the nation. It was Thatcher v Scargill – there could’ve been a solution but neither protagonist was really looking for solutions for the people in mining communities.

Being young and coming to terms with sex in a post-Aids society.

Nokia Mobira phone and it was £25 per month and 25 pence per minute outside the M25 and 50 pence per minute inside the m25! Why, I have no idea!

Mobile phones, I was considered quite sophisticated by having my own BT Phonecard to ring home; CDs, we were still all vinyl and tapes.

The appeal of going to the cinema faltered in the 80s when the VCR became widely available. However they weren’t cheap. I remember buying my first one in 1982, it cost £280 – compare that to what they cost now (if you can still find any on the High St). And the cost of pre-recorded films were even higher, I remember ET coming out, I think it was £84 to buy a copy – so everyone hired it from the video hire shop.

Rotten, nasty self-centred right-wing government. Cynically high unemployment. Pretty grim for the common man, woman and child.

Television

At the start of the Eighties there were three television channels, all terrestrial. MTV was launched in 1981 and Sky started broadcasting in 1989. The seeds of the TV explosion that would change our viewing were sown in the Eighties but it was the last decade of the truly national shared television experience. It isn’t the 28 million who watched the 1981 royal wedding that astonishes, it’s the 19 million who tuned in to Blankety Blank. It’s hard, too, to believe I spent my Saturday afternoons watching a fat old man in a shiny Union flag leotard chase a paunchy fellow dressed as a samurai inside a wrestling ring.

Since there were so few channels, sporting occasions were also national cultural events: Ian Botham’s 1981 Ashes, the 1985 world snooker final between Denis Taylor and Steve Davies. That match, now known as the “Black Ball Final”, was watched by more than 18 million who tuned in over the weekend of April 27-28, 1985. Less than three months later 1.9 billion people across 150 countries watched Live Aid, arguably the defining cultural event of the Eighties. Looking at the list of artists who appeared on stage in London and Philadelphia, I was reminded that the Eighties was the last decade of the truly global superstar: artists like Madonna and U2, plus Michael Jackson and Bruce Springsteen – who both sang on We Are the World but did not appear at Live Aid – were cultural colossi who transcended musical genres.

The other key cultural moment occurred three years after Live Aid with the Second Summer of Love and the rise of acid house and the use of ecstasy among the young. The Eighties began with teenagers sniffing glue and ended with them taking E.

In the absence of downloads we had to go to the cinema to watch films. And it was a time of action heroes who were brawn in the USA: Stallone, Schwarzenegger and Willis boxing, terminating and blasting their way through the decade. It was also the age of the video nasty – films with lurid titles such as I Spit on Your Grave.

It was the Rushdie novel, published in 1988, that was to offer a glimpse of an uglier future Britain. The protests that erupted after the release of The Satanic Verses were the first indication of a religious militancy among some British Muslims that would put the benign assumptions of multiculturalism under severe pressure.

Cultural consumption revealed a similar fracturing, as the computer rivalled the television and the CD as sources of entertainment. The first Sinclair home computers went on sale in 1980. Then at the end of the decade, in 1989, a British scientist, Timothy Berners-Lee, wrote a proposal to create a means for scientists to exchange information by computer.

His title for this invention was the World Wide Web, a final demonstration of how modern Britain – the good, the bad and the ugly – was created in the Eighties.

Pop Music

TOP 10 SINGLES

1 Do They Know It’s Christmas? Band Aid, 1984
2 Relax – Frankie Goes To Hollywood, 1983
3 I Just Called To Say I Love You – Stevie Wonder, 1984
4 Two Tribes – Frankie Goes To Hollywood 1984
5 Don’t You Want Me – Human League, 1981
6 Last Christmas – Wham!, 1984
7 Karma Chameleon – Culture Club, 1983
8 Careless Whisper – George Michael, 1984
9 The Power of Love – Jennifer Rush, 1985
10 Come On Eileen – Dexy’s Midnight Runners, 1982

The early 80’s saw the rise of a new, but short lived phenomenon – the appearance of cross-dressing pop stars. While the men were trying the look like women, the reverse also applied – although it wasn’t as wide spread.

Boy George was probably the first 80’s performer to popularise the gender bender style which saw a momentary peak in 1983. Marilyn soon followed, but in an effort to become a more serious performer, he dropped the frock and quickly fell into the fickle 80’s fashion abyss. Around the time of Boy George’s rise, Annie Lennox also appeared in Sweet Dreams – sporting a short orange haircut and male suit. While this fad seem to disappear by late 84, a momentarily resurgence of the gender benders appeared in 1985 with Dead or Alive.

TOP 10 ALBUMS

1 Brothers In Arms – Dire Straits, 1985
2 Bad – Michael Jackson, 1987
3 Thriller – Michael Jackson, 1982
4 Greatest Hits – Queen, 1981
5 Kylie – Kylie Minogue, 1988
6 Whitney – Whitney Houston, 1987
7 Tango In The Night – Fleetwood Mac, 1987
8 No Jacket Required – Phil Collins, 1985
9 True Blue – Madonna, 1986
10 The Joshua Tree – U2, 1987

Films

1 ET: The Extra-Terrestrial, 1983
2 Crocodile Dundee, 1987
3 Who Framed Roger Rabbit, 1988
4 Fatal Attraction, 1988
5 Crocodile Dundee II, 1988
6 Ghostbusters, 1984
7 Star Wars: Return of the Jedi, 1983
8 Back to the Future, 1985
9 A Fish Called Wanda, 1988
10 For Your Eyes Only, 1981

clink on links below for more memories

memories of the Sixties

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/11623627225/

memories of the Seventies

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/11644431475/

Hornby-Dublo
plastic fan mould maker
Image by brizzle born and bred
Meccano model trains and Dinky Toys were invented by Liverpool’s Frank Hornby.

Frank Hornby (15 May 1863 – 21 September 1936) was an English inventor, businessman and politician. He was a visionary in toy development and manufacture and produced three of the most popular lines of toys in the twentieth century: Meccano, Hornby Model Railways and Dinky Toys. He also founded the British toy company Meccano Ltd in 1908.

What Lionel is to U.S. model trains, Hornby is to the U.K.’s. Its 1937 “Princess Elizabeth” locomotive is considered the pinnacle of O Gauge trains. Its Hornby-Dublo “Cardiff Castle” is in the Guinness Book of World Records for running 153 miles nonstop. The Hornby-Dublo “Deltic” made news by transporting a 35-pound child on a specially made 00 Gauge trolley. And its “Flying Scotsman” was so popular, it was produced in 18 different versions.

Hornby was not, however, the first toy train in the British Isles. Train sets were first sold in England at the turn of the century, more than two decades after tinplate miniature trains were first produced in Germany and France. A man named W. J. Bassett-Lowke, “the father of British toy trains,” hired German toy train manufacturer Bing to produce sets based on British railways and began selling these imported toys.

Frank Hornby, whose Hornby Series is considered the epitome of British miniature train sets, did not come up with the concept of toy trains, either, nor was he even the first to bring them to Britain. In fact, around the turn of the century, Hornby was more interested in patenting his own invention, a construction toy set, first called Mechanics Made Easy, and then rebranded as Meccano shortly after its launch in 1907.

Meccano was a tremendous success, and it wasn’t long before Hornby’s fascination with cranes and bridge-building turned toward the railroad. In 1915, he produced a railway game called Raylo, not sold under the Hornby name, which used a clockwork locomotive, likely made by Märklin. To play Raylo, players manipulated a series of switches to prevent the engine from running into the siding or off the rails.

When the Hornby Clockwork Train, using the standard O Gauge, was finally introduced in 1920, it was considered revolutionary among toy-train enthusiasts. The Hornby Train Set employed the clever technology of Meccano, designed to be taken apart and put back together. In addition, nearly all toy trains of that era were tinplate, but the Hornby’s locomotive and coal-car were made of nickeled base plates enameled in black, red, or green, with brass trimmings.

Only three of the 120 British railroad companies were represented—London & North-Western Railway (black), Midland Railway (red), and Great Northern Railway (green). Their locomotives all had the same running number, 2710, on brass plates attached to their sides. Only the tender was trademarked with “M Ld L England” on the side for “Meccano Ltd. Liverpool, England.”

The Hornby Series was a huge success, partly because German products were so unpopular after the First World War. Around the same time, Meccano also offered a cheaper version of its three engines based on German tinplate designs—they were sold under the name Tinprinted Train Set.

Even though electric toy trains were produced in Germany and America starting around 1900, companies struggled with safety and the correct voltage for their tracks. So, again, Hornby, which produced an electric toy train in 1925, could be considered a little late to the game, but the company had a trick up its sleeve to one-up competitors.

The Hornby Electric Train Set, the first with a locomotive modeled after a real-life engine, was inspired by the Metropolitan Railway, now called London’s Underground Metropolitan Line, which was the first passenger subway. It had been slowly converted from steam to electric power from 1905 on, which means Hornby was able to launch its first electric toy train based on a real-life electric train rather than a steam engine.

Even so, Hornby’s electric model, which had a tinplate body and used 100 to 240 volts of alternating or direct current, was not considered entirely safe. According to some versions of the history, Parliament and the U.K. Home Office put pressure on Meccano until the company withdrew the high-voltage train set and began offering a low-voltage accumulator version.

In the late ’20s, Hornby was also under pressure to make a train on the half-size H0 scale, which was becoming increasing popular, but the company refused to relent. Two years after Frank Hornby’s death in 1936, though, the company launched its own miniaturized train set called Hornby-Dublo. It had its own scale, but it could run on any HO Gauge track.

In the mid-’30s, Bassett-Lowke had already experienced great success importing the H0 Gauge Trix Twin Railway from Germany, which had 16.5 mm between the rails, as opposed to 33 mm on the standard O Gauge sets of the time. These electric trains were powered by a center rail that could use right- or left-hand pick-ups, meaning two locomotives could run independently on the same track.

When Meccano, now managed by Hornby’s son, launched it’s smaller-scale train in 1938, it introduced its own proportions. While the wheels ran on 16.5 mm H0 Gauge tracks, the rest of the train set was proportioned at a ratio of 1:76 (4 mm to 1 ft), instead of the 1:87 ratio (3.5 mm to 1 ft) of most H0 train sets.

Meccano made the Hornby-Dublo to be deliberately out of scale, with the wheels closer together than they should be (true scale would have required the rails to be 18.83 mm apart), because actual British train engines at the time were smaller than those in America and the rest of Europe. Otherwise, it would have been difficult to fit all the toy-train mechanics of a British toy locomotive into the existing H0 scale.

Meccano dubbed this new scale as 00 or Double 0, and the trains were named “Dublo,” intended to be pronounced as “Double O.” Because Hornby trains were wildly popular, this peculiar proportion became the standard for toy trains in the United Kingdom. In the United States, 00 Gauge means something different—a train that runs on a 19 mm track.

The company boasted that the Hornby-Dublo let you “lay out a complete model railway on your dining table.” Train fanatics loved the product for its highly detailed diecast locomotives, made using techniques Meccano had perfected in its line of diecast model cars called Dinky Toys. Hornby-Dublo was also praised for its top-notch three-rail track that allowed trains to run smoothly.

The 1958 launch of the English Electric Type 1 Bo-Bo Diesel Electric Locomotive marked two milestones for the Hornby brand—it was its first locomotive made from molded plastic rather than diecast metal, and it was the first inspired by a diesel engine, which fans of steam trains resented.

Another innovation, in 1959, was the introduction of Hornby-Dublo’s first two-rail track line, meant to compete with Rovex’s Tri-ang two-rail line. Unfortunately, enterprise brought about the downfall of the company. To keep fans happy, Meccano had to keep selling the three-rail track at the same time, at great cost.

In 1964, Lines Bros., the corporate parent of Rovex, maker of Hornby competitor Tri-ang Railways, purchased Meccano Ltd.—it wasn’t long before the two separate lines of trains were merged into one, Tri-ang Hornby. However, only two Hornby-Dublo products were fully brought into the line, the Terminus and Through Station Kit and the E3000 Locomotive, using the running number E3001.

By 1971, the Lines Bros. business had disintegrated, and the miniature railroads became Hornby Railways again. In recent decades, the Hornby brand has continued to be known for its accurate train models, and has remained a model-railroad leader in the United Kingdom.

memories of the Eighties!
plastic fan mould maker
Image by brizzle born and bred
I started with the 1950s then the 1960s and the 1970s and continue with the 80s.

God it all comes rushing back! I thought it was all just a bad dream!. (A sure sign of the ageing process)

It was a time when Don McClean’s version of Roy Orbison’s ‘Crying’ sat atop the singles chart, its glum chorus summing up a country struggling to emerge from the late-70s doldrums.

GDP had dropped by -1.8 per cent while unemployment, at 5.8 per cent or 1.56million, was still some 0.3 per cent or 360,000 short of today’s more painful figure.

While Britons got by on an average wage of £6,000 (the equivalent of about £19,000 today), petrol cost 28p a litre (90p), a pint of beer was 35p (£1.10), a loaf of bread 33p (£1.10) and a pint of milk 17p (54p).

At the month’s end, the pre-decimal sixpence was withdrawn from circulation. Later that summer, Alexandra Palace in London was part-destroyed by fire.

The British Olympics team returned from Moscow with a medal haul – including five golds – that left them ninth in the table, below Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. The USSR finished top with 80 golds.

Earlier in the year, the first episode of Yes, Minister had been broadcast by the BBC and SAS officers ended a hostage crisis by storming the Iranian Embassy in London, killing five terrorists and free all the captives.

Political events were to prove emblematic of the coming decade. In June it was announed that nuclear weapons were to be stored at RAF Greenham Common, prompting years of protests from the CND.

The 1980s set the mould for Britain today!.

It was the decade of Thatcher, yuppies and big phones.

In October, amid murmurs that she would be forced to make a U-turn in her economic policies, Margaret Thatcher, the prime minister, told the Conservative Party conference: "You turn if you want to. The lady’s not for turning."

In November, Ronald Reagan, the Republican former actor and Governor of California was elected US president, defeating by a landslide Jimmy Carter, who had presided over a sharp economic decline.

Back in Britain, after the resignation of Jim Callaghan, Labour elected the left-winger Michael Foot as leader, opening a generation of in-fighting that would see them fail to retake power for another 17 years.

In sport, while England failed to progress past the group stages of the European football championships in Italy, there were also then-unknown reasons for long-term optimism: future stars Steven Gerrard, John Terry and Ashley Cole were all born during the year.

Meanwhile, the assassination in December of John Lennon outside his New York apartment building capped a year of terrible losses to British arts. Among others who died were the film-maker Sir Alfred Hitchcock, the photographer Sir Cecil Beaton, the actors Peter Sellers and Hattie Jacques, and the musician Ian Curtis.

But for many of you reading this, it was all about BMX bikes, big hair, bright socks and New Romantics.

I remember the 80s as a consumerist paradise with massive phones, filofaxes and flash suits. There were also downsides outside of London, with riots and unemployment but to be honest the UK was rightfully feasting on Jambon at the table of European Commercialism and Progress.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=_iAzIkjO3G0&list=RD_iAzIkjO3G…

Thank God I was an adult (in age anyway) in the 80s!

Being born in 1949 and then growing up during the 50s, 60s and 70s I found the 80’s a huge disappointment!

In the 60s we had free love, drugs, wild new music, in the 70s Glam and Punk rock, more free love, fun clothes.

But just as you were getting old enough to enjoy yourself without parental supervision! The 80s gave us Thatcherism, Aids, poncey poodle fashions and the most celebrated music star – Boy George telling us ‘War, War is stupid…’

It was the decade of spend, spend, spend, for some of 80s Britain.

The Cold War

A poll conducted in 1980 found 40 per cent of adults said they believed a nuclear war was likely in the next 10 years.

Yes deep insecurities were being sown in people’s minds as tensions between East and West heightened.

In the early 80s there was an intense awareness of the Cold War. Every move of the Kremlin was watched by the media at the time, should some crisis in Central America or the Middle East ignite World War Three.

Ronald Reagan was the president, talking of the evil empire, and spending huge sums on the military. Cruise missiles were being delivered to Greenham Common and Molesworth to much protest at the time.

As an adult now, you can appreciate the doctrine of "outspending, outperforming" the communist bloc which in the end hastened its demise. But at the time, watching the Soviet soldiers marching through Red Square in front of Brezhnev, you did wonder what might happen.

The nuclear threat was addressed in pop music with Nena’s 99 Red Balloons and Frankie Goes to Hollywood’s Two Tribes, on television with The Day After and Threads and in films such as Defence of the Realm and WarGames.

Britain busy being born

The Eighties were more subtle and significant: there would be no Katie Price without Samantha Fox, no Lady Gaga without Madonna, no Simon Cowell without Stock, Aitken and Waterman and no David Cameron without Margaret Thatcher.

The Eighties marked the death of one Britain and they hinted at another Britain busy being born.

The Eighties can appear endearingly unfamiliar. What did we do with our hands when we didn’t have smart phones? How did we waste time before Twitter?

Britain in turmoil

There was massive unemployment, whole of Britain in turmoil under thatcher, lads like me off to a phony war for political gain, and criminals like Archer and Maxwell running riot with Justice…I lost some respect I had for the police in the 1980s, following their handling of the 1984-85 miners’ strike.

It struck me that they were quite happy to stand back and watch football hooligans run riot on match days, for example (a genuine disturbance of the peace issue), but were overly keen to viciously truncheon miners and charge them with horses as and when required (a legal dispute between employees and employers).

The police should only be used to enforce the law and not be used to implement a political agenda (in this case, Thatcher’s destruction of our coal mining industry).

I remember huddling around a small battery-operated black and white TV by candlelight through yet another electricity strike, watching news reports of rats collecting around piles of uncollected rubbish in the streets.

Everyone lived at the mercy of the trade unions, employers could not remove lazy workers, and British manufactured goods, famous for their poor quality, were a worldwide joke.

The rise of capitalism, the inner city riots, rise of city yuppies and estate agents, we eventually saw the dark side of capitalism, where money, greed and power became more important than anything else. The eventual collapse of the banking system was the inevitable result of an economy reliant on money which did not actually exist.

From the miners’ strike, the Falklands War and the spectre of AIDS, to Yes Minister, championship snooker and Boy George.

Falklands War, the Miners’ Strike and the Brixton riots, as well as those reflecting on industry in the 1980s, unemployment and redundancy, and HIV and Aids.

Britain changed more in the 1980s than in almost any recent decade. The rise of the City and the fall of the unions, the wider retreat of the left and the return of military confidence, the energy of a renewed entrepreneurialism and the entropy of a new, entrenched unemployment.

The 1980s, destined to become the darkest decade for English football, opened with a portent of things to come when England travelled to the European Championships in Italy.

The rioting on the terraces during that tournament was a sight that was to become commonplace whenever the national team travelled abroad in the ensuing years.

You name a European city and it will have experienced so-called England fans terrorising stadiums or rampaging through the streets and squares.

It is good on music, showing how music evolved from political protest songs by the Specials and UB40 in the early 80’s, through to Live Aid in 1985 and then to Stock, Aitkin and Waterman whose musical production line with songs by the likes of Kylie and Rick Astley dominated the last few years of the decade.

Any memeories of Britain in the 1980s must inevitably revolve around the former Conservative Prime Minister and Thatcherism.

The Thatcher years

Yet Thatcherism was the bell-ringing herald of an age of unparalleled consumption, credit, show-off wealth, quick bucks and sexual libertinism. When you free people, you can never be sure what you are freeing them for.

Ted Heath had fought and lost an election on the question of ‘who governs?’ in the 1970s; and Thatcher was determined history would not repeat itself. Those on the right will regard her as a heroic figure that dragged Britain kicking and screaming into the modern age.

"Thatcher the milk snatcher" had the reins – and there was a sad anticipation that things were not going to get better.

Elected just after the industrial unrest of the "Winter of Discontent", she embarked on a tough reform programme with the top priorities of tackling inflation and the unions.

The Eighties did not begin on January 1 1980; they began on May 4 1979 with the arrival of Margaret Thatcher in Downing Street.

Queen Elizabeth may have reigned but it was Thatcher who ruled the Eighties

She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century and is the only woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist called her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.

She was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979. Arriving at 10 Downing Street, she said, in a paraphrase of the prayer Make Me an Instrument of Your Peace:

"Where there is discord, may we bring harmony. Where there is error, may we bring truth. Where there is doubt, may we bring faith. And where there is despair, may we bring hope".

Falklands War

The defining event of her premiership was the conflict over the Falkland Islands. In many respects the Falklands War was a bizarre conflict: as Ronald Reagan was moving towards promulgating a missile defence system that would involve space-based interceptor missiles, Britain found itself embroiled in a conflict ‘whose origins owed more to the preoccupations of the nineteenth century … in that it was about the ownership of territory’

The weapons that both sides used were by and large still those of the Second World War; and newspapers were the most immediate means for the public to gain information about the conflict.

The ‘last of the good-old fashioned wars’; a throwback to the days before humans became so good at killing each other that conflict now potential involved the destruction of the entire planet. And ultimately, the conflict was a more close-run thing than popular memory allows. It should also be noted that some people claim that reports of a ceasefire in the Falklands conflict began to emerge during the 1982 World Cup final. This is highly unlikely, given that the ceasefire was signed on 14 June and the World Cup final took place on 11 July.

Although it undoubtedly played its part, victory in the Falklands War was not entirely responsible for Thatcher’s re-election in 1983. Opinion polls suggest the tide had begun to turn at the start of 1982, with the unemployment rate still growing – but more slowly – and the economy beginning to turn around. That said, the Falklands transformed Thatcher from a unreliable quantity into the Tories prime electoral asset. In contrast, opposition leader Michael Foot attracted large amounts of derision, with one Times columnist describing him as the sort of man ‘unable to blow his nose in public without his trousers falling down’

Meanwhile the novelty of the SDP had quickly worn off after its formation in the early 1980s – there was now no need for ‘for the media to dispatch a camera team every time Shirley Williams stepped deftly from a railway carriage onto a station platform’

Thatcher’s Children

But many of you were oblivious to the political drama and the social changes sweeping Britain because you were growing up.

The Eighties. What do you remember?

See below for childhood memories in the 80s.

BMX bikes, Rent-a-Ghost and ZX Spectrum computers were more important.

Digital watches that were usually made by Casio, and which sometimes doubled as calculators.

Gordon the Gopher (and the Broom Cupboard) Phillip Schofield’s adorable squeaking sidekick

Back to the Future or anything involving Michael J Fox

Ghostbusters

Heavy Metal

Wham! George Michael and Andrew Ridgeley (aided and abetted by Pepsi and Shirley) sold 25 million records worldwide between 1982 and 1986. A similar number of British market stalls sold knock-off ‘Choose Life’ T-shirts.

Sun-In The best thing to happen to ’80s hair along with the perm, Sun-In turned your barnet blonde (or more likely, orange) in an instant.

Arcade/computer games Pac-Man, Frogger, Donkey Kong, Pole Position… If you weren’t playing them at home, you were playing them down the arcade. Pocket money was never spent so quickly.

The Young Ones Even if we were too young to understand all the jokes (especially the rude ones), ‘The Young Ones’ was an unforgettable – and incredibly quotable – comedy feast for us ’80s kids.

Torvill And Dean Bolero. Mack and Mabel. And here, Barnum. Suddenly, ice skating wasn’t just a sport but a moving, musical spectacle.

PEZ sweet dispensers Dispensing little tiny fizzy sweets was never so much fun!

Sinclair Spectrum.

Commodore 64.

Madonna She chewed gum, snogged boys and showed her bra – all while singing and dancing. We British children had never seen the likes of it, and were forever changed.

Transformers Transformers – more than meets the eye! Transformers – robots in disguise! And so on.

Slush Puppies The best way to get brain freeze as a child in the ’80s.

Grange Hill In the ’80s, British children liked nothing more than coming home from school to watch a show about children at school. Which was perfectly understandable, because that show was ‘Grange Hill’.

Bucks Fizz They won the Eurovision Song Contest in 1981 with an audacious display of catchy pop, fluffy hair and skirt-losing. And lo! British kids had four new pop heroes.

Neighbours A must-watch for British schoolchildren at lunchtime, after school, or both.

Duran Duran Did we know what they were singing about? No. Did we care? No. They had great tunes, and ever greater hair.

The Sony Walkman Which enabled us to listen to Duran Duran everywhere. Hoorah!

John Hughes’ movies Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, Pretty In Pink, The Breakfast Club… Hughes’ movies weren’t just relatable, they were a slice of cool American escapism.

He-Man …and the masters of the universe, of course. "By the power of Greyskull!"

Five Star "Britain’s answer to The Jackson Five" weren’t really that. But they were fine purveyors of kid-friendly bubblegum pop and shoulder pads.

BMX bikes What the Chopper was to the ’70s, so the BMX was to the ’80s. Especially after we all saw ‘E.T.’

The Adventure Game The same tasks each week, yet never a moment of dullness? It had to be the delightful, Douglas Adams-esque ‘The Adventure Game’.

Trivial Pursuit At last! British families had another board game to play apart from Monopoly. And it really sorted out the smart people from the, erm, people who regularly got stuck on blue Geography questions, ie everyone.

Breakdancing As popularised in the movie ‘Breakdance: The Movie’ and attempted, badly, by children at school discos throughout Britain.

Dangermouse!

The Royal Wedding/Princess Diana British girls now had a pretty princess to coo over, British boys now had a member of the royal family they could actually fancy, and British kids everywhere got a day off school. Hoorah!

Saturday Superstore The tradition started by ‘Multi-Coloured Swap Shop’ continued with ‘Saturday Superstore’, which ran from 1982 to 1987 and was hosted by Mike Read (he of the colourful glasses), Sarah Greene (she of the hair scrunchies) and Keith Chegwin (he of the annoying laugh).

Culture Club "Is it a boy? Is it a girl?" No sooner had Boy George confused British kids with his androgyny than he’d swept them off their feet with a string of catchy hits. Marvellous.

The Rubik’s Cube There was only one question on kids’ lips in the ’80s. And that was: "Can you do it?"

Now That’s What I Call Music… The best music compilation albums ever? Back then – when they were being sold to us by a pig voiced by Brian Glover – most certainly, yes.

Fame The ‘Glee’ of the ’80s. Hands up who didn’t dream of flying to New York, auditioning for the High School Of Performing Arts and dancing on top of a yellow taxi? We know we did.

Acne, puberty, A-Team, Night Rider, Young Ones, Only Fools & Horses, Miami Vice, XR3i and the Lamborghini Countach.

Wham, many young girls were so in love with George Michael. All that lusting, then you find out he’s gay!. Remember the "lewd act" in a public lavatory!.

The A-Team and Mr T

Michael Jackson and the huge anticipation around the release of the Thriller video. The album probably remains the best selling of all time.

Airwolf

Street Hawk

Waca-Day & Timmy Mallett

10p sweetie mix-ups

Liverpool FC & John Barnes/Ian Rush

Wimpy burgers

Atari consoles & Space Invaders

Thriller & the moonwalk

Roland Rat

Campri ski-jackets

Robin Of Sherwood

Hoddle & Waddle

Tea-bags

Different Strokes

‘VW’ badges

Newcastle FC/Brazil pom-pom hats

The Karate Kid

Mexico 86 & Gary Lineker’s wrist bandage

Music was loud and often involved electric pianos the size of Wales.

TVs were multiplying as well as getting bigger

Top loading video recorders and huge microwave ovens appeared whilst trim phones disappeared.

Monster record players started to shrink and CD players started to grow.

Home computers spread like wildfire

Work computers often filled entire rooms but started to shrink.

Cars still fell apart (unless Japanese or German) but started getting demographically faster with 205 and Golf GTi, more valves and the occasional turbo. Diesels still smelt and were usually lorries. People started to forget what a choke was, and only owned a 4×4 if they had a field or hillside to drive it over.

Pizza was suddenly the "in" food. Of course in the early days it was usually your typical frozen ones. They were great for dinner during school holidays, a real change to boring sandwiches.

Rubik cubes, the rise of 1980s hair. LA Hair Metal and the death of Punk, the original Live Aid concert. Big shoulder pads, thanks to Dallas – which also started the "I Shot JR". BMXs, cassettes and LPs were still on the go. Boy George and Adam Ant doing the "Prince Charming"

Sinclair Spectrum computers, Commodore 64s and Amstrad 1640, BBC Computers and Acorns and the rise of the Apple Mac. Pretty in Pink, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, the conclusion of the Indiana Jones trilogy, Back to the Future and Gremlins.

The series finale of M*A*S*H and such classics Dallas and Cheers.

Ray Ban sunglasses. The must-have designer labels on clothes. The "I must have MTV". The Michael Jackson and his groin-grabbing routines. The Madonna and her controversial music videos.

Seeing ET in the cinema and crying at the end!

Being madly in love with Simon le Bon and wanting to be like Madonna, riding around on a battered BMX, watching Live Aid on telly, Marathons in a selection box every Xmas, drinking Quantro and trying to get drunk on Top Deck. Being a teenager when the second summer of love happened in 89…Happy days!!

Ra-ra skirts, po-go sticks, Dallas, Tenko, Soda-stream, Wagon wheels and the slipper at school!

The Smiths

…ah, Heaven…80’s weren’t bad after all!.

More memories of the 80s

Being worried about getting Aids from banknotes; trying to persuade dad to build a nuclear bunker; and Jimmy Knapp the hero of London commuters who stopped us being able to get to work during the summer of 1988 and 1989!

Ah, the thawing of Cold War. The collapse of communism in Europe. The intifada in Israel and its disputed territories. The revolving door of Soviet Union leaders spinning faster than ever. The stock market crash of 1987.

Coal. Snow. Cold winters in the south. No radiators. Hair gel and shellsuits. White socks, white trainers and Run DMC style wearing the tongues out of the laces. Multicoloured luminous and mismatched socks and Bruce Lee Kung Fu slippers. Betamax and VHS. Madness and The Young Ones.

Women could wear fur coats without the Anti brigade being very hypocritical, ie wearing leather and saying fur was bad! Choppers (bicycles)! Huge Video Cameras, even bigger phones, shiny suits and cool cars.

More bits of plastic in the wallet. In turn followed by interest rate hikes, less work, negative equity.

Memories of a phone box as the privatisation improved telecoms beyond recognition. Shops no longer closed Wednesday afternoon, and power cuts caused by strikes.

The music and popular culture of that decade (especially the New Romantic early 80s) made such a vivid contrast with the nihilism of the late 70s punk era. Boys started wearing pastel pink and yellow and still looked cool (in spite of the mullet hairstyles).

The North/South divide was at its height in the 80s.

The age that made cocaine, political and financial incompetence, nepotism and tasteless extravagance acceptable.

Flying a Union jack when the Falklands War started.

Miners Strike going on forever, Cruise Missiles and strikes at News International.

The fear of nuclear annihilation being a topic for normal conversation at work.

The Smiths, Billy Bragg, the first truly successful global political campaign, the anti apartheid movement and a generation of dedicated and hard-working young people opposed to the wanton greed of Thatcherism and ‘Thatcher’s Children’.

Boys from the Blackstuff. The dole and a wee bar job on the side. And yes I had a filofax, a Marxism Today filofax, if you will.

The miner’s strike – the one thing that galvanised the left (briefly) and polarised the nation. It was Thatcher v Scargill – there could’ve been a solution but neither protagonist was really looking for solutions for the people in mining communities.

Being young and coming to terms with sex in a post-Aids society.

Nokia Mobira phone and it was £25 per month and 25 pence per minute outside the M25 and 50 pence per minute inside the m25! Why, I have no idea!

Mobile phones, I was considered quite sophisticated by having my own BT Phonecard to ring home; CDs, we were still all vinyl and tapes.

The appeal of going to the cinema faltered in the 80s when the VCR became widely available. However they weren’t cheap. I remember buying my first one in 1982, it cost £280 – compare that to what they cost now (if you can still find any on the High St). And the cost of pre-recorded films were even higher, I remember ET coming out, I think it was £84 to buy a copy – so everyone hired it from the video hire shop.

Rotten, nasty self-centred right-wing government. Cynically high unemployment. Pretty grim for the common man, woman and child.

Television

At the start of the Eighties there were three television channels, all terrestrial. MTV was launched in 1981 and Sky started broadcasting in 1989. The seeds of the TV explosion that would change our viewing were sown in the Eighties but it was the last decade of the truly national shared television experience. It isn’t the 28 million who watched the 1981 royal wedding that astonishes, it’s the 19 million who tuned in to Blankety Blank. It’s hard, too, to believe I spent my Saturday afternoons watching a fat old man in a shiny Union flag leotard chase a paunchy fellow dressed as a samurai inside a wrestling ring.

Since there were so few channels, sporting occasions were also national cultural events: Ian Botham’s 1981 Ashes, the 1985 world snooker final between Denis Taylor and Steve Davies. That match, now known as the “Black Ball Final”, was watched by more than 18 million who tuned in over the weekend of April 27-28, 1985. Less than three months later 1.9 billion people across 150 countries watched Live Aid, arguably the defining cultural event of the Eighties. Looking at the list of artists who appeared on stage in London and Philadelphia, I was reminded that the Eighties was the last decade of the truly global superstar: artists like Madonna and U2, plus Michael Jackson and Bruce Springsteen – who both sang on We Are the World but did not appear at Live Aid – were cultural colossi who transcended musical genres.

The other key cultural moment occurred three years after Live Aid with the Second Summer of Love and the rise of acid house and the use of ecstasy among the young. The Eighties began with teenagers sniffing glue and ended with them taking E.

In the absence of downloads we had to go to the cinema to watch films. And it was a time of action heroes who were brawn in the USA: Stallone, Schwarzenegger and Willis boxing, terminating and blasting their way through the decade. It was also the age of the video nasty – films with lurid titles such as I Spit on Your Grave.

It was the Rushdie novel, published in 1988, that was to offer a glimpse of an uglier future Britain. The protests that erupted after the release of The Satanic Verses were the first indication of a religious militancy among some British Muslims that would put the benign assumptions of multiculturalism under severe pressure.

Cultural consumption revealed a similar fracturing, as the computer rivalled the television and the CD as sources of entertainment. The first Sinclair home computers went on sale in 1980. Then at the end of the decade, in 1989, a British scientist, Timothy Berners-Lee, wrote a proposal to create a means for scientists to exchange information by computer.

His title for this invention was the World Wide Web, a final demonstration of how modern Britain – the good, the bad and the ugly – was created in the Eighties.

Pop Music

TOP 10 SINGLES

1 Do They Know It’s Christmas? Band Aid, 1984
2 Relax – Frankie Goes To Hollywood, 1983
3 I Just Called To Say I Love You – Stevie Wonder, 1984
4 Two Tribes – Frankie Goes To Hollywood 1984
5 Don’t You Want Me – Human League, 1981
6 Last Christmas – Wham!, 1984
7 Karma Chameleon – Culture Club, 1983
8 Careless Whisper – George Michael, 1984
9 The Power of Love – Jennifer Rush, 1985
10 Come On Eileen – Dexy’s Midnight Runners, 1982

The early 80’s saw the rise of a new, but short lived phenomenon – the appearance of cross-dressing pop stars. While the men were trying the look like women, the reverse also applied – although it wasn’t as wide spread.

Boy George was probably the first 80’s performer to popularise the gender bender style which saw a momentary peak in 1983. Marilyn soon followed, but in an effort to become a more serious performer, he dropped the frock and quickly fell into the fickle 80’s fashion abyss. Around the time of Boy George’s rise, Annie Lennox also appeared in Sweet Dreams – sporting a short orange haircut and male suit. While this fad seem to disappear by late 84, a momentarily resurgence of the gender benders appeared in 1985 with Dead or Alive.

TOP 10 ALBUMS

1 Brothers In Arms – Dire Straits, 1985
2 Bad – Michael Jackson, 1987
3 Thriller – Michael Jackson, 1982
4 Greatest Hits – Queen, 1981
5 Kylie – Kylie Minogue, 1988
6 Whitney – Whitney Houston, 1987
7 Tango In The Night – Fleetwood Mac, 1987
8 No Jacket Required – Phil Collins, 1985
9 True Blue – Madonna, 1986
10 The Joshua Tree – U2, 1987

Films

1 ET: The Extra-Terrestrial, 1983
2 Crocodile Dundee, 1987
3 Who Framed Roger Rabbit, 1988
4 Fatal Attraction, 1988
5 Crocodile Dundee II, 1988
6 Ghostbusters, 1984
7 Star Wars: Return of the Jedi, 1983
8 Back to the Future, 1985
9 A Fish Called Wanda, 1988
10 For Your Eyes Only, 1981

Cool Plastic Auto Exterior Mold images

Cool Plastic Auto Exterior Mold images

Some cool plastic auto exterior mold images:

Bazile (33)
plastic auto exterior mold
Image by Douglas R Witt
Now that Bazile is back in one piece, it’s time to do a little extra work in the back of the mask. The photos in this collection have taken place over the last three day… this is a time of waiting and working sections… it takes time for the mask to settle and dry, this work needs to be done somewhat slowly if you are to get a mask that isn’t warped out of shape. There are a few things that I do to keep it from deforming.

I use the original armature in this case it’s a plaster life cast of my teacher/actor friend Sean Daly. I put the mask back over the plaster armature to make sure it will not warp out of face shape.

I have found that Papier-mâching the inside of a mask must be done in stages… start with the middle features like the eyes nose and mouth… than Papier-mâché outward. Leave the rim of the mask as the last thing to mâché … this can be fast or slow… depending how large the mask is and how much interior work needs to be done… Bazile mask is still drying 72 hours later. It’s just starting to harden…

The reason it’s taken this long is because of two factors. It’s been raining a lot here and it’s made the apartment more humid than normal, the other and the main reason is because I used a TP Paste (the white stuff) to fill some of the large negative spaces like the nose, around the eyes, ears and bottom lip. The white stuff that you’re looking at is a mixture of all-purpose white glue and shredded bathroom tissue.

I use this TP Paste to fill in a few areas of the mask that I feel need some protection from wear and tear just in case it gets bumped while being used on stage. Once I have used the TP Paste to fill in the areas of the mask I want to straighten I will leave it to dry for 6 hours or more.

Warning: this mixture should be used sparingly because it takes a long while to dry, also if you use a ton of it will make the mask heavier hard to wear.

Even though I didn’t use very much of this Paste it will take three days plus to fully dry. I don’t use it very often, but it’s really a good thing to us to fill gaps. It’s like a mask maker’s auto body filler to smooth some uneven exterior lumps and it strengthens the mask, I felt this mask need it and what a great chance to show you 🙂 super mask making secretes

I do another six layers of Papier-mâché in the back of the masks. This will bulk up the mask a bit and give it some extra stability for frequent use on stage or using as a teaching mask. In these photos the first thing I did was use the TP fill and then let it sit to settle and dry in front of a fan for 16 hours. Then I cut out the ear holes, nostrils and trimmed the rim of the mask. Once I am happy with the timing I Papier-mâché six layers on the interior of the mask starting with the middle features in the mask and worked my way outward. I did the eye, ears, nose, chin and cheek area. Then I let it settles in front of the fan for another 8 hours. Once it was dry I finished the brows and forehead and Papier-mâché the rim of the mas with smaller ribbons of paper, this will seal the mask completely and keep it from possibly chipping for flaking apart from you’re face sweat and warm breath from regular use… it also makes it look nice.

Once all six layers of mâché are finish… put in front of the fan again and let it sit and dry again for at least 8 hours… there has been a lot of new work done on the mask and you will notice that it will be heavier… there is due to a lot of water added to the mask and it needs to dry out and settle… put it on the armature base you sculpted the mask on and leave it sit for a day or overnight.

Now that the mask is dry… it’s time to add the fabric elastic head band, you can us any kind of head band suits your fancy or whatever turns you on… String, Ribbon, leather, Fabric elastic, etc… the way to attach them is basically the same although my method is not the only way… and you’re welcome to explore others.
For Bazile mask I am using a half inch black fabric elastic, you can pick it up at any place that sells fabric. I use black because it disappears on stage and it never looks dirty. I start off by measuring a length of fabric elastic from temple to temple. Coming around the crown of the back of the head and sitting behind the ears like a pair of sunglasses. I pull the elastic just a little snug (NOT TIGHT) you want the mask to fit a snuggly on your face… in the next set of photos I will be showing how to add foam rubber to the interior of the mask so it will sit comfortable on the face.

Once I have measured out my length of elastic set it aside and get a marker, put the mask on your face and find your temples on the inside of the mask. Once you have marked where the elastic is going to go, use a little dab of hot glue and glue the elastic in… and try the mask on. This may take a few tries so use a little hot glue until you find a comfortable fit. The mask may sit on your face a bit uncomfortable… it may be pressing into the corners of your eyes of sitting very snuggly to your face… that’s ok because that’s what the foam rubber is for.

The pain will show you where to put the foam… ha ha ha!

Once the mask fits snuggly it’s time to use a little more hot glue to anchor the fabric elastic into the mask, try to make the glue as flat as possible using the tip of the hot gun so that you’re not getting poked in the temples by hot glue lumps. Then Papier-mâché three more layers of paper over and around the fabric elastic and set the mask in front of a fan to dry for another 6 hours or so… it’s important to give the mask lots of drying time. The next steps are the sealing and painting and you want a nice dry mask to work on.

Person artist note to beginner mask makers:
The back of the mask is just as important as the front of the mask. Most people think it ends with taking the mask off the mold. But if you spend a few extra hours detailing and finishing the back of the mask you’re going to have a mask that will last longer and take a beating or hang on a wall without deforming over time.

It’s important to also reinforce the back and fill in some of the negative spaces… and add ventilation holes like nostrils and sometimes a small mouth slit. This will help the actor from overheating and cut down on sweating behind the mask. Some masks will fit very close to the face and subsequently create a vacuum effect that is like putting a plastic bag over your face. The ability to breath easily out of the mask is important it will help the actor forget there wearing a mask, also if all you have are eyeholes as venation entrance and exit the flow of air will dry out the performer’s eyes.

Please listen to this music while viewing this set of photos
youtu.be/9HtHEgINHO0

Cool Automotive Mold Design images

Cool Automotive Mold Design images

Some cool automotive mold design images:

1969 Lotus Europa S2 (09)
automotive mold design
Image by Georg Sander
The Lotus Europa was a two door mid-engined GT coupé built by Lotus Cars from 1966 to 1975. In 2006 Lotus began production of a totally new, Lotus Elise-derived design, a mid-engined GT coupé named Europa S.

The original Europa used Lotus founder Colin Chapman’s minimalist steel backbone chassis that was first used in the Lotus Elan, while also relying on its fibreglass moulded body for structural strength. The Europa was based on a prototype built to compete for Henry Ford II’s contract to build a Le Mans race car in the early 1960s.

The Europa was designed and built to be an embodiment of Chapman’s oft-stated philosophy of automotive design: "Simplify, then add lightness."

(Wikipedia)

– – –

Der Europa, im Dezember 1966 vorgestellt, war ursprünglich nur für die ausländischen (nicht-UK) Märkte bestimmt. Die ersten Fahrzeuge wurden nach Frankreich und in die Schweiz verkauft. Er verfügte über den gleichen Motor wie der Renault 16, jedoch war er hinter der Fahrgastzelle als Mittelmotor eingebaut. Dies verlieh dem Europa eine Straßenlage und Fahreigenschaften die eines Rennwagens würdig waren, auch sein Rahmen war für Motoren mit mehr als nur 1470 cm³ ausgelegt. Die Karosserie aus glasfaserverstärktem Polyester war mit einem Zentralträgerchassis aus Stahlblech zu einem geschlossenem Chassis verklebt. Diese Kombination war Voraussetzung für die hervorragenden Fahreigenschaften. Nur 296 Exemplare des ursprünglichen S1 (auf Basis des Grundgedankens des Lotus Gründers Colin Chapman ) wurden gebaut (Chassis Nummer 460001 bis 460296). Diese Fahrzeuge bestanden aus einer extrem minimalistischen Konstruktion, mit geschlossenen Seitenfenstern, festen Sitzen (nur die Pedale waren verstellbar), kaum Türverkleidungen und einfachen Aluminiuminstrumenten.

Ab 1969, anlässlich des Erscheinens der zweiten Serie (Europa S2), wurden Chassis und Karosserie miteinander verschraubt, was jedoch auch die ursprünglichen Fahreigenschaften änderte. Gleichzeitig wurde für den amerikanischen Markt ein Motor mit 1565 cm³ eingeführt. 1971 wurde der Europa TwinCam vorgestellt, der über einen Motor mit zwei Nockenwellen im Leichtmetallkopf und 1558 cm³ verfügte, wie er bereits im Lotus Elan eingebaut wurde. Ein Jahr später ging man zur leistungsgesteigerten Version „Big Valve“ (ähnlich wie beim Lotus Elan Sprint) über und verband ihn mit einem Renault 5-Gang-Getriebe. Diese neue Ausführung nannte man Europa Special.

(Wikipedia)

Cool Auto Mould Manufacturing images

Cool Auto Mould Manufacturing images

Some cool auto mould manufacturing images:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: South hangar panorama, including Vought OS2U-3 Kingfisher seaplane, B-29 Enola Gay
auto mould manufacturing
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Vought OS2U-3 Kingfisher:

The Kingfisher was the U.S. Navy’s primary ship-based, scout and observation aircraft during World War II. Revolutionary spot welding techniques gave it a smooth, non-buckling fuselage structure. Deflector plate flaps that hung from the wing’s trailing edge and spoiler-augmented ailerons functioned like extra flaps to allow slower landing speeds. Most OS2Us operated in the Pacific, where they rescued many downed airmen, including World War I ace Eddie Rickenbacker and the crew of his B-17 Flying Fortress.

In March 1942, this airplane was assigned to the battleship USS Indiana. It later underwent a six-month overhaul in California, returned to Pearl Harbor, and rejoined the Indiana in March 1944. Lt. j.g. Rollin M. Batten Jr. was awarded the Navy Cross for making a daring rescue in this airplane under heavy enemy fire on July 4, 1944.

Transferred from the United States Navy.

Manufacturer:
Vought-Sikorsky Aircraft Division

Date:
1937

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 15ft 1 1/8in. x 33ft 9 1/2in., 4122.6lb., 36ft 1 1/16in. (460 x 1030cm, 1870kg, 1100cm)

Materials:
Wings covered with fabric aft of the main spar

Physical Description:
Two-seat monoplane, deflector plate flaps hung from the trailing edge of the wing, ailerons drooped at low airspeeds to function like extra flaps, spoilers.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Materials:
Polished overall aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Cool Auto Mold Design images

Cool Auto Mold Design images

A few nice auto mold design images I found:

Transformer SD 500 Ferrari 500 Mondial S2 replica 1987 fr3q
auto mold design
Image by André Ritzinger
2013 Auto Moto D’Italia – Rosmalen.
Transformer Cars of Frant, Great Britain, was founded in 1986 by Gerry Hawkridge and is best known for producing replicas of the Lancia Stratos. Most were based on Lancia Beta components and were sold as the Transformer HF2000; versions with Alfa Romeo V6 engines or Ferrari V6 and V8 engines were sold as the Transformer HF3000.
A more prestigious project was the Ferrari 500 Mondial Series 2 replica presented by Transformer. It was a remarkably life-like copy of this rare and very valuable car and to this day Ferrari experts discuss which original was used to make the moulds. The chassis is a tubular frame fitted with a fiber glass body and aluminum hood, doors and boot-lid. This version also shows extensive use of aluminum in the interior. Power comes from a 2 Litre 4-cylinder Alfa Romeo unit (in this case an engine from 1970 was used). Expert craftsmanship and attention to detail made the Transformer SD 500 a close match to the original.
In fact, the myth goes that after somewhat more than a dozen of these replicas were made Ferrari bought the designs and the molds and destroyed them. Certain is that only a few were made. Gerry Hawkridge went on to establish Hawk Cars in 1991 and Transformer closed its doors in 1996. The production of Lancia Stratos replicas was transferred to Hawk Cars and continues to this day.

Cool High-quality Automotive Molding images

Cool High-quality Automotive Molding images

Some cool high-quality automotive molding images:

Nomination 49 – Materials – Controlled Crystallization Rate to Eliminate Paint
high-quality automotive molding
Image by spe.automotive
CONTROLLED CRYSTALLIZATION RATE TO ELIMINATE PAINT
•OEM Make & Model: Ford Motor Co. 2013MY Ford Escape CUV & Fusion® sedan, & Lincoln® MKZ® luxuary sedan
•Tier Supplier/Processor: TRW Automotive, Key Plastics LLC
•Material Supplier / Toolmaker: Asahi Kasei Plastics North America / Liberty Molds, Inc., J&J Tool & Mold Ltd.
•Material / Process: Leona® 90G60 B3374 PA 6/6 / 6I / injection molding
•Description: In order to support greater design freedom for any shape and length register vanes while meeting stiffness, durability, and perceived quality requirements, a partially aromatic injection-molded PA 6/6 / 6I resin was used to boost modulus without increasing wall thickness or adding glass reinforcement to achieve a high-quality, MIC Class A surface without paint. Owing to the "kinked" crystalline structure of the semi-aromatic PA resin, crystallization rate can be better controlled, so parts fully pack out before skins freeze off, leading to a resin-rich surface with a smoother surface and better appearance, eliminating the need to paint.

Extremely rigid construction
high-quality automotive molding
Image by felixdaacat
Superior passive safety is only one benefit of the extreme rigidity of a full carbon fiber monocoque – very high torsional rigidity is another. The monocoque is connected at the front and rear with equally rigid aluminum sub-frames, on which the suspension, engine and transmission are mounted.

The entire body-in-white of the future V12 model weighs only 229.5 kilograms (505 lbs) and boasts phenomenal torsional rigidity of 35,000 Newton meters per degree of twist. This guarantees a superb feeling of solidity, but, more importantly, extremely exact wheel control with excellent steering precision and sensitive feedback. For the dedicated driver, both are essential for truly enticing driving pleasure. The new Lamborghini flagship responds to the most minute steering input with the stunning precision of a perfectly balanced race car.

Depending on the form, function and requirements of the individual elements, the Lamborghini development team selected from three main CFRP manufacturing methods within its technology tool kit. They differ not only in their production processes, but also in the type of carbon fiber and its weave and, most importantly, in the chemical composition of the synthetic resin used.

Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM): In this process the carbon fiber mats are preformed and impregnated with an exact amount of resin. Afterwards, they are cured under heat while the part is in the mould. Lamborghini has achieved a major breakthrough by further developing this method. Using the patented “RTM-Lambo” process, the final mould is no longer a heavy, complex metal piece, but is made instead from lightweight carbon-fiber parts, thus making the manufacturing process faster, more flexible and more efficient.
An additional benefit of the RTM-Lambo process is the low injection pressure that doesn’t require expensive equipment.

Prepreg – The carbon fiber mats used in this method, commonly known as prepreg, are pre-injected by the supplier with a thermosetting liquid resin and must be stored at a low temperature. The mats are then laminated in molds and cured under heat and pressure in an autoclave. Prepreg components are complex to make, but have an extremely high-quality surface finish (Class-A surface quality) and are therefore the preferred option for use in visible locations.

Braiding – These components are manufactured by using RTM technology. This carbon fiber weave technology is derived from the textile industry and used to make tubular components for special applications such as structural roof pillars and rocker panels. The woven components are made by diagonally interweaving the fiber in several layers.

The monocoque of the new V12 super sports car is constructed using these technologies applied in a series of special processes. One significant advancement Lamborghini realized is the ability to use already-assembled monocoque elements as the mould for the next step in the process. This makes for a considerable simplification of the manufacturing process compared with conventional methods.

Epoxy foam components are also used within the monocoque. They are placed in strategic points to increase the stiffness of the monocoque by working as spacers between the composite layers while also dampening noise and vibration. In addition, aluminum inserts are laminated into the front and rear surfaces to facilitate connection with the aluminum front and rear sub-frame elements.

Because of the complexity of the materials and process outlined above, Lamborghini decided to produce its new monocoque completely in-house, managing one strategic step in the production process.

Quality control is an absolutely crucial factor – every single monocoque is measured to exacting tolerances of only 0.1 millimeters, facilitating the extreme precision of the overall vehicle. Quality control starts with the purchase of the carbon fiber parts. Every delivery of carbon fiber is certified and the material is checked regularly for compliance with quality standards. Lamborghini worked together with its suppliers to develop a world-exclusive fiber and resin system for its RTM technology. Ultimately, these materials and processes constitute an important part of Lamborghini’s worldwide leading expertise in the field.

Carbon composite materials – A key technology for tomorrow’s high-performance automotive engineering

These materials made from CFRP combine the lowest possible weight with excellent material characteristics – they are very light, extremely rigid and exceptionally precise.

Furthermore, CFRP materials can also be formed into highly complex components with integrated functions. This reduces the number of individual parts when compared to traditional metal construction – thus enabling further weight reduction. Lighter cars have lower fuel consumption and fewer CO2 emissions. Most significantly, however, it improves the power-to-weight ratio – the deciding factor in the overall feel and performance of a sports car. A super sports car built using CFRP accelerates faster, has superior handling and better braking.

Cool China Plastic Parts For Car Manufacturer images

Cool China Plastic Parts For Car Manufacturer images

Check out these china plastic parts for car manufacturer images:

“Toys of Christmas Past”
china plastic parts for car manufacturer
Image by brizzle born and bred
Did you know that toys and games have been part of childhood for thousands of years? As early as 4000 B.C. (before Christ), games became a source of entertainment. At that time, people of Babylon played a game that preceded the present day game of chess.

4000 BC – A Babylonian game, which is the ancestor of modern draughts begins to be played

3000 BC – First Game resembling modern Backgammon is played in Sumeria.

2000 BC – Stone marbles first used in Egypt.

1000 BC – Kites appear in China. Stone Yo-Yos begin to be used in Greece

600 BC – An ancestor of chess called ‘Chaturanga’ is played in India.

1759 – Roller skates are invented by Joseph Merlin.

Victorian Era – Victorian children had fewer toys than you have today. Poor Children – Poor families made their own, such as cloth-peg dolls and paper windmills. Children would save their pocket money to buy marbles, a spinning top, skipping ropes, kites or cheap wooden toys.

Rich Children had rocking horses with real horse hair manes, and dolls houses full of beautifully-carved miniature furniture. Other popular toys for rich children included china or wax dolls for the girls and clockwork train sets for the boys. Girls played with dolls and tea sets whilst boys played with toy soldiers and marbles.

During Victorian times, people became fascinated by toys that made pictures move. One of the earliest and simplest of these was the thaumatrope. This is a disc with a picture on either side that is attached to two pieces of string or a stick. When you spin the disc quickly, the two pictures appear to combine into one.

1901 – Meccano goes on sale in the UK. Invented by Frank Hornby in Liverpool, it captures the spirit of the age with a challenging construction toy. One of the century’s leading toy makers and creator of Hornby train sets (1920, and see 1925) and Dinky Toys, Hornby died in 1936.

1902 – In the USA, the Teddy Bear is created by a Russian emigrants Morris MiTchtom who had seen a report of US President Teddy Roosevelt who declined to shoot a bear cub while out hunting. Clifford Berryman’s celebrated newspaper cartoon captured this moment and Mitchcom launched his range of "Teddy" bears in his Brooklyn shop. German toymaker, Margarete Steiff began making jointed toy animals including bears, and they were also able to cash in on the teddy bear craze in the USA, which spread worldwide.

1903 – Edwin Binney & Harold Smith patent the first ‘Crayola’ crayons.

1908 – Plasticine goes on sale.

1909 – Kewpie Doll-devised by Rosi O’Neill patented in 1935

1910 – Daisy Air Rifles go on sale.

1914 – Tinker Toys – interlocking construction toy.

1914 – Frank Hornby manufactures ‘0 Gauge’ Clockwork model trains

1925 – The first electric ‘Hornby’ train appears..Hornby produce the first electric train sets in the world.

1928 – Mickey Mouse is created by Walt Disney. The licensed toy is born. Dolls from 1930

1929 – Duncan Yo-Yo’s are first launched in Los Angeles when Frank Duncan saw waiters from the Philippines playing with their tradit-ional Yo-Yo. It can be traced back to Ancient Greece – in the Philippines it was a weapon (like a boomerang) for hunting and war until later it became a sporting item then later a plaything. In 1930 Frank Duncan brought over demonstrators to Europe to play the music halls – and the craze took off.

1930 – Charlotte Cla in the USA starts making Micky Mouse dolls based on the first Disney cartoon first screened in 1928.

1932 – US architect, Alfred Butt begins work on what will become the board game, Scrabble. He calls it Lexico. (See 1940) In Denmark, Ole Kirk Christiansen started his Lego toy company. Lego means ‘play well’ in Danish. (leg godt). Later he discovered Lego in Latin means ‘to put together’.

1934 – Corgi starts to manufacture toy cars and other models. In 1965 their model Aston Martin from the first James Bond film became the very first BATR Toy of the Year.

1935 – Monopoly arrives in the UK. Invented in the USA by Charles Darrow in 1933, patent filed 31st August 1935 while on sale in America. It was made under licence in the UK by Waddingtons. Darrow died in 1967.

1935 – Minibrix made by the Premo Rubber Co. using the studs and cavity device which paved the way for plastic interlocking bricks pioneered by Hilary Page in the 1940s.

1943 – Richard James, researching a suspension device develops the Slinky. It goes on sale in 1945.

1948 – Criss Cross Words invented by Alfred Butt (originally Lexico) fails to sell well and is sold to James Brunot who changes the name to Scrabble. Sales average just 8,000, but from 1953 – 55 it suddenly takes off – sales reach 4.5million sets.

1949 – Leeds-based Waddington’s produces mystery board-game, Cluedo. This year (1999) it celebrated its 50th birthday.

1949 – Ole Christiansen, invents Lego bricks. Just six bricks will fit together in 102,981,500 ways !

1950 – Disney’s latest release, Cinderella, spawns toy products. Meanwhile, Disney was telling the toy industry to gear up for their next full-length cartoon, Alice in Wonderland, out in 1951. Popular Toys: a wind-up Cinderella dancing doll (with Prince) and Palitoy’s Archie Andrew Ventro Doll…Minibrix, ‘the world’s finest toys’ from Dean & Son, Flying Saucer from Cascelloid, Electric Contact Quiz – ‘lights up your party – mysterious, unique, amusing’ – claims the makers, Spears. Other events: First Toy Fair in Harrogate. First meeting of the NATR – the toy retailers association.

1951 – best selling toys: Alice (from Alice in Wonderland film), Talking Eggs from Selcol with a crank-handle to make Humpty Dumpty squeak (6/9d) – about 32p…Muffin the Mule push-along toy by Kohnstam…Kiddicraft’s ‘Sensible’ range of cot and pram toys designed by Hilary Page.

1951 – A Muffin The Mule push-along toy is the best seller this year.

1952 – Mr Potato Head is launched. Jack O’dell creates the first Matchbox car.

1952 – Popular toys: Crazy Ball from Louis Marx…Negro dolls from Pedigree called Mary Lou and Dixie…Flop: Loopo, a game with a ball and small hand-held loop promoted as ‘the sensation of the year’…Lines Brothers, Britain’s largest toymaker celebrated its 70th birthday…

1953 – A ‘Little Princess’ doll designed by Norman Hartnell is launched to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.

1953 – Pedigree launch dolls with ‘flesh-like’ vinyl plastic heads with ‘hair that grows out of their heads!’ using a "Angela, the doll with magic flesh" – it also has ‘sleeping’ eyes and lashes. Another pedigree doll out this Coronation year, is Little Princess dressed by Norman Hartnell…retailers read for the first time that out-of-town shopping centres are being tried out in the USA…Dean’s Rag Books are 50 years old…New Toys: Flower pot Men based on the TV series. Wembley – the football board game, Keywords (from Waddingtons) which has some similarities to Scrabble. Novelty Toys: Atom Bomber with A-bombs with automatic releases, and Slinky, the toy that slithers down steps – still a big seller to this day.

1954 – Sooty appears on TV and turns out to be an actual Chad Valley glove puppet…sales soar. The British Toy & Hobby Association hold their first Toy Fair in Brighton. New Toys: Dan Dare Rota Spinner for the beach…and at Christmas: Matchbox vehicles, Painting By Numbers. Scrabble arrives.

1955 – Scrabble sold in the UK by Spears begins to grow in popularity. Scoop from Waddingtons challenges.

1956 – New Game: Beat the Clock (Spears) based on the game on TV’s Sunday Night at the Palladium…Flops: New Footy Table Soccer as recommended by Stanley Matthews, and Newcrikit , recommended by Freddie Trueman…the Corgi Model Club formed…Triang T-T Gauge trains launched…Radio comedian (and chairman of Chad Valley) Kenneth Horne is seen on TV trying out the new Rise’n’Shine shaving kit and beauty shop – the first seen on TV…and the launch of the sputnik inspires the Bleep Bleep satellite toy.

1956 – A Mr B. Francis puts small electric motors in his scale models of cars and ‘Scalectrix’ is born.

1957 – Combex brings out the Sooty toothbrush flute…and following the Disney film’s release, a rash of Davy Crockett hats and toys.

1958 – New: The Hula – Hoop arrives! 20 million sold in the first year. Scalextric electric model racing first introduced…but whatever happened to Pictorama which can create 14 million different combinations of pictures? It’s the 50th birthday for Plasticine…and Frisbees (invented 1957 at the Frisbee Pie Factory) compete for attention.

1959 – Barbie is created by Ruth Handler, and is named after her daughter Barbara.

1959 – Stanley Matthews endorses Frido playballs. Selling well: Matchbox’s Scammel Breakdown truck, Board Games: Careers, and Wack-O (based on Jimmy Edward’s TV series)

1960 – For the first time, the Brighton Toy Fair allows imported toys to be shown. The craze that swept France, Loopyloop is predicted to sweep Britain…it doesn’t…Lego is seen at the Toy Fair for the first time…plastic kits dominate the market and toy market (at retail) is worth £85m through 11,000 outlets.

1961 – A mini-boom in costume dolls…Airfix launch their Betta Bilda sets at 10 shillings each (50p)…Fuzzyfelt bring out Noddy finger puppets, Scalextrics slot car racing sets, and trains are amongst this year’s top sellers.

1962 – Tipped as the craze of the year, Airtoy’s Spinning Satellite…it isn’t. Dinky launch Ford Fairlane, Corgi offer a model Silverstone with pit stops, Chad Valley launches the Give-a-show projector…Barbie and boy friend Ken impress US market…the Pogo stick is fun again…and Dinky’s First Engine is the first ever with flashing lights.

1963 – The board game, Diplomacy arrives…Matchbox offer cars with doors that open…and there is ‘the greatest money spinner ever from Frido’ – Disky Discs and goal posts to play ‘1-dimensional football’.

1964 – The latest craze: Booma Boomerang, Corgi is 30 years old and celebrates by introducing Corgi Classics…Diana Dors promotes the Trolls.

1965 – Dr Who and the Daleks on TV and toys available this Christmas…the James Bond Aston Martin Car is the big seller and will be the first ever Toy of the Year (to be announced as it will be in future in January of the following year at the NATR Dinner). Waddington’s launch Spyring board game, and the Noise Abatement Society complains about the V-rroom roar maker fitted to bicycles…the Gonks arrive to challenge Trolls…Denys Fisher launch the Spirograph. Craze that never was – Nik Nok – cup and ball game.

1965 – The James Bond Aston Martin from Corgi is the most popular toys this year. A version of the toy is still on sale today.

1966 – Action Man, the first ‘Doll For Boys’ is launched and is a massive success. Toy of the year this year will be Action Man – causing a sensation as the first doll for boys…for girls there is Tiny Tears. To rival Action man, Pedigree launch Tommy Gunn. Another craze that never was: Ippy Op – ball come skipping rope…but party game, Twister is a success.

1967 – Spiro-Graph is toy of the year. Rolf Harris Stylophone (Musical toy with a strangely annoying pitch. Apparently invented by accident the Stylophone enjoys cult popularity among musicians and has been used by bands as diverse as David Bowie and Blur.

1968 – Sindy is top doll and will win Toy of the Year. Ride-a-Roo ball is launched, as are Joe 90 products, Beatles’s Yellow Submarine, and the Go Car game which includes a breathalyser test as a hazard. Other new products: a multi-cube game called Instant Insanity and Glow-Globs, modelling compound that glows in the dark, and paintwheels.

1969 – Hot Wheels cars will win Toy of the Year. The Newton’s Cradle (Klikkies) sells well…but Tic Tac Tosser has a shorter life.

1970 – Sindy wins Toy of the Year for a second time…the NATR launches their Toy Token scheme…"The computer is becoming such an important part of our lives that a mini-computer for kids is in the office"…Super markets begin selling toys, and Matchbox makes 900 redundant.

1971 – Space Hoppers, inflatable orange bouncers with horns for handles. Klackers, a modernised version of conkers that made a very annoying ‘Klick Klack’ sound and lead to dozens of imitations. Katie Kopycat writing doll wins Toy of the Year. The giant Lines Brothers collapses, the arrival of Space Hopper, Craze of the year Clackers or Klik Klaks – first seen on Spanish beaches. Fun Bubbles sell over 7 million in first year.

1972 – Plasticraft modelling kits win Toy of the Year.

1973 – The first Game of the Year – Invicta’s Mastermind…a shortage of plastic causes problems…children’s pocket money averages 9p. New dolls: Disco Girl, Chelsea Girl, Daisy. Toy guns concern when gunmen using toy guns are shot dead by police outside India House.

1973 – Mastermind, a game that had nothing to do with the TV show and everything to do with cracking the code of your opponents coloured plastic pegs.

1974 – Magna Doodle. The magnetic drawing toy which was invented in Japan by pen engineers trying to create a clean mess free chalk.

1975 – Wombles. Womblemania hit the UK and Womble toys where everywhere.

1976 – Raw Power. A handle that you added to your bike and ‘revved’ to create the sound of an engine.

1977 – Slime, a bright green PVA based blob that came in little plastic pots and ruined many a households soft furnishings! Othello, the strategy game of Black & White counters. Holly Hobbie, dolls based on the popular character. Skateboards, 1977 saw the high point of the 1970’s skate craze and featured thin ‘surfboard’ style boards.

1978 – Star Wars, after the release of the movie the previous year the toys soon followed and became one of the most successful movie licenced properties of all time, the toys dominated toy shops until the middle 1980’s when their popularity waned. Simon, the electronic game where you followed a sequence of lights and sounds before you threw it across the room in sheer frustration!

1979 – Space Lego, the humble building brick went where no man had gone before. Stop Boris, a game where you stopped Boris, a creepy spider, with a light gun.

1980 – Rubiks Cube, invented by Hungarian designer Erno Rubik over 100 million of these tricky little puzzles were sold between 1980 and 1982.

1981 – Lego Train. Lego launches their first electric ‘train set’ which featured strangely enough blue rails!

1982 – BMX Bikes, everybody went BMX crazy, BMX is short for Bicycle Motocross. ZX Spectrum, the first ‘affordable’ home gaming computer arrived in UK households.

1983 – My Little Pony, based on an Animated TV series there was an entire world of small plastic horses and accessories to collect. My Little Pony went on to become one of the most successful girls toy concepts of all time. Boys did not miss out this year as they got He Man & The Masters Of The Universe which followed the same based on animation format and became one of the most successful boys toy concepts of all time.

1984 – Care Bears. Following the successful ‘toys from an animated series’ format from the previous year the Care Bears arrived from Care-a-Lot. Shortly before Christmas Cabbage Patch Kids, created by artist Xavier Roberts also arrived and created chaos in toy shops across the land as parent competed to buy one of the sought after dolls. The Board game Trivial Pursuit was the best selling board game in 1984 and dolls based on popular Pop Stars Michael Jackson and Boy George was also big hits.

1985 – Transformers, robots in disguise. These ‘action figures’, which transformed from vehicle to robot and back, again confounded parents and delighted children. Optimus Prime was THE toy to have in 1985 and lead to huge shortages of product.

1986 – In this World Cup year the playground graze was Panini Football stickers. If you managed to complete an album you were a playground hero.

1987 – Sylvanian Families, a range of cute and cuddly animals with play-sets and vehicles. Rubiks Magic, a follow up to the Rubiks Cube.

1988 – Ghostbusters, based on the popular movie and animated series, children across the land strapped on ‘proton packs’ and set out to capture ghosts. Slimer, one of the lead characters was also a firm favourite in toy shops, along with the vehicle Ecto-1.

1989 – Another hit movie, another toy shop success. The Tim Burton movie ‘Batman’ breathed new life into an old favourite and Batmania swept the UK.

1990 – Donatello, Michelangelo, Leonardo and Raphael, the Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles arrived in toy shops and where an immediate hit. Originating in the US from a comic book the original word ‘Ninja’ in the title was replaced with ‘Hero’ in the UK for fears that it would violent connotations with parents.

1991 – Nintendo launched Game Boy in the UK.

1992 – Thunderbirds enjoyed a re-birth this year and dads of a certain age across the land re-lived there childhoods with their children. Shortages of the most popular toy, Tracey Island were so severe that Blue Peter ran an episode where the showed you how to make your own….

1993 – Power Rangers, the TV show arrived on our screens and children’s TV has not been the same since. Toys based on the show sold out immediately.

1994 – Magic Eye Pictures were all the rage and toys and puzzles featuring these pictures within pictures prompted even more people to ask ‘can you see it?’

1995 – POGS, small cardboard disks stormed into playgrounds and became a huge craze. Star Wars toys start production again after a short hiatus, 1970’s kids are now adults and collect the toys out of nostalgia but a new generation of kids also embraces the saga.

1996 – Toy Story, the animated film from Pixar was a huge hit in the cinema and toys from the movie were more than elusive. Parents went to desperate measures to secure a Buzz Lightyear doll. The rights to produce toys from the film went to a small independent Canadian toy company who simply could not cope with the demand. Why? Because all of the major toy manufacturers turned down the chance to make Toy Story merchandise, as they felt that the movie would never catch on. Corinthian figures, small figurines of football stars with oversized heads were the hot collectible and equally popular with adults and child collectors.

1997 – The year of T, Teletubbies, Tamagotchi and TY Beanie Babies are toy shop best sellers.

1998 – The humble Yo Yo returns as the craze of the year, after last being seen in the 1950’s and the 1970’s. The ProYo II is the Yo Yo of choice. Just before Christmas the interactive pet, Furby arrives in toy shops.

1999 – A board game based on the hit TV quiz show ‘Who Wants To Be A Millionaire’ is the best selling board game. Toys and games based on Pokemon the Nintendo game prove to be quite popular. The firm favourite are the trading cards hundreds of millions of which are sold, swapped and traded across the globe.

2000 – Robotic Pets and Aluminium Folding Scooters are this year crazes. They are also accompanied by another familiar face, The Thunderbirds return again and Tracey Island is another Christmas best seller.

2001 – Bob The Builder toys are big hits, Folding Scooters continue to be the must have accessory for both kids and style guru’s alike. Closely followed by Pogo Sticks which enjoyed a resurgence of interest this year.

2002 – Bratz Dolls, steal some of Barbie’s position as top fashion doll, a place she has held since she was born in 1959. Beyblades, customizable spinning tops and Micropets, miniature robotic pets are the favourite crazes

2003 – Beyblades continue to be the playground craze closely followed by Yucky Yo Balls, fluid filled stretchy balls on an elastic string. However Yucky Yo Balls are swiftly banned by the government over safety fears. This is the first time that the government has banned a toy in over 10 years.

2004 – Toy of the Year ‘Terrain Twister’ radio controlled vehicle.

2005 – Fisher-Price top-selling Dora’s Talking House"

2006 – The overall winner of the title Toy Of The Year 2006 was awarded to the Dr Who Cyberman Voice Changer Mask. This Voice Changer is a replica Cyberhead that will give you a robotic voice. It features speech, sound effects and lights! It has 3 play buttons, one that plays Cyberman phrases, one that changes your voice into that of the Cybermen and one with Cyber weapon sound effects.

2007 – The Toy of the Year Award was given to Blanket Time Iggle Piggle Dancing Soft Toy, from the massively popular ‘In The Night Garden’. Boys Toy of the year was chosen as the Ben 10 Omnitrix FX, which is like a wrist watch which transform Ben into different alien superheroes.

2008 – Toy of the Year Ben 10 Action figures 10" and 15" – Pre School Toy of the Year Kidizoom camera, Vtech – Collectable toy of the Year Go Go Crazy Bones – Construction toy of the year is Lego – Girls range toy of the year is Sylvanian families. – Boys range of the year is Ben 10, Bandai – Girls toy of the year is FurReal Biscuit my lovin’ pup.

2009 – Last year the toy of the year award as voted by the Toy Retailer Association went to the Ben 10 series. The year before it went to a set of toys from In the Night Garden. The theme seems to be a toy connected to a popular children’s television character and this will probably be the same pattern for the best selling toy of 2009/2010. Young children love toys that are familiar, toys that they identify with the television characters that they see. In 2008 the pre school toy of the year was again, In the Night Garden and toys such as Star Wars and toys featuring Thomas the Tank engine (pre school toys of the year in 2005) regularly win toy awards.

Toy Facts

Hasbro is the largest toy manufacturer in the world.

The 20th century saw the invention of dozens of much-loved toys as well. Still-popular board games like Tripoley, Sorry and Monopoly have been around since the 1930s, and Crayola Crayons are more than 100 years old! Twister, made by a division of Hasbro, sold more than 3 million games within a year of its release in 1966. It has sold more than 22 million since then.

Toys aren’t always a hit the year, or even the decade, they’re created. Unemployed architect Alfred Mosher Butts invented the game of Scrabble, which he first called "Lexiko" and later "Criss-Cross Words," in the 1930s. Entrepreneur James Brunot acquired the game in 1947, but it wasn’t until 1953, when the president of Macy’s — now owned by retail giant Federated Department Stores — discovered the game on vacation that things really took off. More than 100 million sets have since been sold worldwide.

The fortunes of other playthings are more cyclical. Troll dolls, which hit big during the 1960s, had all but disappeared by the 1980s until troll nostalgia ushered in a second boom in the early 1990s. As Generation Xers grow older, toys like Cabbage Patch Kids, now made by Mattel, and Koosh balls could stage a comeback as well.

And there’s serious money to be had. Mr. Potato Head, made in 1952 by Hasbro’s Playskool unit, was the first toy advertised on television, and it grossed more than million in its first year (that’s billion in 2005 dollars). Play-doh, which was originally designed for cleaning wallpaper, made inventor Joseph McVicker a millionaire by his 27th birthday. And Mattel sells an astounding 1.5 million Barbie dolls each week — that’s two dolls per second.

That Was the Year That Was – 1966
china plastic parts for car manufacturer
Image by brizzle born and bred
The swinging sixties were in full flow, but in some corners of the world the peace and love mantra of the flower-power generation could not be heard.

Even as hippies in London and San Francisco were weaving daisies into their hair, in China Mao Tse-Tung launched the Cultural Revolution, a 10-year political campaign aimed at rekindling revolutionary Communist fervour. Brandishing their copies of Mao’s Little Red Book of quotations, students of the Communist Party – the so-called Red Guards – pursued an ideological cleansing campaign in which they renounced and attacked anyone suspected of being an intellectual, or a member of the bourgeoisie. Thousands of Chinese citizens were executed, and millions more were yoked into manual labour in the decade that followed.

Meanwhile, the US government, under president Lyndon B Johnson, was escalating its military presence in Vietnam. By the year’s end, American troop levels had reached 389,000, with more than 5,000 combat deaths and over 30,000 wounded. The war was a brutal and dirty one, with many US casualties caused by sniper fire, booby traps and mines.

The Americans responded by sending B-52 bombers over North Vietnam, and by launching the infamous Search and Destroy policy on the ground.

"To know war," Johnson said in his State of the Union address before Congress, in January 1966, "is to know that there is still madness in this world".

www.youtube.com/watch?v=InRDF_0lfHk

There was bloodshed on the streets of London too, when Ronnie Kray, brother of Reggie, shot George Cornell dead in the Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel in March.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=-rhr8Vjzy8E

Two years after his proclamations about the "white heat of technology" Harold Wilson was prime minister of a Labour government that included technology minister Tony Benn. If Benn was pleased to witness the introduction of the first homegrown UK credit card – The Barclaycard – in 1966, he was in the minority. The card was met with "a tidal wave of indifference", according to a Barclays executive.

Perhaps the UK public simply had other things on their minds.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRuVVqn63co

This was, after all, the year in which Bobby Moore’s England beat the Germans 4-2 to lift the World Cup at Wembley.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=3T6IY2fz_Mc

Musically, 1966 was a vintage year. Jim Reeves’ Distant Drums knocked the Small Faces’ All or Nothing off the top spot. Other number ones in the year included Frank Sinatra’s Strangers in the Night, Good Vibrations by the Beach Boys, the Walker Brothers’ The Sun Ain’t Gonna Shine Anymore and The Green, Green Grass of Home by Tom Jones.

The Beatles and the Rolling Stones also continued their dominance of the music scene, with Yellow Submarine, Eleanor Rigby, Paperback Writer and Paint it Black all topping the charts.

A Man for all Seasons won Best Picture at the 1966 Oscars, and its star Paul Scofield won Best Actor. Other films released this year included Georgy Girl, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Alfie and the Good, the Bad and the Ugly.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SzQTF–oQ-U

On the small screen, viewers were subjected to the rants of Alf Garnet in Till Death us do Part; while US audiences were introduced to the delights of the Monkees and Star Trek. And the dynamic duo, Batman and Robin, thwarted lute-playing electronics genius the Minstrel as he tried to sabotage the computer systems at the Gotham City Stock Exchange.

"Batman heads off new corporate IT disaster" – now there’s a headline to conjure with.

The Queen opens the £10 million Severn Bridge on September 8. The Severn Bridge was opened in 1966 to replace the ferry service crossing from Aust to Beachley. The new bridge provided a direct link for the M4 motorway into Wales.

The Severn Bridge has now carried more than 300,000,000 vehicles since it was opened in 1966. Between 1980 and 1990 traffic flows increased by 63% and there were severe congestion problems in the summer and at peak times each day. Further increases in traffic flows were expected in the years ahead. The problems encountered on the Severn Bridge were made worse by the occasional high winds, accidents and breakdowns. It is for these reasons that the Second Severn Crossing was constructed as without it congestion would become more serious and frequent on the M4, M5 and the local road network.

Bristol’s Mecca Centre opens

1966 – Thursday May 19 is a glittering night in Bristol when 800 of the West Country’s VIPs are invited to the opening of the city centre’s brand new £32 million leisure complex on Frogmore Street With a dozen licensed bars, a casino, a cinema, a night club, an ice rink and a thousand plastic palm trees, this is the biggest entertainment palace anywhere in Europe and somewhere to rival the West End of London. There are girls! In bikinis! There’s even pineapple! On sticks! Drivers park their Hillman Imps in the multi-story car park!

And, amazingly enough, the venue has been an entertainment centre ever since. Bristol . . . entertainments capital of the South West, and one of the entertainments attractions of Europe. That was the talk of the town when Mecca moved into Bristol, splashed out a fortune and began building the New Entertainments Centre in Frogmore Street, towering over the ancient Hatchet Inn and the Georgian and Regency streets nearby.

The New Entertainments Centre wasn’t just big, it was enormous and it was what 60s leisure and fun-time were all about, Mecca promised. Here, slap bang in the middle of Bristol, the company was creating the largest entertainment centre in the whole of Europe. A dozen licensed bars, an ice rink, bowling lanes, a casino, a night club, a grand cinema, asumptuous ballroom and, naturally, a multi-storey car park to accommodate all those Zephyr Zodiacs, Anglias, Westminsters, Minis, Victors and Imps etc which would come pouring into town bringing the 5,000 or so customers who would flock to the centre every day.

London might have its famous West End. Bristol had its Frogmore Street palace of fun and the opening night of the biggest attraction of all, the Locarno Ballroom, on May 19th was the Night To Crown All First Nights, the Post proudly announced. Sparkling lights, plastic palm trees in shadily-lit bars, a revolving stage, dolly birds in fishnet tights and grass skirts . . . this was glamour a la mid-60s and Bristol loved it.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZNk8yuZ4lbI

Horace Batchelor K-E-Y-N-S-H-A-M

1966 – KEYNSHAM became a familiar household name to millions of Radio Luxembourg listeners across Europe in the 1950s and 1960s — thanks to a local betting expert.

Self-styled ‘football pools king’ Horace Batchelor helped punters win a total of more than £12 million between 1948 and 1971 at a time when £75,000 was a fortune and his series of radio ads always mentioned mentioned Keynsham, which Horace would then spell out.

Customers followed his unique ‘infra draw’ tip system, which forecast which matches would be drawn in the pools. He put the otherwise little-known town on the map by spelling out its name letter by letter so listeners would address their applications correctly when ordering tips by post.

His ads included genial patter such as: ‘Hello, friends — this is Horace Batchelor, the inventor of the fabulous Infra-Draw system. You too can start to win really worthwhile dividends using my method.’

Members of the system clubbed together to enter very large permutations with a good chance of winning the pools and then sharing the takings — though each individual only received a small fraction of each big windfall. Horace himself set a world record by personally netting more than 30 first dividends and thousands of second and third dividends.

During his heyday up to 5.000 orders a day were delivered via Keynsham to his office in Old Market, Bristol. His first major pools win came in 1948 when he was presented with £11,321 at Bedminster’s Rex Cinema —part of the biggest dividend then paid by Sherman’s Pools.

It also included £45,000 which he shared with syndicate members. – By 1955 he had won enough to live in luxury, running three cars and puffing cigars in an 18-room house. He later retired to a 27-bedroom ‘Batchelor pad’ in Bath Road, Saltford, a small village just outside of Keynsham, which he named ‘Infra -Grange’ after his system.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=FU7MMdlATZQ

Pickles was made Dog of the Year in 1966

Pickles, the mongrel dog who found the World Cup in a London street after it had been stolen three months before the 1966 finals, became a bigger story than that year’s general election.

In March 1966, a few months before the start of the World Cup finals in England, a mongrel dog named Pickles found the missing Jules Rimet trophy in a London street.

One week before Pickles came to the rescue, the priceless trophy had been stolen from the Westminster’s Methodist Central Hall where it was being displayed, albeit in a glass cabinet.

And this despite the presence of no less than five security guards. On that fateful Sunday, however, the guard stationed next to the trophy had taken the day off. The thieves stole in through a back door and snatched away the World Cup.

For his winning role in the tale, Pickles was made Dog of the Year in 1966 and awarded a year’s free supply of dog food. His owner, a Thames lighterman named David Corbett, was a prime suspect in the case and police questioned him for hours before he was cleared.

With a dramatic goal in the final moments of what was a nail-biting match, England finally became soccer World Cup champions, securing a 4-2 win over West Germany at London’s Wembley Stadium. It was just one of the many highlights of 1966 that are etched on my memory from a year that had its fair share of controversy and tragedy as well as producing some outstanding music.

‘more popular than Jesus’

Controversy come in the wake of John Lennon’s quip in a newspaper interview that The Beatles were ‘more popular than Jesus now’. It caused a furor and led to thousands of the group’s records being burned on bonfires in protest in some parts of America. I recall seeing the news coverage on TV showing angry groups of people tossing piles of vinyl in to the flames. It was far cry from the outpourings of adoration and admiration that the Liverpool lads usually enjoyed. And for a while threatened to damage their reputation.

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The anti-Beatles outcry did however subside following an apology from Lennon and things eventually got back to normal on the Fab Four front. The catchy Paperback Writer topped the charts and their imaginative album Revolver reinstated their popularity.

Aberfan coal tip disaster in Wales

One of the most tragic events that year In Britain was the Aberfan coal tip disaster in Wales that claimed 144 lives, including 116 children. I was at work on a weekly newspaper on the October morning it happened. My colleagues and I had a radio on and listened to updates on and off throughout the day as rescuers dug through the tons of slurry that had roared down the hillside, desperately trying to find survivors in the mangled remains of the school building. I’ll always remember that it was a very dark period, particularly as so many young lives had been lost in what was later shown to have been an avoidable tragedy.

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On the music front, 1966 threw up several gems, not least some groundbreaking offerings from The Beach Boys. It was, of course, the year that the magical singles Good Vibrations and God Only Knows and the grandiose album Pet Sounds set new standards in rock recording. Indeed, such was the excellence of the band at that time that it spurred The Beatles on to experiment and push their own musical boundaries still further.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOMyS78o5YI

Motown was in its glory too, and The Four Tops epitomized all that was great about the sounds made under the guidance of Berry Gordy in the bustling, vibrant city that was Detroit. Reach Out I’ll Be There.

Other memorable songs, were Dusty Springfield’s You Don’t Have To Say You Love Me, the Spencer Davis Group’s Somebody Help Me, the Rolling Stones Paint It Black, The Walker Brothers’ operatic The Sun Ain’t `Gonna Shine Anymore, and Chris Farlowe’s cover version of the Stones’ Out Of Time. All of them are classics of rock.

Tom Jones’ Green, Green Grass of Home was the biggest selling single. Way before The Voice!

www.youtube.com/watch?v=hSajFnkUxQY

George Harrison married Patti Boyd.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=pm8oTkuIJgs

Sergio Leone created the spaghetti western with The Good, The Bad and The Ugly starring Clint Eastwood. Due to the striking height difference between Clint Eastwood and Eli Wallach of over 9 inches, it was sometimes difficult to include them in the same frame.

Because Sergio Leone spoke barely any English and Eli Wallach spoke barely any Italian, the two communicated in French.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PgAKzmWmuk

In the 1960s Michael Caine was a cocky young British movie star with a Cockney accent. He played a caddish womanizer in Alfie (1966) "Not a lot of people know that"

Adam Sandler, Halle Berry, David Schwimmer, David Cameron, Cindy Crawford, Helena Bonham Carter were all born in 1966.

The first episode of Star Trek aired.

Walt Disney died.

The Beatles achieved their 10th number 1!

The Sound of Music won Best Picture at the Oscars.

Twiggy was named the face of ’66 by Daily Express.

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1966 was also the year that the term Swinging London was coined by Time magazine, and as they say the rest is history

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For a few years in the 1960s, London was the world capital of cool. When Time magazine dedicated its 15 April 1966 issue to London: the Swinging City, it cemented the association between London and all things hip and fashionable that had been growing in the popular imagination throughout the decade.

London’s remarkable metamorphosis from a gloomy, grimy post-War capital into a bright, shining epicentre of style was largely down to two factors: youth and money. The baby boom of the 1950s meant that the urban population was younger than it had been since Roman times.

By the mid-60s, 40% of the population at large was under 25. With the abolition of National Service for men in 1960, these young people had more freedom and fewer responsibilities than their parents’ generation. They rebelled against the limitations and restrictions of post-War society. In short, they wanted to shake things up… Added to this, Londoners had more disposable income than ever before – and were looking for ways to spend it. Nationally, weekly earnings in the ‘60s outstripped the cost of living by a staggering 183%: in London, where earnings were generally higher than the national average, the figure was probably even greater.

This heady combination of affluence and youth led to a flourishing of music, fashion, design and anything else that would banish the post-War gloom. Fashion boutiques sprang up willy-nilly.

Men flocked to Carnaby St, near Soho, for the latest ‘Mod’ fashions. While women were lured to the King’s Rd, where Mary Quant’s radical mini skirts flew off the rails of her iconic store, Bazaar.

Even the most shocking or downright barmy fashions were popularised by models who, for the first time, became superstars. Jean Shrimpton was considered the symbol of Swinging London, while Twiggy was named The Face of 1966. Mary Quant herself was the undisputed queen of the group known as The Chelsea Set, a hard-partying, socially eclectic mix of largely idle ‘toffs’ and talented working-class movers and shakers.

Music was also a huge part of London’s swing. While Liverpool had the Beatles, the London sound was a mix of bands who went on to worldwide success, including The Who, The Kinks, The Small Faces and The Rolling Stones. Their music was the mainstay of pirate radio stations like Radio Caroline and Radio Swinging England. Creative types of all kinds gravitated to the capital, from artists and writers to magazine publishers, photographers, advertisers, film-makers and product designers.

But not everything in London’s garden was rosy. Immigration was a political hot potato: by 1961, there were over 100,000 West Indians in London, and not everyone welcomed them with open arms. The biggest problem of all was a huge shortage of housing to replace bombed buildings and unfit slums and cope with a booming urban population. The badly-conceived solution – huge estates of tower blocks – and the social problems they created, changed the face of London for ever. By the 1970s, with industry declining and unemployment rising,

Swinging London seemed a very dim and distant memory.

1966 in British music

14 January – Young singer David Jones changes his last name to Bowie to avoid confusion with Davy Jones (later of the Monkees).

19 January – Michael Tippett conducts the performance of his cantata The Vision of St Augustine in London.

6 February – The Animals appear a fifth time on The Ed Sullivan Show to perform their iconic Vietnam-anthem hit "We Gotta Get Out of this Place".

www.youtube.com/watch?v=D88vc_GWw-g

4 March – The Beatles’ John Lennon is quoted in The Evening Standard as saying that the band was now more popular than Jesus. In August, following publication of this remark in Datebook, there are Beatles protests and record burnings in the Southern US’s Bible Belt.

5 March – The UK’s Kenneth McKellar, singing "A Man Without Love", finishes 9th in the 11th Eurovision Song Contest, which is won by Udo Jürgens of Austria.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SH8BQmfhUgo

6 March – In the UK, 5,000 fans of the Beatles sign a petition urging British Prime minister Harold Wilson to reopen Liverpool’s Cavern Club.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=J1SQ99AYudo

16 April – Disc Weekly is incormporated with Music Echo magazine.

1 May – The Beatles, The Rolling Stones and the Who perform at the New Musical Express’ poll winners’ show in London. The show is televised, but The Beatles’ and The Stones’ segments are omitted because of union conflicts.

13 May – The Rolling Stones release "Paint It, Black", which becomes the first number one hit single in the US and UK to feature a sitar (in this case played by Brian Jones).

17 May – American singer Bob Dylan and the Hawks (later The Band) perform at the Free Trade Hall, Manchester. Dylan is booed by the audience because of his decision to tour with an
electric band, the boos culminating in the famous "Judas" shout.

2 July – The Beatles become the first musical group to perform at the Nippon Budokan Hall in Tokyo. The performance ignites protests from local citizens who felt that it was inappropriate for a rock and roll band to play at Budokan, a place – until then – designated to the practice of martial arts.

11 August – John Lennon holds a press conference in Chicago, Illinois to apologize for his remarks the previous March. "I suppose if I had said television was more popular than Jesus, I would have gotten away with it. I’m sorry I opened my mouth. I’m not anti-God, anti-Christ, or anti-religion. I was not knocking it. I was not saying we are greater or better."

29 August – The Beatles perform their last official concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.

16 September – Eric Burdon records a solo album after leaving The Animals and appears on "Ready, Steady, Go", singing "Help Me Girl", a UK #14 solo hit. Also on the show are Otis Redding and Chris Farlowe.

9 November – John Lennon meets Yoko Ono when he attends a preview of her art exhibition at the Indica Gallery in London.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=YhJIiEeMeF0

9 December – The Who release their second album A Quick One with a nine-minute "mini-opera" A Quick One While He’s Away.

16 December – The Jimi Hendrix Experience release their first single in the UK, "Hey Joe".

www.youtube.com/watch?v=W3JsuWz4xWc

1966 in British television

3 January – Camberwick Green is the first BBC television programme to be shot in colour.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWUu-LTFJjE

3 March – The BBC announces plans to begin broadcasting television programmes in colour from next year.

5 April – The Money Programme debuts on BBC2. It continued to air until 2010.

23 May – Julie Goodyear makes her Coronation Street debut as Bet Lynch. She did not become a regular character until 1970.

6 June – BBC1 sitcom Till Death Us Do Part begins its first series run.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNSbMNl9K7Q

30 July – England beat West Germany 4-2 to win the 1966 World Cup at Wembley.

Summer – Patrick McGoohan quits the popular spy series Danger Man after filming only two episodes of the fourth season, in order to produce and star in The Prisoner, which begins filming in September.

2 October – The four-part serial Talking to a Stranger, acclaimed as one of the finest British television dramas of the 1960s, begins transmission in the Theatre 625 strand on BBC2.

29 October – Actor William Hartnell makes his last regular appearance as the First Doctor in the concluding moments of Episode 4 of the Doctor Who serial The Tenth Planet. Actor Patrick Troughton briefly appears as the Second Doctor at the conclusion of the serial.

5 November – Actor Patrick Troughton appears in his first full Doctor Who serial The Power of the Daleks as the Second Doctor.

16 November – Cathy Come Home, possibly the best-known play ever to be broadcast on British television, is presented in BBC1’s The Wednesday Play anthology strand.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMR8KYDkRqk

BBC1

3 January – The Trumptonshire Trilogy: Camberwick Green
5 January – Softly, Softly (1966–1969)
10 March – The Frost Report (1966)
7 May – Quick Before They Catch Us (1966)
17 May – All Gas and Gaiters (1966–1971)
24 May – Beggar My Neighbour (1966–1968)
7 August – It’s a Knockout (BBC1 1966–1982
17 November – The Illustrated Weekly Hudd (1966–1967)

BBC2

5 April – The Money Programme (1966–2010)

ITV

22 March – How (1966–1981)

1966 Events

3 January – British Rail begins full electric passenger train services over the West Coast Main Line from Euston to Manchester and Liverpool with 100 mph (160 km/h) operation from London to Rugby. Services officially inaugurated 18 April.

Stop-motion children’s television series Camberwick Green first shown on BBC1.

4 January – More than 4,000 people attend a memorial service at Westminster Abbey for the broadcaster Richard Dimbleby, who died last month aged 52.

12 January – Three British MPs visiting Rhodesia (Christopher Rowland, Jeremy Bray and David Ennals) are assaulted by supporters of Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith.

20 January – The Queen commutes the death sentence on a black prisoner in Rhodesia, two months after its abolition in Britain.

Radio Caroline South pirate radio ship MV Mi Amigo runs aground on the beach at Frinton.

21 January – The Smith regime in Rhodesia rejects the Royal Prerogative commuting death sentences on two Africans.

31 January – United Kingdom ceases all trade with Rhodesia.

9 February – A prototype Fast Reactor nuclear reactor opens at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland.

17 February – Britain protests to South Africa over its supplying of petrol to Rhodesia.

19 February – Naval minister Christopher Mayhew resigns.

28 February – Harold Wilson calls a general election for 31 March, in hope of increasing his single-seat majority.

1 March – Chancellor of the Exchequer James Callaghan announces the decision to embrace decimalisation of the pound (which will be effected on 15 February 1971).

4 March – In an interview published in The Evening Standard, John Lennon of The Beatles comments, "We’re more popular than Jesus now".

Britain recognized the new regime in Ghana.

5 March – BOAC Flight 911 crashes in severe clear-air turbulence over Mount Fuji soon after taking off from Tokyo International Airport in Japan, killing all 124 on board.

9 March – Ronnie, one of the Kray twins, shoots George Cornell (an associate of rivals The Richardson Gang) dead at The Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel, east London, a crime for which he is finally convicted in 1969.

11 March – Chi-Chi, the London Zoo’s giant panda, is flown to Moscow for a union with An-An of the Moscow Zoo.

20 March – Theft of football’s FIFA World Cup Trophy whilst on exhibition in London.

23 March – Pope Paul VI and Michael Ramsey, the Archbishop of Canterbury, meet in Rome.

27 March – Pickles, a mongrel dog, finds the FIFA World Cup Trophy wrapped in newspaper in a south London garden.

30 March – Opinion polls show that the Labour government is on course to win a comfortable majority in the general election tomorrow.

31 March – The Labour Party under Harold Wilson win the general election with a majority of 96 seats. At the 1964 election they had a majority of five but subsequent by-election defeats had led to that being reduced to just one seat before this election. The Birmingham Edgbaston seat is retained for the Conservatives by Jill Knight in succession to Edith Pitt, the first time two women MPs have followed each other in the same constituency.

6 April – Hoverlloyd inaugurate the first Cross-Channel hovercraft service, from Ramsgate harbour to Calais using passenger-carrying SR.N6 craft.

7 April – The United Kingdom asks the UN Security Council authority to use force to stop oil tankers that violate the oil embargo against Rhodesia. Authority is given on 10 April.

11 April – The Marquess of Bath, in conjunction with Jimmy Chipperfield, opens Longleat Safari Park, with "the lions of Longleat", at his Longleat House, the first such drive-through park outside Africa.

15 April – Time magazine uses the phrase "Swinging London".

19 April – Ian Brady and Myra Hindley go on trial at Chester Crown Court, charged with three so-called Moors Murders.

30 April – Regular hovercraft service begins over the English Channel (discontinued in 2000 due to competition with the Channel Tunnel.)

Liverpool win the Football League First Division title for the second time in three seasons.

3 May – Swinging Radio England and Britain Radio commence broadcasting on AM with a combined potential 100,000 watts from the same ship anchored off the south coast of England in international waters.

6 May – The Moors Murderers Ian Brady and Myra Hindley are sentenced to life imprisonment for three child murders committed between November 1963 and October 1965. Brady is guilty of all three murders and receives three concurrent terms of life imprisonment, while Hindley is found guilty of two murder charges and an accessory charge which receives two concurrent life sentences alongside a seven-year fixed term.

12 May – African members of the UN Security Council say that the British army should blockade Rhodesia.

14 May – Everton defeat Sheffield Wednesday 3-2 in the FA Cup final at Wembley Stadium, overturning a 2-0 Sheffield Wednesday lead during the final 16 minutes of the game.

16 May – A strike is called by the National Union of Seamen, ending on 16 July.

18 May – Home Secretary Roy Jenkins announces that the number of police forces in England and Wales will be cut to 68.

26 May – Guyana achieves independence from the United Kingdom.

6 June – BBC1 television sitcom Till Death Us Do Part begins its first series run.

23 June – The Beatles go on top of the British singles charts for the 10th time with Paperback Writer.

29 June – Barclays Bank introduces the Barclaycard, the first British credit card.

3 July – 31 arrests made after a protest against the Vietnam War outside the US embassy turns violent.

12 July – Zambia threatens to leave the Commonwealth because of British peace overtures to Rhodesia.

14 July – Gwynfor Evans becomes member of Parliament for Carmarthen, the first ever Plaid Cymru MP, after his victory at a by-election.

15 July – A ban on black workers at Euston railway station is overturned.

16 July – Prime Minister Harold Wilson flies to Moscow to try to start peace negotiations over the Vietnam War. The Soviet Government rejects his ideas.

20 July – Start of 6-month wage and price freeze.

26 July – Lord Gardiner issues the Practice Statement in the House of Lords stating that the House is not bound to follow its own previous precedent.

30 July – England beats West Germany 4-2 to win the 1966 World Cup at Wembley. Geoff Hurst scores a hat-trick and Martin Peters scores the other English goal in a game which attracts an all-time record UK television audience of more than 32,000,000.

1 August – Everton sign Blackpool’s World Cup winning midfield player Alan Ball, Jr. for a national record fee of £110,000.

2 August – Spanish government forbids overflights of British military aircraft.

4 August – The Kray Twins are questioned in connection with a murder in London.

5 August – The Beatles release the album Revolver.

10 August – George Brown succeeds Michael Stewart as Foreign Secretary.

12 August – Three policemen are shot dead in Shepherd’s Bush, West London, while sitting in their patrol car in Braybrook Street.

15 August – John Whitney is arrested and charged with the murder of three West London policemen.

17 August – John Duddy is arrested in Glasgow and charged with the murder of three West London policemen.

18 August – Tay Road Bridge opens.

24 August – Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is first staged, at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe.

29 August – The Beatles play their very last concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.

3 September – Barely five months after the death of Barry Butler, a second Football League player this year dies in a car crash; 30-year-old John Nicholson, a Doncaster Rovers centre-half who previously played for Port Vale and Liverpool.

5 September – Selective Employment Tax imposed.

15 September – Britain’s first Polaris submarine, HMS Resolution, launched at Barrow-in-Furness.

17 September – Oberon-class submarine HMCS Okanagan launched at Chatham Dockyard, the last warship to be built there.

19 September – Scotland Yard arrests Ronald "Buster" Edwards, suspected of being involved in the Great Train Robbery (1963).

27 September – BMC makes 7,000 workers redundant.

30 September – The Bechuanaland Protectorate in Africa achieves independence from the U.K. as Botswana.

4 October – Basutoland becomes independent and takes the name Lesotho.

18 October – The Ford Cortina MK2 is launched.

20 October – In economic news, 437,229 people are reported to be unemployed in Britain – a rise of some 100,000 on last month’s figures.

21 October – Aberfan disaster in South Wales, 144 (including 116 children) killed by collapsing coal spoil tip.

22 October – British spy George Blake escapes from Wormwood Scrubs prison; he is next seen in Moscow.

Spain demands that United Kingdom stop military flights to Gibraltar – Britain says "no" the next day.

25 October – Spain closes its Gibraltar border against vehicular traffic.

5 November – Thirty-eight African states demand that the United Kingdom use force against Rhodesian government.

9 November – The Rootes Group launches the Hillman Hunter, a four-door family saloon to compete with the Austin 1800, Ford Cortina and Vauxhall Victor.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6aTt-zFlo4

15 November – Harry Roberts is arrested near London and charged with the murder of three policemen in August.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=iXp36IUpDkU

16 November – The BBC television drama Cathy Come Home, filmed in a docudrama style, is broadcast on BBC1. Viewed by a quarter of the British population, it is considered influential on public attitudes to homelessness and the related social issues it deals with.

24 November – Unemployment sees another short rise, now standing at 531,585.

30 November – Barbados achieves independence.

1 December – Prime Minister Harold Wilson and Rhodesian Prime minister Ian Smith negotiate on HMS Tiger in the Mediterranean.

12 December – Harry Roberts, John Whitney and John Duddy are sentenced to life imprisonment (each with a recommended minimum of thirty years) for the murder of three West London policemen in August.

20 December – Harold Wilson withdraws all his previous offers to Rhodesian government and announces that he agrees to independence only after the founding of black majority government.

22 December – Rhodesian Prime minister Ian Smith declares that he considers that Rhodesia is already a republic.

31 December – Thieves steal millions of pounds worth of paintings from Dulwich Art Gallery in London.

Undated

Centre Point, a 32-floor office building at St Giles Circus in London, designed by Richard Seifert for property speculator Harry Hyams, is completed. It remains empty for around a decade.

London School of Contemporary Dance founded.

Mathematician Michael Atiyah wins a Fields Medal.

The motorway network continues to grow as the existing M1, M4 (including the Severn Bridge on the border of England and Wales) and M6 motorways are expanded and new motorways emerge in the shape of the M32 linking the M4 with Bristol, and the M74 near Hamilton in Scotland.

Japanese manufacturer Nissan begins importing its range of Datsun branded cars to the United Kingdom.

The 1966 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Brands Hatch on 16 July 1966. It was the fourth round of the 1966 World Championship. It was the 21st British Grand Prix and the second to be held at Brands Hatch. It was held over 80 laps of the four kilometre circuit for a race distance of 341 kilometres.

The race, the first of the new three-litre engine regulation era where starters reached 20 cars,

was won for the third time by Australian driver Jack Brabham in his Brabham BT19, his second win in succession after winning the French Grand Prix two weeks earlier. New Zealand driver Denny Hulme finished second in his Brabham BT20, a first 1–2 win for the Brabham team. The pair finished a lap ahead of third placed British driver Graham Hill in his BRM P261. Brabham’s win ended a streak of 4 consecutive wins by Jim Clark at the British Grand Prix. Brabham’s win put him ten points clear in the championship chase over Austrian Cooper racer Jochen Rindt with Hulme and Ferrari’s Lorenzo Bandini a point further back.

1965–66 in English football

7 October 1965: An experiment to broadcast a live game to another ground takes place. Cardiff City play Coventry City and the match is broadcast to a crowd of 10,000 at Coventry’s ground Highfield Road.

20 March 1966: The World Cup is stolen from an exhibition at Central Hall, Westminster, where it was on show in the run-up to this summer’s World Cup in England.

27 March 1966: The World Cup is recovered by Pickles, a mongrel dog, in South London.

16 April 1966: Liverpool seal the First Division title for the seventh time in their history with a 2–0 home win over Stoke City.

14 May 1966: Everton win the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday in the final at Wembley Stadium, despite going 2–0 down in the 57th minute.

11 July 1966: England, as the host nation, begin their World Cup campaign with a goalless draw against Uruguay at Wembley Stadium.

16 July 1966: England’s World Cup campaign continues with a 2–0 win over Mexico (goals coming from Bobby Charlton and Roger Hunt) that moves them closes to qualifying for the next
stage of the competition.

20 July 1966: England qualify for the next stage of the World Cup with a 2–0 win over France in their final group game. Roger Hunt scores both of England’s goals.

23 July 1966: England beat Argentina 1–0 in the World Cup quarter-final thanks to a goal by Geoff Hurst.

26 July 1966: England reach the World Cup final by beating Portugal 2–1 in the semi-final.

Bobby Charlton scores both of England’s goals.

30 July 1966: England win the World Cup with a 4–2 win over West Germany in extra time.

Geoff Hurst scores a hat-trick, with Martin Peters scoring the other goal.

Honours

Competition Winners
First Division Liverpool
Second Division Manchester City
Third Division Hull City
Fourth Division Doncaster Rovers
FA Cup Everton
League Cup West Bromwich Albion
Charity Shield Manchester United and Liverpool (shared)
Home Championship England

Cool China Wide Panel Moulds Manufacturer images

Cool China Wide Panel Moulds Manufacturer images

Check out these china wide panel moulds manufacturer images:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay” panorama
china wide panel moulds manufacturer
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning:

In the P-38 Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and his team of designers created one of the most successful twin-engine fighters ever flown by any nation. From 1942 to 1945, U. S. Army Air Forces pilots flew P-38s over Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific, and from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Lightning pilots in the Pacific theater downed more Japanese aircraft than pilots flying any other Allied warplane.

Maj. Richard I. Bong, America’s leading fighter ace, flew this P-38J-10-LO on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field, Ohio, to evaluate an experimental method of interconnecting the movement of the throttle and propeller control levers. However, his right engine exploded in flight before he could conduct the experiment.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Company

Date:
1943

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 390 x 1170cm, 6345kg, 1580cm (12ft 9 9/16in. x 38ft 4 5/8in., 13988.2lb., 51ft 10 1/16in.)

Materials:
All-metal

Physical Description:
Twin-tail boom and twin-engine fighter; tricycle landing gear.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Materials:
Polished overall aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Cool Plastic Auto Mould Production images

Cool Plastic Auto Mould Production images

Some cool plastic auto mould production images:

1973 Citroen DS23 Pallas
plastic auto mould production
Image by DVS1mn
CITROEN DS23 PALLAS
When in 1955 Citroen released its DS19 ‘Goddess’, media commentators reviewed the car in tones previously reserved for objects arriving from the depths of outer space.

Hydro-pneumatic suspension, assistance systems for the steering, brakes and gearshift lever, and inboard front disc brakes were among the advances pioneered by this extraordinary design.

By 1968 the rest of the world had begun adopting aspects of Citroen’s radical package; however, Citroen wasn’t finished exploring the range of quirks it could pack into a medium-sized sedan. One new feature to perplex the home mechanic was a link that would swivel headlights in unison with the front wheels.

The car’s ability to traverse rough terrain was proved in 1969 when a Citroen was set to win the first London-Sydney Marathon, only to be taken out in a serious collision with a spectator vehicle. Five years later, the Australian crew of a DS23 got the job done, dominating a 1974 World Cup Rally that sent competitors from South America to Munich via the Sahara Desert.

Maintaining a DS is work for specialist technicians or perhaps the seriously talented amateur. There is barely room under the bonnet of a Pallas to see engine components, let alone put a spanner on them.

Three-speed automatics were plagued by problems and remain difficult to maintain, so get a five-speed manual if you can. Overseas values are providing a big hint that anyone who wants a really good Pallas needs to act soon. Be prepared to invest the better part of ,000. Of several thousand cars sold new in Britain, fewer than 300 are known to survive and numbers in Australia will be far slimmer.

TRAPS AND TIPS

Packing a mass of electro/mechanical/hydraulic bits plus the complete drivetrain into a small space ahead of the firewall didn’t help Citroen’s reputation for reliability.

Keeping your Citroen cool is vital to engine longevity and that can be costly. One spare parts site was quoting authentic but renovated radiators at more than 00. Replacing the coolant hoses with a set of genuine items will cost more than 0.

Citroen club sites of late have carried requests for help in locating a competent trimmer for DS models. This suggests that finding someone to repair a car with worn seats and compromised head-lining has become challenging.

FROM THE WHEELS ARCHIVES
Words: Paul Blank – January, 2005

The DS was spectacularly bold, wrote Paul Blank…

When the time came to replace the Traction Avant, the resulting car could be expected to be absolutely amazing – and it was.

The new car, launched at the Paris Salon in 1955, was called DS, which, when pronounced in French, is "Day-ess", which translates to Goddess. At the Paris Salon an amazing number of orders were taken for the new car – some 12,000 people signing on the dotted line.

In 1955 Australians were buying new FJ Holdens and the Morris Minor was considered a modern small car in England. The DS might as well have been a spaceship in comparison. It certainly looked like
nothing else.

The car floated along at any speed. Famously, the DS featured Hydropneumatic suspension. It had the cars sitting on suspension units which were steel spheres in place of traditional springs and shock absorbers. The ride in a DS has to be experienced to be believed. Even if a tyre blew, the car would compensate.

Another DS feature was the use of disc brakes. It was Citroen which first fitted them to a mass-production car.

Inside, the DS was as spectacularly bold as the rest of the car. In an era of flat tin or wood dashboards, Citroen used the biggest single piece of moulded plastic in the world. The DS in not a complicated car; just very different.

You know the car’s ready when first the back, then the front of the car lift up to normal ride height. To change gear, you lift off, switch to the next gear and accelerate away again. Then you have to learn about the brakes. Where you might expect a brake pedal, there’s a black rubber mushroom. It works like a valve operating by the "the harder you push, the more you stop" system, with almost no pedal travel available.

The DS isn’t a sports car; it’s a real Grand Tourer and, treated as such, provides a magical experience.

SPECIFICATIONS

Citroen DS23 Pallas

Number built: 582,593 (All ID/DS 1968-75)
Body: All-steel, integrated body/chassis 4-door sedan and station wagon
Engine: 2347cc inline 4-cylinder, OHV, 8v, fuel injection
Power & torque: 105kW @ 5500rpm, 200Nm @ 4000rpm
Performance: 0-97km/h 10.2sec; 0-400m 17.3sec
Transmission: 3-speed automatic, 5-speed manual
Suspension: Independent with wishbones, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (f); Independent with trailing arms, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (r)
Brakes: Discs, power-assisted
Tyres: 185HR15 radial
Price range: 00-,000
Contact: Citroen Clubs in various states,
www.ds23.co.nz/
Click here for more car pictures at my Flickr site.

1973 Citroen DS23 Pallas
plastic auto mould production
Image by DVS1mn
CITROEN DS23 PALLAS
When in 1955 Citroen released its DS19 ‘Goddess’, media commentators reviewed the car in tones previously reserved for objects arriving from the depths of outer space.

Hydro-pneumatic suspension, assistance systems for the steering, brakes and gearshift lever, and inboard front disc brakes were among the advances pioneered by this extraordinary design.

By 1968 the rest of the world had begun adopting aspects of Citroen’s radical package; however, Citroen wasn’t finished exploring the range of quirks it could pack into a medium-sized sedan. One new feature to perplex the home mechanic was a link that would swivel headlights in unison with the front wheels.

The car’s ability to traverse rough terrain was proved in 1969 when a Citroen was set to win the first London-Sydney Marathon, only to be taken out in a serious collision with a spectator vehicle. Five years later, the Australian crew of a DS23 got the job done, dominating a 1974 World Cup Rally that sent competitors from South America to Munich via the Sahara Desert.

Maintaining a DS is work for specialist technicians or perhaps the seriously talented amateur. There is barely room under the bonnet of a Pallas to see engine components, let alone put a spanner on them.

Three-speed automatics were plagued by problems and remain difficult to maintain, so get a five-speed manual if you can. Overseas values are providing a big hint that anyone who wants a really good Pallas needs to act soon. Be prepared to invest the better part of ,000. Of several thousand cars sold new in Britain, fewer than 300 are known to survive and numbers in Australia will be far slimmer.

TRAPS AND TIPS

Packing a mass of electro/mechanical/hydraulic bits plus the complete drivetrain into a small space ahead of the firewall didn’t help Citroen’s reputation for reliability.

Keeping your Citroen cool is vital to engine longevity and that can be costly. One spare parts site was quoting authentic but renovated radiators at more than 00. Replacing the coolant hoses with a set of genuine items will cost more than 0.

Citroen club sites of late have carried requests for help in locating a competent trimmer for DS models. This suggests that finding someone to repair a car with worn seats and compromised head-lining has become challenging.

FROM THE WHEELS ARCHIVES
Words: Paul Blank – January, 2005

The DS was spectacularly bold, wrote Paul Blank…

When the time came to replace the Traction Avant, the resulting car could be expected to be absolutely amazing – and it was.

The new car, launched at the Paris Salon in 1955, was called DS, which, when pronounced in French, is "Day-ess", which translates to Goddess. At the Paris Salon an amazing number of orders were taken for the new car – some 12,000 people signing on the dotted line.

In 1955 Australians were buying new FJ Holdens and the Morris Minor was considered a modern small car in England. The DS might as well have been a spaceship in comparison. It certainly looked like
nothing else.

The car floated along at any speed. Famously, the DS featured Hydropneumatic suspension. It had the cars sitting on suspension units which were steel spheres in place of traditional springs and shock absorbers. The ride in a DS has to be experienced to be believed. Even if a tyre blew, the car would compensate.

Another DS feature was the use of disc brakes. It was Citroen which first fitted them to a mass-production car.

Inside, the DS was as spectacularly bold as the rest of the car. In an era of flat tin or wood dashboards, Citroen used the biggest single piece of moulded plastic in the world. The DS in not a complicated car; just very different.

You know the car’s ready when first the back, then the front of the car lift up to normal ride height. To change gear, you lift off, switch to the next gear and accelerate away again. Then you have to learn about the brakes. Where you might expect a brake pedal, there’s a black rubber mushroom. It works like a valve operating by the "the harder you push, the more you stop" system, with almost no pedal travel available.

The DS isn’t a sports car; it’s a real Grand Tourer and, treated as such, provides a magical experience.

SPECIFICATIONS

Citroen DS23 Pallas

Number built: 582,593 (All ID/DS 1968-75)
Body: All-steel, integrated body/chassis 4-door sedan and station wagon
Engine: 2347cc inline 4-cylinder, OHV, 8v, fuel injection
Power & torque: 105kW @ 5500rpm, 200Nm @ 4000rpm
Performance: 0-97km/h 10.2sec; 0-400m 17.3sec
Transmission: 3-speed automatic, 5-speed manual
Suspension: Independent with wishbones, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (f); Independent with trailing arms, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (r)
Brakes: Discs, power-assisted
Tyres: 185HR15 radial
Price range: 00-,000
Contact: Citroen Clubs in various states,
www.ds23.co.nz/
Click here for more car pictures at my Flickr site.

1973 Citroen DS23 Pallas
plastic auto mould production
Image by DVS1mn
CITROEN DS23 PALLAS
When in 1955 Citroen released its DS19 ‘Goddess’, media commentators reviewed the car in tones previously reserved for objects arriving from the depths of outer space.

Hydro-pneumatic suspension, assistance systems for the steering, brakes and gearshift lever, and inboard front disc brakes were among the advances pioneered by this extraordinary design.

By 1968 the rest of the world had begun adopting aspects of Citroen’s radical package; however, Citroen wasn’t finished exploring the range of quirks it could pack into a medium-sized sedan. One new feature to perplex the home mechanic was a link that would swivel headlights in unison with the front wheels.

The car’s ability to traverse rough terrain was proved in 1969 when a Citroen was set to win the first London-Sydney Marathon, only to be taken out in a serious collision with a spectator vehicle. Five years later, the Australian crew of a DS23 got the job done, dominating a 1974 World Cup Rally that sent competitors from South America to Munich via the Sahara Desert.

Maintaining a DS is work for specialist technicians or perhaps the seriously talented amateur. There is barely room under the bonnet of a Pallas to see engine components, let alone put a spanner on them.

Three-speed automatics were plagued by problems and remain difficult to maintain, so get a five-speed manual if you can. Overseas values are providing a big hint that anyone who wants a really good Pallas needs to act soon. Be prepared to invest the better part of ,000. Of several thousand cars sold new in Britain, fewer than 300 are known to survive and numbers in Australia will be far slimmer.

TRAPS AND TIPS

Packing a mass of electro/mechanical/hydraulic bits plus the complete drivetrain into a small space ahead of the firewall didn’t help Citroen’s reputation for reliability.

Keeping your Citroen cool is vital to engine longevity and that can be costly. One spare parts site was quoting authentic but renovated radiators at more than 00. Replacing the coolant hoses with a set of genuine items will cost more than 0.

Citroen club sites of late have carried requests for help in locating a competent trimmer for DS models. This suggests that finding someone to repair a car with worn seats and compromised head-lining has become challenging.

FROM THE WHEELS ARCHIVES
Words: Paul Blank – January, 2005

The DS was spectacularly bold, wrote Paul Blank…

When the time came to replace the Traction Avant, the resulting car could be expected to be absolutely amazing – and it was.

The new car, launched at the Paris Salon in 1955, was called DS, which, when pronounced in French, is "Day-ess", which translates to Goddess. At the Paris Salon an amazing number of orders were taken for the new car – some 12,000 people signing on the dotted line.

In 1955 Australians were buying new FJ Holdens and the Morris Minor was considered a modern small car in England. The DS might as well have been a spaceship in comparison. It certainly looked like
nothing else.

The car floated along at any speed. Famously, the DS featured Hydropneumatic suspension. It had the cars sitting on suspension units which were steel spheres in place of traditional springs and shock absorbers. The ride in a DS has to be experienced to be believed. Even if a tyre blew, the car would compensate.

Another DS feature was the use of disc brakes. It was Citroen which first fitted them to a mass-production car.

Inside, the DS was as spectacularly bold as the rest of the car. In an era of flat tin or wood dashboards, Citroen used the biggest single piece of moulded plastic in the world. The DS in not a complicated car; just very different.

You know the car’s ready when first the back, then the front of the car lift up to normal ride height. To change gear, you lift off, switch to the next gear and accelerate away again. Then you have to learn about the brakes. Where you might expect a brake pedal, there’s a black rubber mushroom. It works like a valve operating by the "the harder you push, the more you stop" system, with almost no pedal travel available.

The DS isn’t a sports car; it’s a real Grand Tourer and, treated as such, provides a magical experience.

SPECIFICATIONS

Citroen DS23 Pallas

Number built: 582,593 (All ID/DS 1968-75)
Body: All-steel, integrated body/chassis 4-door sedan and station wagon
Engine: 2347cc inline 4-cylinder, OHV, 8v, fuel injection
Power & torque: 105kW @ 5500rpm, 200Nm @ 4000rpm
Performance: 0-97km/h 10.2sec; 0-400m 17.3sec
Transmission: 3-speed automatic, 5-speed manual
Suspension: Independent with wishbones, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (f); Independent with trailing arms, pneumatic struts and anti-roll bar (r)
Brakes: Discs, power-assisted
Tyres: 185HR15 radial
Price range: 00-,000
Contact: Citroen Clubs in various states,
www.ds23.co.nz/
Click here for more car pictures at my Flickr site.