Check out these china auto moulds manufacturers images:
A few nice china mould make maker images I found:
FOR SALE: Original North Light “Kitley Ladybird” – Dartmoor Pony mare
Image by appaIoosa
Model # P1133 – bay
Size: 5-3/4"H x 6-1/2"L
Original mold, produced by North Light.
Identifying marks & logos:
On belly: "KITLEY LADYBIRD "
On right buttock cheek: " © North Light 1986 "
Inside right hind leg: " Godfrey "
Inside left hind leg: " MADE IN UK
This is a model of the classic British breed, the Dartmoor. These ponies are hardy and well balanced, originating in Devon, England. This breed is closely related to the Exmoor Pony and probably descended from the same stock. These ponies roamed wild over the rugged moorlands of southwestern Devon for many centuries. Toward the end of the 19th century, the breed’s traits were stabilized by the creation of the Dartmoor Pony Breed Society, with standard requirements. The maximum height for this pony is 12.2 hands high at the withers. She is a well-balanced pony with small head, ears and eyes. The mane and tail are thick and full. The neck is wide, the chest deep and muscular and the shoulders are strong and sloping.
This North Light model is a lovely representative of a Dartmoor Pony from the North Light Native Pony Series.
North Light model horse figurines are made of a porcelain and resin composition, which allow for the extensive mold detailing (some with individual hair detailing, braided manes & tails, etc) that is very evident in the finish. The figurines are finished in a studio where they are airbrushed with the body color and shading required for the particular breed piece. Next comes the hand detailing , which can be extensive, depending on the horses’ color pattern. Pinto and appaloosa patterns require extensive hand work, and vary greatly from horse to horse. Facial features also receive hand detailing, with expressive, lifelike eyes which have a final gloss application to make them look moist and realistic. Touches of pink are added to muzzles. Nostrils are darkened inside to add depth.
With this degree of hand detailing, each model horse will vary slightly.
North Light is a company located in Stoke-On-Trent, Staffordshire, England. The area is famous for its potteries and figurines, including the well known Wedgwood, Beswick and Royal Doulton brands. In 2005, the North Light factory was sold – including all existing North Light molds – to the company: WADE CERAMICS LTD (yes, the same company that made those little whimsy figurines found in red rose tea boxes years ago). Wade repackaged the existing North Light horses under their new trademark and resold them within the Wade division as "North Light @ Wade" horses.
Directly from Wade Co. website, verbatim:
Contributed by Carol Atrak
Monday, 18 July 2005
We have pleasure in announcing that Wade has purchased certain assets from Dennis Doyle of the North Light resin figurine range. North Light, which will trade as a division within Wade as "North Light @ Wade", is famous for its range of dogs, farm animals, horses and wildlife figurines. They are manufactured in resin and hand painted. The "Classic Dog and Horse Ranges" are finished in marble, china blue, bronze, Monet and other effects to grace the sideboards and coffee tables of the World’s finest homes.
Managing Director, Paul Farmer said, "North Light @ Wade" will bring a new dimension to Wade’s figurine capability and Wade’s mechanisms for online purchases of its ceramic products will be adapted to cater for North Light products too. We are also looking forward to improving our ceramic hand painting techniques which come with the North Light asset purchase."
Artists, Guy Pocock and Anne Godfrey, have been retained to continue modelling new lines and Clare Beswick, from that famous family of figurine makers which bears her name, has been appointed Sales and Product Manager for North Light @ Wade.
The manufacture has been moved from Biddulph to a separate resin area within Wade’s Royal Victoria Pottery in Burslem.
In 2008, Wade announced they would no longer produce the North Light @Wade horses (and dogs) at the factory (in the UK). Instead they decided to release a new line: "North Light @ Wade Premier Collection" (consisting of 17 horses and 22 dogs) – to be produced in China. Many of the existing NL horses you see being sold on eBay (and elsewhere) today, bear the "made in China" sticker, along with the NL backstamp.
In 2009, Wade ceased production altogether on all existing North Light models . Today, North Light horses are no longer being produced, sold or marketed by Wade Ceramics, making these horses highly sought after, valuable and rare.
I have no idea what the Wade Co. decided to do with all the existing North Light horses. Some say they sold the existing molds to a company in China.
If your North Light horse has the "©North Light Made in the UK" backstamp, you have a very rare & valuable collectible indeed!
Check out these auto moulds factory china images:
Curt Carlson, CEO of SRI, presented their trends from the podium, which are meant to be “provocative, plausible, debatable, and that it will be clear within the next 1-3 years whether or not they will actually become trends.”
Then the panelists debated them. Speaking is Aneesh Chopra, CTO of the U.S., and smirking to his left is Paul Saffo, and then Ajay Senkut from Clarium, then me.
Here are SRI’s 2011 Top 10 Tech Trends [and my votes]:
Trend 1. Age Before Beauty. Technology is designed for—and disproportionately used by—the young. But the young are getting fewer. The big market will be older people. The aging generation has grown up with, and is comfortable with, most technology—but not with today’s latest technology products. Technology product designers will discover the Baby Boomer’s technology comfort zone and will leverage it in the design of new devices. One example today is the Jitterbug cell phone with a large keypad for easy dialing and powerful speakers for clear sound. The trend is for Baby Boomers to dictate the technology products of the future.
[I voted YES, it’s an important and underserved market, but for tech products, they are not the early adopters. The key issue is age-inspired entrepreneurship. How can we get the entrepreneurial mind focused on this important market?]
Trend 2. The Doctor Is In. Some of our political leaders say that we have "the best medical care system in the world". Think what it must be like in the rest of the world! There are many problems, but one is the high cost of delivering expert advice. With the development of practical virtual personal assistants, powered by artificial intelligence and pervasive low-cost sensors, “the doctor will be in”—online—for people around the world. Instead of the current Web paradigm: “fill out this form, and we’ll show you information about what might be ailing you”, this will be true diagnosis—supporting, and in some cases replacing—human medical practitioners. We were sending X-rays to India to be read; now India is connecting to doctors here for diagnosis in India. We see the idea in websites that now offer online videoconference interaction with a doctor. The next step is automation. The trend is toward complete automation: a combination of artificial intelligence, the Internet, and very low-cost medical instrumentation to provide high-quality diagnostics and advice—including answering patient questions—online to a worldwide audience.
[NO. Most doctor check-ups and diagnoses will still need to be conducted in-person (blood tests, physical exams, etc). Sensor technology can’t completely replace human medical practitioners in the near future. Once we have the physical interface (people for now), then the networking and AI capabilities can engage, bringing specialist reactions to locally collected data. The real near-term trend in point-of-care is the adoption of iPads/phones connected to cloud services like ePocrates and Athenahealth and soon EMRs.]
Trend 3. Made for Me. Manufacturing is undergoing a revolution. It is becoming technically and economically possible to create products that are unique to the specific needs of individuals. For example, a cell phone that has only the hardware you need to support the features you want—making it lighter, thinner, more efficient, much cheaper, and easier to use. This level of customization is being made possible by converging technical advances: new 3D printing technology is well documented, and networked micro-robotics is following. 3D printing now includes applications in jewelry, industrial design, and dentistry. While all of us may not be good product designers, we have different needs, and we know what we want. The trend is toward practical, one-off production of physical goods in widely distributed micro-factories: the ultimate customization of products. The trend is toward practical, one-off production of physical goods in widely distributed micro-factories: the ultimate customization of products.
[NO. Personalization is happening just fine at the software level. The UI skins and app code is changeable at zero incremental cost. Code permeates outward into the various vessels we build for it. The iPhone. Soon, the car (e.g. Tesla Sedan). Even the electrical circuits (when using an FPGA). This will extend naturally to biological code, with DNA synthesis costs plummeting (but that will likely stay centralized in BioFabs for the next 3 years. When it comes to building custom physical things, the cost and design challenges relegate it to prototyping, tinkering and hacks. Too many people have a difficult time in 3D content creation. The problem is the 2D interfaces of mouse and screen. Perhaps a multitouch interface to digital clay could help, where the polygons snap to fit after the form is molded by hand.]
Trend 4. Pay Me Now. Information about our personal behavior and characteristics is exploited regularly for commercial purposes, often returning little or no value to us, and sometimes without our knowledge. This knowledge is becoming a key asset and a major competitive advantage for the companies that gather it. Think of your supermarket club card. These knowledge-gatherers will need to get smarter and more aggressive in convincing us to share our information with them and not with their competitors. If TV advertisers could know who the viewers are, the value of the commercials would go up enormously. The trend is technology and business models based on attracting consumers to share large amounts of information exclusively with service providers.
[YES, but it’s nothing new. Amazon makes more on merchandising than product sales margin. And, certain companies are getting better and better at acquiring customer information and personalizing offerings specifically to these customers. RichRelevance provides this for ecommerce (driving 25% of all e-commerce on Black Friday). Across all those vendors, the average lift from personalizing the shopping experience: 15% increase in overall sales and 8% increase in long-term profitability. But, simply being explicit and transparent to the consumer about the source of the data can increase the effectiveness of targeted programs by up to 100% (e.g., saying “Because you bought this product and other consumers who bought it also bought this other product" yielded a 100% increase in product recommendation effectiveness in numerous A/B tests). Social graph is incredibly valuable as a marketing tool.]
Trend 5. Rosie, At Last. We’ve been waiting a long time for robots to live in and run our homes, like Rosie in the Jetsons’ household. It’s happening a little now: robots are finally starting to leave the manufacturing floor and enter people’s homes, offices, and highways. Robots can climb walls, fly, and run. We all know the Roomba for cleaning floors—and now there’s the Verro for your pool. Real-time vision and other sensors, and affordable precise manipulation, are enabling robots to assist in our care, drive our cars, and protect our homes and property. We need to broaden our view of robots and the forms they will take—think of a self-loading robot-compliant dishwasher or a self-protecting house. The trend is robots becoming embedded in our environments, and taking advantage of the cloud, to understand and fulfill our needs.
[NO. Not in 3 years. Wanting it badly does not make it so. But I just love that Google RoboCar. Robots are not leaving the factory floor – that’s where the opportunity for newer robots and even humanoid robots will begin. There is plenty of factory work still to be automated. Rodney Brooks of MIT thinks they can be cheaper than the cheapest outsourced labor. So the robots are coming, to the factory and the roads to start, and then the home.]
Trend 6. Social, Really. The rise of social networks is well documented, but they’re not really social networks. They’re a mix of friends, strangers, organizations, hucksters—it’s more like walking through a rowdy crowd in Times Square at night with a group of friends. There is a growing need for social networks that reflect the fundamental nature of human relationships: known identities, mutual trust, controlled levels of intimacy, and boundaries of shared information. The trend is the rise of true social networks, designed to maintain real, respectful relationships online.
[YES. The ambient intimacy of Facebook is leading to some startling statistics on fB evidence reuse by divorce lawyers (80%) and employment rejections (70%). There are differing approaches to solve this problem: Altly’s alternative networks with partioning and control, Jildy’s better filtering and auto-segmentation, and Path’s 50 friend limit.]
Trend 7. In-Your-Face Augmented Reality. With ever-cheaper computation and advances in computer vision technology, augmented reality is becoming practical, even in mobile devices. We will move beyond expensive telepresence environments and virtual reality games to fully immersive environments—in the office, on the factory floor, in medical care facilities, and in new entertainment venues. I once did an experiment where a person came into a room and sat down at a desk against a large, 3D, high-definition TV display. The projected image showed a room with a similar desk up against the screen. The person would put on 3D glasses, and then a projected person would enter and sit down at the other table. After talking for 5 to 10 minutes, the projected person would stand up and put their hand out. Most of the time, the first person would also stand up and put their hand into the screen—they had quickly adapted and forgotten that the other person was not in the room. Augmented reality will become indistinguishable from reality. The trend is an enchanted world— The trend is hyper-resolution augmented reality and hyper-accurate artificial people and objects that fundamentally enhance people’s experience of the world.
[NO, lenticular screens are too expensive and 3D glasses are a pain in the cortex. Augmented reality with iPhones is great, and pragmatic, but not a top 10 trend IMHO]
Trend 8. Engineering by Biologists.
Biologists and engineers are different kinds of people—unless they are working on synthetic biology. We know about genetically engineered foods and creatures, such as gold fish in multiple other colors. Next we’ll have biologically engineered circuits and devices. Evolution has created adaptive processing and system resiliency that is much more advanced than anything we’ve been able to design. We are learning how to tap into that natural expertise, designing devices using the mechanisms of biology. We have already seen simple biological circuits in the laboratory. The trend is practical, engineered artifacts, devices, and computers based on biology rather than just on silicon.
[YES, and NO because it was so badly mangled as a trend. For the next few years, these approaches will be used for fuels and chemicals and materials processing because they lend themselves to a 3D fluid medium. Then 2D self-assembling monolayers. And eventually chips , starting with memory and sensor arrays long before heterogeneous logic. And processes of biology will be an inspiration throughout (evolution, self-assembly, etc.). Having made predictions along these themes for about a decade now, the wording of this one frustrated me]
Trend 9. ‘Tis a Gift to be Simple. Cyber attacks are ever more frequent and effective. Most attacks exploit holes that are inevitable given the complexity of the software products we use every day. Cyber researchers really understand this. To avoid these vulnerabilities, some cyber researchers are beginning to use only simple infrastructure and applications that are throwbacks to the computing world of two decades ago. As simplicity is shown to be an effective approach for avoiding attack, it will become the guiding principle of software design. The trend is cyber defense through widespread adoption of simple, low-feature software for consumers and businesses.
[No. I understand the advantages of being open, and of heterogencity of code (to avoid monoculture collapse), but we have long ago left the domain of simple. Yes, Internet transport protocols won via simplicity. The presentation layer, not so much. If you want dumb pipes, you need smart edges, and smart edges can be hacked. Graham Spencer gave a great talk at SFI: the trend towards transport simplicity (e.g. dumb pipes) and "intelligence in the edges" led to mixing code and data, which in turn led to all kinds of XSS-like attacks. Drive-by downloading (enabled by XSS) is the most popular vehicle for delivering malware these days.]
Trend 10. Reverse Innovation. Mobile communication is proliferating at an astonishing rate in developing countries as price-points drop and wireless infrastructure improves. As developing countries leapfrog the need for physical infrastructure and brokers, using mobile apps to conduct micro-scale business and to improve quality of life, they are innovating new applications. The developing world is quickly becoming the largest market we’ve ever seen—for mobile computing and much more. The trend is for developing countries to turn around the flow of innovation: Silicon Valley will begin to learn more from them about innovative applications than they need to learn from us about the underlying technology.
[YES, globalization is a megatrend still in the making. The mobile markets are clearly China, India and Korea, with app layer innovation increasingly originating there. Not completely of course, but we have a lot to learn from the early-adopter economies.]
Check out these molds make maker china images:
Stokes Croft – Historical Bristol Street Directory 1871
Image by brizzle born and bred
Mathews’ Bristol Street Directory 1871
Stoke’s Croft, North Street to Cheltenham Road
One of the shops which was demolished was where Arthur Holborn ran his photography business for about 40 years. He specialised in portraits which bore his elegantly engraved advertisement on the back. Four doors away art of a different type was produced by Thomas Colley, who was a sculptor and his specialities were ‘monuments, headstones, crosses and memorials of all descriptions’. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/6174492981/
1. H. Lester, register oﬂice for servants
2. Richard Pearce, teacher of music
3. William Hagen, painter
4. Oliver Sheppy, family grocer
5. William Corbett
6. Miss Jennings, milliner
7. Walton King, wine & spirit merchant
8. J. Bennett, plumber
9. John Rice, teacher of dancing
10. Thomas Colley, sculptor
11. Benjamin Hamilton, music warehouse
12. Miss Moulding, dress maker
13. Mrs W. Cook, teacher of music, etc
14. William James
15. J. Dilke, house painter
16. George Poole, dentist
17. J. F. Davis, undertaker, etc
18. Richard F. Jones
19. Capt. John Way
20. Mrs Broad
21. Joseph Richards, carpenter
22. Richard Slade, painter, etc
23. James Webber
Brooks Dry Cleaners Ltd St Werburghs Bristol www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2046815682/
24. Henry Bishop, Bevan, vict, Antelope (pub) 1837 – 44 John Thomas / 1847 – 59 William Salter / 1860 – 63 Ann Salter / 1865 – 66 James Ricketts / 1867 – 69 Andrew Lewis 1871 – 76 Henry Bishop / 1877 to 1878 T. Gall / 1879 Charles Tovey & Co. / 1882 – 83 Thomas Sedgebeer / 1885 Eliza Perry 1886 J. Machan / 1887 to 1888 George Thomas Mills / 1889 Charles George / 1891 William Northam / 1892 – 96 Henry Burrow 1899 Thomas White / 1901 Nellie Jenkins.
In the 1880s the consecutive numbering system of Stokes Croft changed to odds on one side, evens on the other. In 1873 Charles Board cabinet maker and billiard table manufacturer was listed at no 20. He was still in the same premises as a billiard table manufacturer in 1906, but it was now no 37. Next door (building in scaffolding) had three different occupiers between 1873 and 1906 – Joseph Richards, carpenter had gone by 1888, replaced by Staffordshire Supply Store and by the 1900s Wall and Co, furniture dealers.
25. G. Evans, ﬂour dealer
26. Waters & Co. wine & spirit merchants
27. William Pepper, hosier, etc
27. Thomas Crew, porter stores
28. James Brown, baker
29. William Thomas
30-31. William Merson, saddler
Charles Latham, attorney
31. John Milton, venetian blind maker
33. William Robins, painter, etc
39. James Morse & Co. grocers
40. George Stallard Nipper, builder
41. William Chapman, painter, etc
42. Selina Chapman, earthenware dealer
43. Charles Phillips, greengrocer
44. Charles Williams, boot maker
44. Theodore May, dyer
45. Nathan Palmer, soap and candle dealer
46. Thomas Prewett, baker
47. George Gillingham, painter, etc
48. T. W. Lansdown, greengrocer
49. Edward Brown, greengrocer
50. George Pymm
51. John Sprod, grocer
52. Ann Warley, greengrocer
53. Daniel Taylor, smith and bell hanger
54. William Holbrook, fishmonger and poulterer
55. J. C. Hewitt, goldsmith & jeweller
56. Mary Tossell, vict, Little Swan (pub) 1848 – 66 John Tossell / 1866 – 72 Mary Tossell / 1874 – 89 John Jenkins Eastman / 1890 Clara Eastman / 1891 Clara M. Symes 1892 to 1893 Martha Street / 1894 – 1901 Donald Barry / 1904 – 09 George Rexworthy / 1914 Bridget Spencer / 1917 – 25 Albert Alder 1928 – 31 Alfred Scott / 1935 – 37 Jeremiah McCarthy. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/
57. Charles Taylor, hair dresser
58. William Rokins, greengrocer
58-76 Stokes Croft www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10383296583/
59. James Hewitt, vict, Swan Hotel Near the corner with Nine Tree Hill the Swan Hotel is still trading, but is now known as the Croft. bristolslostpubs.eu/page195.html
60. Charles Davis, confectioner
Vincent Skinner, horticultural builder
On the corner of Ashley Road stands 108, Tucketts Buildings an ebullient example of late Victorian commercial premises. It is said that human bones were dug up in the foundation trenches, probably from the victims of the gallows which once stood here.
The Tuckett’s Buildings 108 Stokes Croft sweep around the Ashley Road corner.
Named after Coldstream Tuckett who developed the site and opened his grocery and provisions shop there in the 1890s. During the excavations two skeletons were found. It was suggested that they were 17th/18th century suicides who, according to the custom of the time, had been buried at the crossroads.
F. Coldstream Tuckett had his grocer’s shop in part of this building until about 1920. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Bristol & District Grocers’ & Provision Dealers’ Association. When the Grocers’ Federation of the United Kingdom held their Summer Conference in Bristol in July 1900 he was Press Steward and half of the two-man Entertainment Committee.
In 1911 two boys named Cooper and Hardwick were charged at Bristol Police Court with breaking into his premises through Skinners Yard at the back. They stole a bottle of port and some pork pies. The court sentenced them to a birching.
Although a route through Stokes Croft is likely to have existed for centuries earlier, the first reference is in a deed of 1579. The land is recorded as a field containing one little lodge, a garden and pasture, with a footpath running through the grounds. In 1618, the city received 6d for mending holes in the stile.
61. T. J. & J. F. Perry, carriage builders
62. Charles S. Davey, corn and ﬂour dealer
63. Pugh and Son, grocers
64. James Kebby, butcher
65. M. A. Alexander
66. John Smith, porter stores
67. Isaac Thomas, bookseller
68. Thomas Mann, tailor
69. J. Sampson, boot maker
70. James Melhuish, pork butcher
71. E. J. Hatherley, builder, Stokes croft house www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/6174888582/
72. Edwin Peacock, chemist
Baptist College – Rev. Dr. Gotch
73. Joseph A. Cortisi, confectioner
73. George Park, toy warehouse
76-74 Stokes Croft www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10382901475/
74. John Parry, boot maker
75. J. Greenham, tobacconist
76. Misses Wallington, fancy repository
77. Miss E. Wallington, milliner
78. J. Cluett, china warehouse
6. A. Willis, butcher
5. Eleanor Ford, fancy draper
4. Robert G. Whiting, boot maker
3. George A. Peacock, ﬁshmonger, etc
2. S. Palmer, spirit dealer
1. John Howe, boot maker
1. W. Greening, druggist
(City Road Intersect)
Foll and Abbott, Stokes Croft Brewery www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10383594583/
77. Charles and Wakeﬁeld, tailors, etc
78. George Nelson Naish, boot maker
79. W. H. Hawkins, plasterer & painter
80. S. Bruton, music warehouse
81. Henry O. Richards, boot maker
82. Robert Tyler, wine & spirit merchant www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10380482016/
83. J. W. Sane, ladies’ outﬁtter
83. Frederick Calder, confectioner
84. Anthony Power, berlin and fancy depository
85. W. J. Exon, baker www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/6174410583/
86. Charles Tovey & Co, wine merchants
87. A. M. Withers, ironmonger
88. Francis Virtue, bookseller
89. John Parnall, ladies’ outﬁtter
90. Unitarian Almshouses & School
Stokes Croft School www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2049372251/
91. Isaac Simmonds, plumber, etc
92. John H. Diggs, tobacconist
93. Sarah Mountjoy, fancy depository
94. George King, grocer
95. Edward Hunt, ironmonger, etc
Walter James Hooper & Co. fish and poultry market. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10381994874/
101. The Post office www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/10382010883/
Stokes Croft Court, 28, Stokes Croft
Stoke’s Croft Place, Stoke’s Croft
John Weeks, 2, Vine cottages
W. C. R. Bailey, 1, Vine cottages
John Pottow, farrier
Ann Barnes – Wife of Mr Barnes wheelwright living near Stokes Croft turnpike Died January 11th 1816 in 22nd year of her age of consumption.
William Chaffe 1753 Died ‘of lunacy’ Inquest held at Full Moon, Stokes Croft
Joseph Church of Newfoundland Gardens, fell down a flight of steps in Stokes Croft in December 1847 and fractured his leg. Admitted to Bristol Infirmary.
Mr Fry Schoolmaster of Stokes Croft married Mrs Dickson of Broad Street at St James’ Church on Friday Nov 7th 1766.
Joseph Glascodine 1793 carpenter and millwright, Stokes Croft.
Edward William Godwin 1833-1886 Born at 12 Old Market Street, alter living at 21 Portland Square. One of his best-known designs is the Carriage and Harness Factory in Stokes Croft.
George Longman of Stokes Croft., married Mrs Mary Clampit of Catherine Place February 3rd 1829.
William Morgan – Recommended for receipt of parish relief (St James) in 1814. He was a tailor with a wife and 4 children who had worked for John Rice of 23 Stokes Croft for some years. Rice could no longer employ him due to ‘work being dead’.
Henry Parker, cab driver, he was charged at Bristol Police Court in January 1899 with ‘furious driving’ in North Street and Stokes Croft. As he had been in trouble before he was fined 10s and costs.
Samuel Parry (d. 1839) Aged 88, of Stokes Croft was buried at St Paul, Portland Square on January 20th 1839.
James Sadler 1753-1828 Originally from Oxford where his family had a confectionery business. Interested in engineering and chemistry. Made several balloon flights before his ascent from Stokes Croft in Bristol on September 24th 1810., accompanied by William Clayfield Watched by a large crowd the balloon rose up and was carried over Leigh Down, where they dropped a cat in a basket attached to a parachute. (The cat was rescued by a watching limeburner. The balloon eventually landed in the Bristol Channel near Lynton.
John Stoke, Mayor 1364, 1366 and 1379. His will was proved in 1382. Stokes Croft, originally known as Berewyke’s Croft was named after him.
Isaac Van Amburgh, Lion tamer, who gave an exhibition at Bristol Zoo in July 1839 and met with an ‘accidental injury whilst thrusting his hand into a lion’s mouth’. A newspaper report stated that he was completely recovered and would give some more performances before continuing with his tour. This was no means his only visit to Bristol. In August 1842 there were newspaper reports of how he ‘made an entrance into the city driving 8 beautiful cream coloured horses in hand’. The procession of vans was accompanied by an elephant. And made its way to Backfields, Stokes Croft where a spacious pavilion was erected.
Archy Walters, Elder of two young brothers who walked from Stokes Croft to Horfield and lost their way in the fields as night fell. As it grew colder and colder they took shelter under a hedge and Archy wrapped his brother in his own clothes to keep him warm. They were found next morning, but too late to save Archy, although his brother survived thanks to his selfless act.. References: Memorial stained glass window in Horfield Parish church,
Wimble (d. Nov 1766) Died at his house in Stokes Croft.
Misses Armstrong’s Boarding School for Young Ladies, Wellington Place, Stokes Croft Listed 1847.
Mrs Baker’s School for Ladies, 4 Wellington Place, Stokes Croft. Mrs Baker gave the establishment her ‘strict personal attention’ according to newspaper notice of 1830 which stated that teaching was ‘conducted on a plan approved by men of learning which renders abstruse studies comprehensible and entertaining’.
Stokes Croft Chapel, Stokes Croft (Christian Brethren) This was originally a skating rink and was purchased on 8th July 1879 by the ‘friends worshipping in Bethesda Chapel and Salem Chapel St Augustine’. It was fitted up as a place of worship in lieu of Salem, which was then vacated. It accommodated 500 people and was ‘neatly fitted up at the expense of £500-600’.
Wyndham Lewis, 102 Stokes Croft Baker and Confectioner.
Massingham – Red House Boot Stores, 77 Stokes Croft. trading in 1901.
W E Pritchard, 95 Stokes Croft. Fishmonger & Poulterer. Trading in May 1901.
E K Vaughan, 56 Stokes Croft, Jeweller and Watchmaker Trading May 1901.
New Zealand quotations (3)
Image by PhillipC
Ronald Allison Kells Mason was born in Penrose, Auckland, on 10 January 1905, the son of Francis William Mason and his wife, Jessie Forbes Kells. His father, a perfume maker, died of an accidental overdose of opium in 1913 and he and his elder brother were sent to live with an aunt, Isabella Kells, in the south Waikato settlement of Lichfield. She taught the boys until 1915, when Mason returned for one year’s primary schooling at Panmure before attending Auckland Grammar School from 1917 to 1922 (in 1919 and 1921 for only one term each year, apparently for economic reasons). He distinguished himself in English and Latin, and began writing verse. His translation of Horace’s ‘O fons Bandusiae’ (‘O fair Bandusian fountain’) was evidently a class exercise done in the fifth form. In that same year he first encountered A. R. D. Fairburn, with whom he formed a close association over the next decade.
Soon after leaving school Mason took a position as a tutor in Latin, economics and civics at the University Coaching College, a private tutoring school where he was to be employed for six years. In 1923 he prepared a handwritten collection of poems which he named ‘In the manner of men’. This was followed in 1924 by his first published volume, The beggar , which contained versions of many of the poems written during his school years. They are precocious, often morbid poems that reflect the highly rhetorical styles of the Victorian poets, but some are of lasting value. The beggar found almost no market in New Zealand. It did, however, reach the English anthologist and editor Harold Monro, who reprinted two of its poems in the 1924 issue of the Chapbook , and two more in the 1929 anthology Twentieth century poetry .
In 1925 Mason published a pamphlet, Penny broadsheet , containing five further poems. In 1926 he enrolled at Auckland University College, majoring in Latin and French. He studied full time that year and from 1928 to 1930, eventually graduating BA in 1939. Mason evidently continued to support himself by tutoring until near the end of his full-time studies. He continued to write poems, some of which were published in the local newspapers, the Sun and the Auckland Star , and wrote several short stories, published in Kiwi , the Phoenix and Tomorrow ; He also drafted two novels, which remained unpublished.
After completing his full-time studies he worked for a season in Lichfield as a harvester before returning to Auckland to a variety of labouring jobs, and to close association with friends active at the university. In the first months of 1931 he travelled to Tonga and Samoa to study the conditions on those islands, and particularly the circumstances of the Mau uprising in Samoa. This trip he described as beginning his disillusionment with New Zealand nationalism, which was to culminate in 1947 with the publication of the pamphlet Frontier forsaken: an outline history of the Cook Islands .
Between 1931 and 1933 Mason contributed regularly to Kiwi and to the Phoenix , a student publication printed by Bob Lowry at Auckland University College. The first two issues in 1932, edited by James Bertram, emphasised cultural and aesthetic issues. Mason assumed the editorship in 1933; under him the third and fourth issues had a more directly political emphasis, and the magazine’s controversial nature made it the focus for attack from the conservative press.
By this time Mason’s interests had clearly moved from the poetic to the political. Although he was to publish three books of verse in the next 10 years, all but about 12 of the poems eventually collected under his name had been written by 1933. No new thing (1934) contained 25 poems from 1924 to 1929. The book was printed by Lowry at the Unicorn Press, but problems with binding meant that only a few copies were issued for sale. Mason retained his business association with Unicorn for a short time, but the Caxton Press published his poems from then on. End of day (1936) printed five new poems, and a further five were included in Caxton’s Recent poems (1941). This dark will lighten: selected poems, 1923–41 was Mason’s first substantial selection of his work and the first to make it widely available. In it he stripped down the typography and punctuation, making increasing use of the hanging indent that he had first used a decade before, and paring down the rhetorical diction and flourishes of some of the earlier poems.
Mason’s writing after the mid 1930s was mainly political journalism and didactic plays for the stage, radio and dance theatre. At least 10 plays were written; two were published separately, Squire speaks in 1938 and China: script…for a dance-drama by Margaret Barr in 1943. He wrote political and social commentaries extensively, using both his own name and ‘PWD’. He published in Tomorrow , the Workers’ Weekly and the People’s Voice , the communist weekly newspaper. When this was banned by the government in 1941, Mason edited, printed and published its successor, In Print. He was briefly the publisher of the revived People’s Voice in 1943–44 and then publisher of Challenge , the weekly journal of the Auckland District Labourers’ Union. He is also recorded in 1950 as the publisher of a union paper, Congress News , the journal of the New Zealand Trade Union Congress. He made another trip to the Pacific islands prior to the publication of Frontier forsaken in 1947. In the years immediately after the war he was a strong advocate of the establishment of a national theatre.
Ill health forced Mason into semi-retirement in 1956, though for several years he continued to work a little as a landscape gardener. In that year he welcomed a troupe of the Classical Theatre of China to Auckland, and in 1957 he was a member of a New Zealand delegation invited to the People’s Republic of China.
In 1962 Pegasus published his Collected poems. The book drew together all the published and unpublished poems he wished to retain, while the last of the earlier poems were revised for republication. In the same year he held the Robert Burns Fellowship at the University of Otago. Three poems were printed in the students’ association’s Review and ‘Strait is the gate’, a play with strong Otago themes, was performed and later recorded for radio. Also that year, on 27 August, he married his long-time companion Dorothea Mary Beyda (known by her maiden name of Dorothea Mould). They remained in Dunedin until 1965, when they returned to Auckland, living in Takapuna where Mason taught part time. In 1969–70 the New Zealand Literary Fund Advisory Committee discussed a recommendation that a pension be paid to him in recognition of his achievements, but he died on 13 July 1971 before this could be done. He was survived by his wife.
In his own lifetime Mason was respected for his commitment to the trade union movement, and for his dedication to the principles of Marxism as a political philosophy. Although it is as a poet that he is deservedly best remembered, the ethical and existential questions that the poems confront seem to have been answered for Mason by his espousal of Marxist principles, and the transferral of energy from poetry to politics in the mid 1930s was a part of this process. Mason’s poetry was humanistic and sceptical, concerning itself with the quest for purpose in a universe which appeared to be essentially mechanistic or godless. The earlier poems are frequently concerned with a sense of despairing mortality, and a feeling that the poet is the plaything of history. The later poetry, often focusing on the figure of a secular suffering Jesus, who is human rather than divine, poses dramatised questions about the consequences of ethical choice and the problems faced by the good man in a morally indifferent society.
Stylistically and thematically much of Mason’s poetry marks him as an inheritor of the Victorian tradition, although equally he was influenced by the Georgian practices of his time. His work stands somewhat apart from the more overtly nationalistic writings of his contemporaries, though he shared with them a sense of romantic alienation and a view of poetry as primarily a morally instructive art. His poems from The beggar on also mark the beginnings of serious modern poetry in New Zealand, and his best poems remain numbered among the finest in New Zealand literature.
Benn & Adelaide Pitman Bedstead
Image by elycefeliz
This mahogany bedstead was designed by Benn Pitman on the occasion of his marriage to his second wife, Adelaide Nourse. Adelaide carved the decorative motifs on the bed, which was made for the Pitman home on Columbia Parkway. The interior of the home was decorated with carved floral and geometrical motifs based on native plant life. Everything in the home was carved by hand, from the baseboards to ceiling moldings and all its furniture.
The bedstead is Modern Gothic in style and is composed of a headboard, footboard, and two side rails. The headboard is divided into three sections: two lancet panels with egg molding and a central trilobate arch. The central panel is carved with a flock of swallows flying in the evening sky. The birds are depicted in various stages of relief, some nearly four and a half inches from the headboard. Others are shown in low relief to suggest a sense of depth. Just below and to the right of the birds is a crescent moon in low relief. Hydrangea blossoms in high relief are carved into the lower section of this panel. In the lower left is a carved inscription that reads, "Good night, good rest." Extending above this is an arched hood that is carved with four panels of overlapping daises. The four finials of the headboard are carved in the shape of wild parsnip leaves.
In the two lancet panels on either side are painted images of human heads on gold discs representing night and morning. These panels were painted by Elizabeth Nourse (1859-1938), Adelaide’s twin sister, who was an internationally acclaimed painter. To the left is Morning, surrounded by painted white azaleas. To the right is Night, surrounded by balloon vines. The corners of these side panels are carved with stylized leaves and berries.
This bed, which occupied the Pitman’s bedroom, was meant to symbolize and celebrate sleep. Soon after its completion, it received much acclaim and was exhibited in 1883 by the Pitmans at the Fifteenth Annual Exhibition of the Work of the School of Design of the University of Cincinnati and also at the Cincinnati Industrial Exhibition. In 1909 the bedstead and the rest of the bedroom were described in the Cincinnati Commercial Gazette: "It is such a room in which a sufferer of insomnia would totter drowsily upon entering. The entire combination is made to symbolize "night" and so faithfully is repose portrayed that sleep nearly overcomes one within the door. The bed is a masterstroke of human genius…and the entire combination seems covered with such a consistent nocturnal veil as to make the words "good night" at the bottom quite unnecessary."
Artist/Maker Benn Pitman (American, b.1822, d.1910)
Elizabeth Nourse (American, b.1859, d.1938)
Adelaide Nourse Pitman (American, b.1859, d.1893)
Medium American black walnut and painted panels
Credit Line Gift of Mary Jane Hamilton in memory of her mother Mary Luella Hamilton, made possible through Rita S. Hudepohl, Guardian
Benn Pitman, an expatriated Englishman, arrived in Cincinnati from Philadelphia in 1853. Although trained to be an architect, he traveled to America to promote the phonetic shorthand system developed by his brother Sir Isaac Pitman. Sometime between his arrival and 1872, he developed an extraordinary interest and skill in woodcarving. Pitman embraced the Aesthetic Movement and turned to nature for inspiration.
In 1872, carved furniture, doors and baseboards made by the Pitman family, including his wife, Jane, and daughter Agnes, were exhibited at the Third Cincinnati Industrial Exposition.
He taught woodcarving at the School of Design of the University of Cincinnati (later the Art Academy) from 1873 to 1892. He also invented an electrochemical process for relief engraving (1855), was court recorder for the Lincoln assassination trial (1865) and wrote a biography of his brother (1902).
Adelaide Nourse Pitman, the twin sister of Elizabeth Nourse and youngest of ten children, was born on October 26, 1859, in the Cincinnati suburb of Mt. Healthy. Her parents had moved to Cincinnati from Massachusetts in the early 1830s. Her father, a banker, suffered serious financial losses after the Civil War. As a result of this loss, the girls were required to support themselves. The twins enrolled in the University of Cincinnati School of Design, which charged only minimal tuition. While at the University, Adelaide joined Marie Egger’s china painting class and began several years’ study of wood carving under Benn Pitman. She worked on the carving of the Cincinnati Music Hall organ screen, carved a number of architectural elements for the interior of the Ursuline chapel in St. Martin, and received a silver medal at the 1880 Cincinnati Industrial Exposition.
On August 10, 1882, Adelaide married Pitman in Sandusky, Ohio. She was twenty-two and he was sixty. After their marriage, she continued to work, under his supervision, in copper, silver, and brass, as well as on decorative wood carvings for the Pitman home on Columbia Parkway.
In 1883 she gave birth to her first child, who died in infancy. The couple’s second child, born July 5, 1884, was named Emerson. The third and final child born to the couple was their daughter, Melrose, born on November 5, 1889.
Tragically, Adelaide Pitman died on September 12, 1893 of tuberculosis. She was only thirty-three years old.
Elizabeth Nourse was a painter, sculptor, wood-carver, etcher, illustrator and decorative artist who achieved her greatest success after 1887 as an expatriate in Paris. Born a twin in Mount Healthy, she enrolled in 1874 at the Cincinnati University School of Design, graduating in 1881. She had planned to continue her studies in New York, but with the death of her father and the marriage of her sister, Adelaide, to furniture-maker Benn Pitman her plans changed.
Nourse studied for a few months at the National Academy of Design and from 1883-86 worked as a portrait painter spending part of each summer sketching and painting in the mountains of eastern Tennessee. It was the local people who would become her subjects. In 1887 she exhibited four watercolors at the Cincinnati Industrial Exposition and soon after she and her older sister, Louise, left for what was to be a visit to France. They spent the rest of their lives abroad.
Check out these china plastic parts for car manufacturer images:
“Toys of Christmas Past”
Image by brizzle born and bred
Did you know that toys and games have been part of childhood for thousands of years? As early as 4000 B.C. (before Christ), games became a source of entertainment. At that time, people of Babylon played a game that preceded the present day game of chess.
4000 BC – A Babylonian game, which is the ancestor of modern draughts begins to be played
3000 BC – First Game resembling modern Backgammon is played in Sumeria.
2000 BC – Stone marbles first used in Egypt.
1000 BC – Kites appear in China. Stone Yo-Yos begin to be used in Greece
600 BC – An ancestor of chess called ‘Chaturanga’ is played in India.
1759 – Roller skates are invented by Joseph Merlin.
Victorian Era – Victorian children had fewer toys than you have today. Poor Children – Poor families made their own, such as cloth-peg dolls and paper windmills. Children would save their pocket money to buy marbles, a spinning top, skipping ropes, kites or cheap wooden toys.
Rich Children had rocking horses with real horse hair manes, and dolls houses full of beautifully-carved miniature furniture. Other popular toys for rich children included china or wax dolls for the girls and clockwork train sets for the boys. Girls played with dolls and tea sets whilst boys played with toy soldiers and marbles.
During Victorian times, people became fascinated by toys that made pictures move. One of the earliest and simplest of these was the thaumatrope. This is a disc with a picture on either side that is attached to two pieces of string or a stick. When you spin the disc quickly, the two pictures appear to combine into one.
1901 – Meccano goes on sale in the UK. Invented by Frank Hornby in Liverpool, it captures the spirit of the age with a challenging construction toy. One of the century’s leading toy makers and creator of Hornby train sets (1920, and see 1925) and Dinky Toys, Hornby died in 1936.
1902 – In the USA, the Teddy Bear is created by a Russian emigrants Morris MiTchtom who had seen a report of US President Teddy Roosevelt who declined to shoot a bear cub while out hunting. Clifford Berryman’s celebrated newspaper cartoon captured this moment and Mitchcom launched his range of "Teddy" bears in his Brooklyn shop. German toymaker, Margarete Steiff began making jointed toy animals including bears, and they were also able to cash in on the teddy bear craze in the USA, which spread worldwide.
1903 – Edwin Binney & Harold Smith patent the first ‘Crayola’ crayons.
1908 – Plasticine goes on sale.
1909 – Kewpie Doll-devised by Rosi O’Neill patented in 1935
1910 – Daisy Air Rifles go on sale.
1914 – Tinker Toys – interlocking construction toy.
1914 – Frank Hornby manufactures ‘0 Gauge’ Clockwork model trains
1925 – The first electric ‘Hornby’ train appears..Hornby produce the first electric train sets in the world.
1928 – Mickey Mouse is created by Walt Disney. The licensed toy is born. Dolls from 1930
1929 – Duncan Yo-Yo’s are first launched in Los Angeles when Frank Duncan saw waiters from the Philippines playing with their tradit-ional Yo-Yo. It can be traced back to Ancient Greece – in the Philippines it was a weapon (like a boomerang) for hunting and war until later it became a sporting item then later a plaything. In 1930 Frank Duncan brought over demonstrators to Europe to play the music halls – and the craze took off.
1930 – Charlotte Cla in the USA starts making Micky Mouse dolls based on the first Disney cartoon first screened in 1928.
1932 – US architect, Alfred Butt begins work on what will become the board game, Scrabble. He calls it Lexico. (See 1940) In Denmark, Ole Kirk Christiansen started his Lego toy company. Lego means ‘play well’ in Danish. (leg godt). Later he discovered Lego in Latin means ‘to put together’.
1934 – Corgi starts to manufacture toy cars and other models. In 1965 their model Aston Martin from the first James Bond film became the very first BATR Toy of the Year.
1935 – Monopoly arrives in the UK. Invented in the USA by Charles Darrow in 1933, patent filed 31st August 1935 while on sale in America. It was made under licence in the UK by Waddingtons. Darrow died in 1967.
1935 – Minibrix made by the Premo Rubber Co. using the studs and cavity device which paved the way for plastic interlocking bricks pioneered by Hilary Page in the 1940s.
1943 – Richard James, researching a suspension device develops the Slinky. It goes on sale in 1945.
1948 – Criss Cross Words invented by Alfred Butt (originally Lexico) fails to sell well and is sold to James Brunot who changes the name to Scrabble. Sales average just 8,000, but from 1953 – 55 it suddenly takes off – sales reach 4.5million sets.
1949 – Leeds-based Waddington’s produces mystery board-game, Cluedo. This year (1999) it celebrated its 50th birthday.
1949 – Ole Christiansen, invents Lego bricks. Just six bricks will fit together in 102,981,500 ways !
1950 – Disney’s latest release, Cinderella, spawns toy products. Meanwhile, Disney was telling the toy industry to gear up for their next full-length cartoon, Alice in Wonderland, out in 1951. Popular Toys: a wind-up Cinderella dancing doll (with Prince) and Palitoy’s Archie Andrew Ventro Doll…Minibrix, ‘the world’s finest toys’ from Dean & Son, Flying Saucer from Cascelloid, Electric Contact Quiz – ‘lights up your party – mysterious, unique, amusing’ – claims the makers, Spears. Other events: First Toy Fair in Harrogate. First meeting of the NATR – the toy retailers association.
1951 – best selling toys: Alice (from Alice in Wonderland film), Talking Eggs from Selcol with a crank-handle to make Humpty Dumpty squeak (6/9d) – about 32p…Muffin the Mule push-along toy by Kohnstam…Kiddicraft’s ‘Sensible’ range of cot and pram toys designed by Hilary Page.
1951 – A Muffin The Mule push-along toy is the best seller this year.
1952 – Mr Potato Head is launched. Jack O’dell creates the first Matchbox car.
1952 – Popular toys: Crazy Ball from Louis Marx…Negro dolls from Pedigree called Mary Lou and Dixie…Flop: Loopo, a game with a ball and small hand-held loop promoted as ‘the sensation of the year’…Lines Brothers, Britain’s largest toymaker celebrated its 70th birthday…
1953 – A ‘Little Princess’ doll designed by Norman Hartnell is launched to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.
1953 – Pedigree launch dolls with ‘flesh-like’ vinyl plastic heads with ‘hair that grows out of their heads!’ using a "Angela, the doll with magic flesh" – it also has ‘sleeping’ eyes and lashes. Another pedigree doll out this Coronation year, is Little Princess dressed by Norman Hartnell…retailers read for the first time that out-of-town shopping centres are being tried out in the USA…Dean’s Rag Books are 50 years old…New Toys: Flower pot Men based on the TV series. Wembley – the football board game, Keywords (from Waddingtons) which has some similarities to Scrabble. Novelty Toys: Atom Bomber with A-bombs with automatic releases, and Slinky, the toy that slithers down steps – still a big seller to this day.
1954 – Sooty appears on TV and turns out to be an actual Chad Valley glove puppet…sales soar. The British Toy & Hobby Association hold their first Toy Fair in Brighton. New Toys: Dan Dare Rota Spinner for the beach…and at Christmas: Matchbox vehicles, Painting By Numbers. Scrabble arrives.
1955 – Scrabble sold in the UK by Spears begins to grow in popularity. Scoop from Waddingtons challenges.
1956 – New Game: Beat the Clock (Spears) based on the game on TV’s Sunday Night at the Palladium…Flops: New Footy Table Soccer as recommended by Stanley Matthews, and Newcrikit , recommended by Freddie Trueman…the Corgi Model Club formed…Triang T-T Gauge trains launched…Radio comedian (and chairman of Chad Valley) Kenneth Horne is seen on TV trying out the new Rise’n’Shine shaving kit and beauty shop – the first seen on TV…and the launch of the sputnik inspires the Bleep Bleep satellite toy.
1956 – A Mr B. Francis puts small electric motors in his scale models of cars and ‘Scalectrix’ is born.
1957 – Combex brings out the Sooty toothbrush flute…and following the Disney film’s release, a rash of Davy Crockett hats and toys.
1958 – New: The Hula – Hoop arrives! 20 million sold in the first year. Scalextric electric model racing first introduced…but whatever happened to Pictorama which can create 14 million different combinations of pictures? It’s the 50th birthday for Plasticine…and Frisbees (invented 1957 at the Frisbee Pie Factory) compete for attention.
1959 – Barbie is created by Ruth Handler, and is named after her daughter Barbara.
1959 – Stanley Matthews endorses Frido playballs. Selling well: Matchbox’s Scammel Breakdown truck, Board Games: Careers, and Wack-O (based on Jimmy Edward’s TV series)
1960 – For the first time, the Brighton Toy Fair allows imported toys to be shown. The craze that swept France, Loopyloop is predicted to sweep Britain…it doesn’t…Lego is seen at the Toy Fair for the first time…plastic kits dominate the market and toy market (at retail) is worth £85m through 11,000 outlets.
1961 – A mini-boom in costume dolls…Airfix launch their Betta Bilda sets at 10 shillings each (50p)…Fuzzyfelt bring out Noddy finger puppets, Scalextrics slot car racing sets, and trains are amongst this year’s top sellers.
1962 – Tipped as the craze of the year, Airtoy’s Spinning Satellite…it isn’t. Dinky launch Ford Fairlane, Corgi offer a model Silverstone with pit stops, Chad Valley launches the Give-a-show projector…Barbie and boy friend Ken impress US market…the Pogo stick is fun again…and Dinky’s First Engine is the first ever with flashing lights.
1963 – The board game, Diplomacy arrives…Matchbox offer cars with doors that open…and there is ‘the greatest money spinner ever from Frido’ – Disky Discs and goal posts to play ‘1-dimensional football’.
1964 – The latest craze: Booma Boomerang, Corgi is 30 years old and celebrates by introducing Corgi Classics…Diana Dors promotes the Trolls.
1965 – Dr Who and the Daleks on TV and toys available this Christmas…the James Bond Aston Martin Car is the big seller and will be the first ever Toy of the Year (to be announced as it will be in future in January of the following year at the NATR Dinner). Waddington’s launch Spyring board game, and the Noise Abatement Society complains about the V-rroom roar maker fitted to bicycles…the Gonks arrive to challenge Trolls…Denys Fisher launch the Spirograph. Craze that never was – Nik Nok – cup and ball game.
1965 – The James Bond Aston Martin from Corgi is the most popular toys this year. A version of the toy is still on sale today.
1966 – Action Man, the first ‘Doll For Boys’ is launched and is a massive success. Toy of the year this year will be Action Man – causing a sensation as the first doll for boys…for girls there is Tiny Tears. To rival Action man, Pedigree launch Tommy Gunn. Another craze that never was: Ippy Op – ball come skipping rope…but party game, Twister is a success.
1967 – Spiro-Graph is toy of the year. Rolf Harris Stylophone (Musical toy with a strangely annoying pitch. Apparently invented by accident the Stylophone enjoys cult popularity among musicians and has been used by bands as diverse as David Bowie and Blur.
1968 – Sindy is top doll and will win Toy of the Year. Ride-a-Roo ball is launched, as are Joe 90 products, Beatles’s Yellow Submarine, and the Go Car game which includes a breathalyser test as a hazard. Other new products: a multi-cube game called Instant Insanity and Glow-Globs, modelling compound that glows in the dark, and paintwheels.
1969 – Hot Wheels cars will win Toy of the Year. The Newton’s Cradle (Klikkies) sells well…but Tic Tac Tosser has a shorter life.
1970 – Sindy wins Toy of the Year for a second time…the NATR launches their Toy Token scheme…"The computer is becoming such an important part of our lives that a mini-computer for kids is in the office"…Super markets begin selling toys, and Matchbox makes 900 redundant.
1971 – Space Hoppers, inflatable orange bouncers with horns for handles. Klackers, a modernised version of conkers that made a very annoying ‘Klick Klack’ sound and lead to dozens of imitations. Katie Kopycat writing doll wins Toy of the Year. The giant Lines Brothers collapses, the arrival of Space Hopper, Craze of the year Clackers or Klik Klaks – first seen on Spanish beaches. Fun Bubbles sell over 7 million in first year.
1972 – Plasticraft modelling kits win Toy of the Year.
1973 – The first Game of the Year – Invicta’s Mastermind…a shortage of plastic causes problems…children’s pocket money averages 9p. New dolls: Disco Girl, Chelsea Girl, Daisy. Toy guns concern when gunmen using toy guns are shot dead by police outside India House.
1973 – Mastermind, a game that had nothing to do with the TV show and everything to do with cracking the code of your opponents coloured plastic pegs.
1974 – Magna Doodle. The magnetic drawing toy which was invented in Japan by pen engineers trying to create a clean mess free chalk.
1975 – Wombles. Womblemania hit the UK and Womble toys where everywhere.
1976 – Raw Power. A handle that you added to your bike and ‘revved’ to create the sound of an engine.
1977 – Slime, a bright green PVA based blob that came in little plastic pots and ruined many a households soft furnishings! Othello, the strategy game of Black & White counters. Holly Hobbie, dolls based on the popular character. Skateboards, 1977 saw the high point of the 1970’s skate craze and featured thin ‘surfboard’ style boards.
1978 – Star Wars, after the release of the movie the previous year the toys soon followed and became one of the most successful movie licenced properties of all time, the toys dominated toy shops until the middle 1980’s when their popularity waned. Simon, the electronic game where you followed a sequence of lights and sounds before you threw it across the room in sheer frustration!
1979 – Space Lego, the humble building brick went where no man had gone before. Stop Boris, a game where you stopped Boris, a creepy spider, with a light gun.
1980 – Rubiks Cube, invented by Hungarian designer Erno Rubik over 100 million of these tricky little puzzles were sold between 1980 and 1982.
1981 – Lego Train. Lego launches their first electric ‘train set’ which featured strangely enough blue rails!
1982 – BMX Bikes, everybody went BMX crazy, BMX is short for Bicycle Motocross. ZX Spectrum, the first ‘affordable’ home gaming computer arrived in UK households.
1983 – My Little Pony, based on an Animated TV series there was an entire world of small plastic horses and accessories to collect. My Little Pony went on to become one of the most successful girls toy concepts of all time. Boys did not miss out this year as they got He Man & The Masters Of The Universe which followed the same based on animation format and became one of the most successful boys toy concepts of all time.
1984 – Care Bears. Following the successful ‘toys from an animated series’ format from the previous year the Care Bears arrived from Care-a-Lot. Shortly before Christmas Cabbage Patch Kids, created by artist Xavier Roberts also arrived and created chaos in toy shops across the land as parent competed to buy one of the sought after dolls. The Board game Trivial Pursuit was the best selling board game in 1984 and dolls based on popular Pop Stars Michael Jackson and Boy George was also big hits.
1985 – Transformers, robots in disguise. These ‘action figures’, which transformed from vehicle to robot and back, again confounded parents and delighted children. Optimus Prime was THE toy to have in 1985 and lead to huge shortages of product.
1986 – In this World Cup year the playground graze was Panini Football stickers. If you managed to complete an album you were a playground hero.
1987 – Sylvanian Families, a range of cute and cuddly animals with play-sets and vehicles. Rubiks Magic, a follow up to the Rubiks Cube.
1988 – Ghostbusters, based on the popular movie and animated series, children across the land strapped on ‘proton packs’ and set out to capture ghosts. Slimer, one of the lead characters was also a firm favourite in toy shops, along with the vehicle Ecto-1.
1989 – Another hit movie, another toy shop success. The Tim Burton movie ‘Batman’ breathed new life into an old favourite and Batmania swept the UK.
1990 – Donatello, Michelangelo, Leonardo and Raphael, the Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles arrived in toy shops and where an immediate hit. Originating in the US from a comic book the original word ‘Ninja’ in the title was replaced with ‘Hero’ in the UK for fears that it would violent connotations with parents.
1991 – Nintendo launched Game Boy in the UK.
1992 – Thunderbirds enjoyed a re-birth this year and dads of a certain age across the land re-lived there childhoods with their children. Shortages of the most popular toy, Tracey Island were so severe that Blue Peter ran an episode where the showed you how to make your own….
1993 – Power Rangers, the TV show arrived on our screens and children’s TV has not been the same since. Toys based on the show sold out immediately.
1994 – Magic Eye Pictures were all the rage and toys and puzzles featuring these pictures within pictures prompted even more people to ask ‘can you see it?’
1995 – POGS, small cardboard disks stormed into playgrounds and became a huge craze. Star Wars toys start production again after a short hiatus, 1970’s kids are now adults and collect the toys out of nostalgia but a new generation of kids also embraces the saga.
1996 – Toy Story, the animated film from Pixar was a huge hit in the cinema and toys from the movie were more than elusive. Parents went to desperate measures to secure a Buzz Lightyear doll. The rights to produce toys from the film went to a small independent Canadian toy company who simply could not cope with the demand. Why? Because all of the major toy manufacturers turned down the chance to make Toy Story merchandise, as they felt that the movie would never catch on. Corinthian figures, small figurines of football stars with oversized heads were the hot collectible and equally popular with adults and child collectors.
1997 – The year of T, Teletubbies, Tamagotchi and TY Beanie Babies are toy shop best sellers.
1998 – The humble Yo Yo returns as the craze of the year, after last being seen in the 1950’s and the 1970’s. The ProYo II is the Yo Yo of choice. Just before Christmas the interactive pet, Furby arrives in toy shops.
1999 – A board game based on the hit TV quiz show ‘Who Wants To Be A Millionaire’ is the best selling board game. Toys and games based on Pokemon the Nintendo game prove to be quite popular. The firm favourite are the trading cards hundreds of millions of which are sold, swapped and traded across the globe.
2000 – Robotic Pets and Aluminium Folding Scooters are this year crazes. They are also accompanied by another familiar face, The Thunderbirds return again and Tracey Island is another Christmas best seller.
2001 – Bob The Builder toys are big hits, Folding Scooters continue to be the must have accessory for both kids and style guru’s alike. Closely followed by Pogo Sticks which enjoyed a resurgence of interest this year.
2002 – Bratz Dolls, steal some of Barbie’s position as top fashion doll, a place she has held since she was born in 1959. Beyblades, customizable spinning tops and Micropets, miniature robotic pets are the favourite crazes
2003 – Beyblades continue to be the playground craze closely followed by Yucky Yo Balls, fluid filled stretchy balls on an elastic string. However Yucky Yo Balls are swiftly banned by the government over safety fears. This is the first time that the government has banned a toy in over 10 years.
2004 – Toy of the Year ‘Terrain Twister’ radio controlled vehicle.
2005 – Fisher-Price top-selling Dora’s Talking House"
2006 – The overall winner of the title Toy Of The Year 2006 was awarded to the Dr Who Cyberman Voice Changer Mask. This Voice Changer is a replica Cyberhead that will give you a robotic voice. It features speech, sound effects and lights! It has 3 play buttons, one that plays Cyberman phrases, one that changes your voice into that of the Cybermen and one with Cyber weapon sound effects.
2007 – The Toy of the Year Award was given to Blanket Time Iggle Piggle Dancing Soft Toy, from the massively popular ‘In The Night Garden’. Boys Toy of the year was chosen as the Ben 10 Omnitrix FX, which is like a wrist watch which transform Ben into different alien superheroes.
2008 – Toy of the Year Ben 10 Action figures 10" and 15" – Pre School Toy of the Year Kidizoom camera, Vtech – Collectable toy of the Year Go Go Crazy Bones – Construction toy of the year is Lego – Girls range toy of the year is Sylvanian families. – Boys range of the year is Ben 10, Bandai – Girls toy of the year is FurReal Biscuit my lovin’ pup.
2009 – Last year the toy of the year award as voted by the Toy Retailer Association went to the Ben 10 series. The year before it went to a set of toys from In the Night Garden. The theme seems to be a toy connected to a popular children’s television character and this will probably be the same pattern for the best selling toy of 2009/2010. Young children love toys that are familiar, toys that they identify with the television characters that they see. In 2008 the pre school toy of the year was again, In the Night Garden and toys such as Star Wars and toys featuring Thomas the Tank engine (pre school toys of the year in 2005) regularly win toy awards.
Hasbro is the largest toy manufacturer in the world.
The 20th century saw the invention of dozens of much-loved toys as well. Still-popular board games like Tripoley, Sorry and Monopoly have been around since the 1930s, and Crayola Crayons are more than 100 years old! Twister, made by a division of Hasbro, sold more than 3 million games within a year of its release in 1966. It has sold more than 22 million since then.
Toys aren’t always a hit the year, or even the decade, they’re created. Unemployed architect Alfred Mosher Butts invented the game of Scrabble, which he first called "Lexiko" and later "Criss-Cross Words," in the 1930s. Entrepreneur James Brunot acquired the game in 1947, but it wasn’t until 1953, when the president of Macy’s — now owned by retail giant Federated Department Stores — discovered the game on vacation that things really took off. More than 100 million sets have since been sold worldwide.
The fortunes of other playthings are more cyclical. Troll dolls, which hit big during the 1960s, had all but disappeared by the 1980s until troll nostalgia ushered in a second boom in the early 1990s. As Generation Xers grow older, toys like Cabbage Patch Kids, now made by Mattel, and Koosh balls could stage a comeback as well.
And there’s serious money to be had. Mr. Potato Head, made in 1952 by Hasbro’s Playskool unit, was the first toy advertised on television, and it grossed more than million in its first year (that’s billion in 2005 dollars). Play-doh, which was originally designed for cleaning wallpaper, made inventor Joseph McVicker a millionaire by his 27th birthday. And Mattel sells an astounding 1.5 million Barbie dolls each week — that’s two dolls per second.
That Was the Year That Was – 1966
Image by brizzle born and bred
The swinging sixties were in full flow, but in some corners of the world the peace and love mantra of the flower-power generation could not be heard.
Even as hippies in London and San Francisco were weaving daisies into their hair, in China Mao Tse-Tung launched the Cultural Revolution, a 10-year political campaign aimed at rekindling revolutionary Communist fervour. Brandishing their copies of Mao’s Little Red Book of quotations, students of the Communist Party – the so-called Red Guards – pursued an ideological cleansing campaign in which they renounced and attacked anyone suspected of being an intellectual, or a member of the bourgeoisie. Thousands of Chinese citizens were executed, and millions more were yoked into manual labour in the decade that followed.
Meanwhile, the US government, under president Lyndon B Johnson, was escalating its military presence in Vietnam. By the year’s end, American troop levels had reached 389,000, with more than 5,000 combat deaths and over 30,000 wounded. The war was a brutal and dirty one, with many US casualties caused by sniper fire, booby traps and mines.
The Americans responded by sending B-52 bombers over North Vietnam, and by launching the infamous Search and Destroy policy on the ground.
"To know war," Johnson said in his State of the Union address before Congress, in January 1966, "is to know that there is still madness in this world".
There was bloodshed on the streets of London too, when Ronnie Kray, brother of Reggie, shot George Cornell dead in the Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel in March.
Two years after his proclamations about the "white heat of technology" Harold Wilson was prime minister of a Labour government that included technology minister Tony Benn. If Benn was pleased to witness the introduction of the first homegrown UK credit card – The Barclaycard – in 1966, he was in the minority. The card was met with "a tidal wave of indifference", according to a Barclays executive.
Perhaps the UK public simply had other things on their minds.
This was, after all, the year in which Bobby Moore’s England beat the Germans 4-2 to lift the World Cup at Wembley.
Musically, 1966 was a vintage year. Jim Reeves’ Distant Drums knocked the Small Faces’ All or Nothing off the top spot. Other number ones in the year included Frank Sinatra’s Strangers in the Night, Good Vibrations by the Beach Boys, the Walker Brothers’ The Sun Ain’t Gonna Shine Anymore and The Green, Green Grass of Home by Tom Jones.
The Beatles and the Rolling Stones also continued their dominance of the music scene, with Yellow Submarine, Eleanor Rigby, Paperback Writer and Paint it Black all topping the charts.
A Man for all Seasons won Best Picture at the 1966 Oscars, and its star Paul Scofield won Best Actor. Other films released this year included Georgy Girl, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Alfie and the Good, the Bad and the Ugly.
On the small screen, viewers were subjected to the rants of Alf Garnet in Till Death us do Part; while US audiences were introduced to the delights of the Monkees and Star Trek. And the dynamic duo, Batman and Robin, thwarted lute-playing electronics genius the Minstrel as he tried to sabotage the computer systems at the Gotham City Stock Exchange.
"Batman heads off new corporate IT disaster" – now there’s a headline to conjure with.
The Queen opens the £10 million Severn Bridge on September 8. The Severn Bridge was opened in 1966 to replace the ferry service crossing from Aust to Beachley. The new bridge provided a direct link for the M4 motorway into Wales.
The Severn Bridge has now carried more than 300,000,000 vehicles since it was opened in 1966. Between 1980 and 1990 traffic flows increased by 63% and there were severe congestion problems in the summer and at peak times each day. Further increases in traffic flows were expected in the years ahead. The problems encountered on the Severn Bridge were made worse by the occasional high winds, accidents and breakdowns. It is for these reasons that the Second Severn Crossing was constructed as without it congestion would become more serious and frequent on the M4, M5 and the local road network.
Bristol’s Mecca Centre opens
1966 – Thursday May 19 is a glittering night in Bristol when 800 of the West Country’s VIPs are invited to the opening of the city centre’s brand new £32 million leisure complex on Frogmore Street With a dozen licensed bars, a casino, a cinema, a night club, an ice rink and a thousand plastic palm trees, this is the biggest entertainment palace anywhere in Europe and somewhere to rival the West End of London. There are girls! In bikinis! There’s even pineapple! On sticks! Drivers park their Hillman Imps in the multi-story car park!
And, amazingly enough, the venue has been an entertainment centre ever since. Bristol . . . entertainments capital of the South West, and one of the entertainments attractions of Europe. That was the talk of the town when Mecca moved into Bristol, splashed out a fortune and began building the New Entertainments Centre in Frogmore Street, towering over the ancient Hatchet Inn and the Georgian and Regency streets nearby.
The New Entertainments Centre wasn’t just big, it was enormous and it was what 60s leisure and fun-time were all about, Mecca promised. Here, slap bang in the middle of Bristol, the company was creating the largest entertainment centre in the whole of Europe. A dozen licensed bars, an ice rink, bowling lanes, a casino, a night club, a grand cinema, asumptuous ballroom and, naturally, a multi-storey car park to accommodate all those Zephyr Zodiacs, Anglias, Westminsters, Minis, Victors and Imps etc which would come pouring into town bringing the 5,000 or so customers who would flock to the centre every day.
London might have its famous West End. Bristol had its Frogmore Street palace of fun and the opening night of the biggest attraction of all, the Locarno Ballroom, on May 19th was the Night To Crown All First Nights, the Post proudly announced. Sparkling lights, plastic palm trees in shadily-lit bars, a revolving stage, dolly birds in fishnet tights and grass skirts . . . this was glamour a la mid-60s and Bristol loved it.
Horace Batchelor K-E-Y-N-S-H-A-M
1966 – KEYNSHAM became a familiar household name to millions of Radio Luxembourg listeners across Europe in the 1950s and 1960s — thanks to a local betting expert.
Self-styled ‘football pools king’ Horace Batchelor helped punters win a total of more than £12 million between 1948 and 1971 at a time when £75,000 was a fortune and his series of radio ads always mentioned mentioned Keynsham, which Horace would then spell out.
Customers followed his unique ‘infra draw’ tip system, which forecast which matches would be drawn in the pools. He put the otherwise little-known town on the map by spelling out its name letter by letter so listeners would address their applications correctly when ordering tips by post.
His ads included genial patter such as: ‘Hello, friends — this is Horace Batchelor, the inventor of the fabulous Infra-Draw system. You too can start to win really worthwhile dividends using my method.’
Members of the system clubbed together to enter very large permutations with a good chance of winning the pools and then sharing the takings — though each individual only received a small fraction of each big windfall. Horace himself set a world record by personally netting more than 30 first dividends and thousands of second and third dividends.
During his heyday up to 5.000 orders a day were delivered via Keynsham to his office in Old Market, Bristol. His first major pools win came in 1948 when he was presented with £11,321 at Bedminster’s Rex Cinema —part of the biggest dividend then paid by Sherman’s Pools.
It also included £45,000 which he shared with syndicate members. – By 1955 he had won enough to live in luxury, running three cars and puffing cigars in an 18-room house. He later retired to a 27-bedroom ‘Batchelor pad’ in Bath Road, Saltford, a small village just outside of Keynsham, which he named ‘Infra -Grange’ after his system.
Pickles was made Dog of the Year in 1966
Pickles, the mongrel dog who found the World Cup in a London street after it had been stolen three months before the 1966 finals, became a bigger story than that year’s general election.
In March 1966, a few months before the start of the World Cup finals in England, a mongrel dog named Pickles found the missing Jules Rimet trophy in a London street.
One week before Pickles came to the rescue, the priceless trophy had been stolen from the Westminster’s Methodist Central Hall where it was being displayed, albeit in a glass cabinet.
And this despite the presence of no less than five security guards. On that fateful Sunday, however, the guard stationed next to the trophy had taken the day off. The thieves stole in through a back door and snatched away the World Cup.
For his winning role in the tale, Pickles was made Dog of the Year in 1966 and awarded a year’s free supply of dog food. His owner, a Thames lighterman named David Corbett, was a prime suspect in the case and police questioned him for hours before he was cleared.
With a dramatic goal in the final moments of what was a nail-biting match, England finally became soccer World Cup champions, securing a 4-2 win over West Germany at London’s Wembley Stadium. It was just one of the many highlights of 1966 that are etched on my memory from a year that had its fair share of controversy and tragedy as well as producing some outstanding music.
‘more popular than Jesus’
Controversy come in the wake of John Lennon’s quip in a newspaper interview that The Beatles were ‘more popular than Jesus now’. It caused a furor and led to thousands of the group’s records being burned on bonfires in protest in some parts of America. I recall seeing the news coverage on TV showing angry groups of people tossing piles of vinyl in to the flames. It was far cry from the outpourings of adoration and admiration that the Liverpool lads usually enjoyed. And for a while threatened to damage their reputation.
The anti-Beatles outcry did however subside following an apology from Lennon and things eventually got back to normal on the Fab Four front. The catchy Paperback Writer topped the charts and their imaginative album Revolver reinstated their popularity.
Aberfan coal tip disaster in Wales
One of the most tragic events that year In Britain was the Aberfan coal tip disaster in Wales that claimed 144 lives, including 116 children. I was at work on a weekly newspaper on the October morning it happened. My colleagues and I had a radio on and listened to updates on and off throughout the day as rescuers dug through the tons of slurry that had roared down the hillside, desperately trying to find survivors in the mangled remains of the school building. I’ll always remember that it was a very dark period, particularly as so many young lives had been lost in what was later shown to have been an avoidable tragedy.
On the music front, 1966 threw up several gems, not least some groundbreaking offerings from The Beach Boys. It was, of course, the year that the magical singles Good Vibrations and God Only Knows and the grandiose album Pet Sounds set new standards in rock recording. Indeed, such was the excellence of the band at that time that it spurred The Beatles on to experiment and push their own musical boundaries still further.
Motown was in its glory too, and The Four Tops epitomized all that was great about the sounds made under the guidance of Berry Gordy in the bustling, vibrant city that was Detroit. Reach Out I’ll Be There.
Other memorable songs, were Dusty Springfield’s You Don’t Have To Say You Love Me, the Spencer Davis Group’s Somebody Help Me, the Rolling Stones Paint It Black, The Walker Brothers’ operatic The Sun Ain’t `Gonna Shine Anymore, and Chris Farlowe’s cover version of the Stones’ Out Of Time. All of them are classics of rock.
Tom Jones’ Green, Green Grass of Home was the biggest selling single. Way before The Voice!
George Harrison married Patti Boyd.
Sergio Leone created the spaghetti western with The Good, The Bad and The Ugly starring Clint Eastwood. Due to the striking height difference between Clint Eastwood and Eli Wallach of over 9 inches, it was sometimes difficult to include them in the same frame.
Because Sergio Leone spoke barely any English and Eli Wallach spoke barely any Italian, the two communicated in French.
In the 1960s Michael Caine was a cocky young British movie star with a Cockney accent. He played a caddish womanizer in Alfie (1966) "Not a lot of people know that"
Adam Sandler, Halle Berry, David Schwimmer, David Cameron, Cindy Crawford, Helena Bonham Carter were all born in 1966.
The first episode of Star Trek aired.
Walt Disney died.
The Beatles achieved their 10th number 1!
The Sound of Music won Best Picture at the Oscars.
Twiggy was named the face of ’66 by Daily Express.
1966 was also the year that the term Swinging London was coined by Time magazine, and as they say the rest is history
For a few years in the 1960s, London was the world capital of cool. When Time magazine dedicated its 15 April 1966 issue to London: the Swinging City, it cemented the association between London and all things hip and fashionable that had been growing in the popular imagination throughout the decade.
London’s remarkable metamorphosis from a gloomy, grimy post-War capital into a bright, shining epicentre of style was largely down to two factors: youth and money. The baby boom of the 1950s meant that the urban population was younger than it had been since Roman times.
By the mid-60s, 40% of the population at large was under 25. With the abolition of National Service for men in 1960, these young people had more freedom and fewer responsibilities than their parents’ generation. They rebelled against the limitations and restrictions of post-War society. In short, they wanted to shake things up… Added to this, Londoners had more disposable income than ever before – and were looking for ways to spend it. Nationally, weekly earnings in the ‘60s outstripped the cost of living by a staggering 183%: in London, where earnings were generally higher than the national average, the figure was probably even greater.
This heady combination of affluence and youth led to a flourishing of music, fashion, design and anything else that would banish the post-War gloom. Fashion boutiques sprang up willy-nilly.
Men flocked to Carnaby St, near Soho, for the latest ‘Mod’ fashions. While women were lured to the King’s Rd, where Mary Quant’s radical mini skirts flew off the rails of her iconic store, Bazaar.
Even the most shocking or downright barmy fashions were popularised by models who, for the first time, became superstars. Jean Shrimpton was considered the symbol of Swinging London, while Twiggy was named The Face of 1966. Mary Quant herself was the undisputed queen of the group known as The Chelsea Set, a hard-partying, socially eclectic mix of largely idle ‘toffs’ and talented working-class movers and shakers.
Music was also a huge part of London’s swing. While Liverpool had the Beatles, the London sound was a mix of bands who went on to worldwide success, including The Who, The Kinks, The Small Faces and The Rolling Stones. Their music was the mainstay of pirate radio stations like Radio Caroline and Radio Swinging England. Creative types of all kinds gravitated to the capital, from artists and writers to magazine publishers, photographers, advertisers, film-makers and product designers.
But not everything in London’s garden was rosy. Immigration was a political hot potato: by 1961, there were over 100,000 West Indians in London, and not everyone welcomed them with open arms. The biggest problem of all was a huge shortage of housing to replace bombed buildings and unfit slums and cope with a booming urban population. The badly-conceived solution – huge estates of tower blocks – and the social problems they created, changed the face of London for ever. By the 1970s, with industry declining and unemployment rising,
Swinging London seemed a very dim and distant memory.
1966 in British music
14 January – Young singer David Jones changes his last name to Bowie to avoid confusion with Davy Jones (later of the Monkees).
19 January – Michael Tippett conducts the performance of his cantata The Vision of St Augustine in London.
6 February – The Animals appear a fifth time on The Ed Sullivan Show to perform their iconic Vietnam-anthem hit "We Gotta Get Out of this Place".
4 March – The Beatles’ John Lennon is quoted in The Evening Standard as saying that the band was now more popular than Jesus. In August, following publication of this remark in Datebook, there are Beatles protests and record burnings in the Southern US’s Bible Belt.
5 March – The UK’s Kenneth McKellar, singing "A Man Without Love", finishes 9th in the 11th Eurovision Song Contest, which is won by Udo Jürgens of Austria.
6 March – In the UK, 5,000 fans of the Beatles sign a petition urging British Prime minister Harold Wilson to reopen Liverpool’s Cavern Club.
16 April – Disc Weekly is incormporated with Music Echo magazine.
1 May – The Beatles, The Rolling Stones and the Who perform at the New Musical Express’ poll winners’ show in London. The show is televised, but The Beatles’ and The Stones’ segments are omitted because of union conflicts.
13 May – The Rolling Stones release "Paint It, Black", which becomes the first number one hit single in the US and UK to feature a sitar (in this case played by Brian Jones).
17 May – American singer Bob Dylan and the Hawks (later The Band) perform at the Free Trade Hall, Manchester. Dylan is booed by the audience because of his decision to tour with an
electric band, the boos culminating in the famous "Judas" shout.
2 July – The Beatles become the first musical group to perform at the Nippon Budokan Hall in Tokyo. The performance ignites protests from local citizens who felt that it was inappropriate for a rock and roll band to play at Budokan, a place – until then – designated to the practice of martial arts.
11 August – John Lennon holds a press conference in Chicago, Illinois to apologize for his remarks the previous March. "I suppose if I had said television was more popular than Jesus, I would have gotten away with it. I’m sorry I opened my mouth. I’m not anti-God, anti-Christ, or anti-religion. I was not knocking it. I was not saying we are greater or better."
29 August – The Beatles perform their last official concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.
16 September – Eric Burdon records a solo album after leaving The Animals and appears on "Ready, Steady, Go", singing "Help Me Girl", a UK #14 solo hit. Also on the show are Otis Redding and Chris Farlowe.
9 November – John Lennon meets Yoko Ono when he attends a preview of her art exhibition at the Indica Gallery in London.
9 December – The Who release their second album A Quick One with a nine-minute "mini-opera" A Quick One While He’s Away.
16 December – The Jimi Hendrix Experience release their first single in the UK, "Hey Joe".
1966 in British television
3 January – Camberwick Green is the first BBC television programme to be shot in colour.
3 March – The BBC announces plans to begin broadcasting television programmes in colour from next year.
5 April – The Money Programme debuts on BBC2. It continued to air until 2010.
23 May – Julie Goodyear makes her Coronation Street debut as Bet Lynch. She did not become a regular character until 1970.
6 June – BBC1 sitcom Till Death Us Do Part begins its first series run.
30 July – England beat West Germany 4-2 to win the 1966 World Cup at Wembley.
Summer – Patrick McGoohan quits the popular spy series Danger Man after filming only two episodes of the fourth season, in order to produce and star in The Prisoner, which begins filming in September.
2 October – The four-part serial Talking to a Stranger, acclaimed as one of the finest British television dramas of the 1960s, begins transmission in the Theatre 625 strand on BBC2.
29 October – Actor William Hartnell makes his last regular appearance as the First Doctor in the concluding moments of Episode 4 of the Doctor Who serial The Tenth Planet. Actor Patrick Troughton briefly appears as the Second Doctor at the conclusion of the serial.
5 November – Actor Patrick Troughton appears in his first full Doctor Who serial The Power of the Daleks as the Second Doctor.
16 November – Cathy Come Home, possibly the best-known play ever to be broadcast on British television, is presented in BBC1’s The Wednesday Play anthology strand.
3 January – The Trumptonshire Trilogy: Camberwick Green
5 January – Softly, Softly (1966–1969)
10 March – The Frost Report (1966)
7 May – Quick Before They Catch Us (1966)
17 May – All Gas and Gaiters (1966–1971)
24 May – Beggar My Neighbour (1966–1968)
7 August – It’s a Knockout (BBC1 1966–1982
17 November – The Illustrated Weekly Hudd (1966–1967)
5 April – The Money Programme (1966–2010)
22 March – How (1966–1981)
3 January – British Rail begins full electric passenger train services over the West Coast Main Line from Euston to Manchester and Liverpool with 100 mph (160 km/h) operation from London to Rugby. Services officially inaugurated 18 April.
Stop-motion children’s television series Camberwick Green first shown on BBC1.
4 January – More than 4,000 people attend a memorial service at Westminster Abbey for the broadcaster Richard Dimbleby, who died last month aged 52.
12 January – Three British MPs visiting Rhodesia (Christopher Rowland, Jeremy Bray and David Ennals) are assaulted by supporters of Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith.
20 January – The Queen commutes the death sentence on a black prisoner in Rhodesia, two months after its abolition in Britain.
Radio Caroline South pirate radio ship MV Mi Amigo runs aground on the beach at Frinton.
21 January – The Smith regime in Rhodesia rejects the Royal Prerogative commuting death sentences on two Africans.
31 January – United Kingdom ceases all trade with Rhodesia.
9 February – A prototype Fast Reactor nuclear reactor opens at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland.
17 February – Britain protests to South Africa over its supplying of petrol to Rhodesia.
19 February – Naval minister Christopher Mayhew resigns.
28 February – Harold Wilson calls a general election for 31 March, in hope of increasing his single-seat majority.
1 March – Chancellor of the Exchequer James Callaghan announces the decision to embrace decimalisation of the pound (which will be effected on 15 February 1971).
4 March – In an interview published in The Evening Standard, John Lennon of The Beatles comments, "We’re more popular than Jesus now".
Britain recognized the new regime in Ghana.
5 March – BOAC Flight 911 crashes in severe clear-air turbulence over Mount Fuji soon after taking off from Tokyo International Airport in Japan, killing all 124 on board.
9 March – Ronnie, one of the Kray twins, shoots George Cornell (an associate of rivals The Richardson Gang) dead at The Blind Beggar pub in Whitechapel, east London, a crime for which he is finally convicted in 1969.
11 March – Chi-Chi, the London Zoo’s giant panda, is flown to Moscow for a union with An-An of the Moscow Zoo.
20 March – Theft of football’s FIFA World Cup Trophy whilst on exhibition in London.
23 March – Pope Paul VI and Michael Ramsey, the Archbishop of Canterbury, meet in Rome.
27 March – Pickles, a mongrel dog, finds the FIFA World Cup Trophy wrapped in newspaper in a south London garden.
30 March – Opinion polls show that the Labour government is on course to win a comfortable majority in the general election tomorrow.
31 March – The Labour Party under Harold Wilson win the general election with a majority of 96 seats. At the 1964 election they had a majority of five but subsequent by-election defeats had led to that being reduced to just one seat before this election. The Birmingham Edgbaston seat is retained for the Conservatives by Jill Knight in succession to Edith Pitt, the first time two women MPs have followed each other in the same constituency.
6 April – Hoverlloyd inaugurate the first Cross-Channel hovercraft service, from Ramsgate harbour to Calais using passenger-carrying SR.N6 craft.
7 April – The United Kingdom asks the UN Security Council authority to use force to stop oil tankers that violate the oil embargo against Rhodesia. Authority is given on 10 April.
11 April – The Marquess of Bath, in conjunction with Jimmy Chipperfield, opens Longleat Safari Park, with "the lions of Longleat", at his Longleat House, the first such drive-through park outside Africa.
15 April – Time magazine uses the phrase "Swinging London".
19 April – Ian Brady and Myra Hindley go on trial at Chester Crown Court, charged with three so-called Moors Murders.
30 April – Regular hovercraft service begins over the English Channel (discontinued in 2000 due to competition with the Channel Tunnel.)
Liverpool win the Football League First Division title for the second time in three seasons.
3 May – Swinging Radio England and Britain Radio commence broadcasting on AM with a combined potential 100,000 watts from the same ship anchored off the south coast of England in international waters.
6 May – The Moors Murderers Ian Brady and Myra Hindley are sentenced to life imprisonment for three child murders committed between November 1963 and October 1965. Brady is guilty of all three murders and receives three concurrent terms of life imprisonment, while Hindley is found guilty of two murder charges and an accessory charge which receives two concurrent life sentences alongside a seven-year fixed term.
12 May – African members of the UN Security Council say that the British army should blockade Rhodesia.
14 May – Everton defeat Sheffield Wednesday 3-2 in the FA Cup final at Wembley Stadium, overturning a 2-0 Sheffield Wednesday lead during the final 16 minutes of the game.
16 May – A strike is called by the National Union of Seamen, ending on 16 July.
18 May – Home Secretary Roy Jenkins announces that the number of police forces in England and Wales will be cut to 68.
26 May – Guyana achieves independence from the United Kingdom.
6 June – BBC1 television sitcom Till Death Us Do Part begins its first series run.
23 June – The Beatles go on top of the British singles charts for the 10th time with Paperback Writer.
29 June – Barclays Bank introduces the Barclaycard, the first British credit card.
3 July – 31 arrests made after a protest against the Vietnam War outside the US embassy turns violent.
12 July – Zambia threatens to leave the Commonwealth because of British peace overtures to Rhodesia.
14 July – Gwynfor Evans becomes member of Parliament for Carmarthen, the first ever Plaid Cymru MP, after his victory at a by-election.
15 July – A ban on black workers at Euston railway station is overturned.
16 July – Prime Minister Harold Wilson flies to Moscow to try to start peace negotiations over the Vietnam War. The Soviet Government rejects his ideas.
20 July – Start of 6-month wage and price freeze.
26 July – Lord Gardiner issues the Practice Statement in the House of Lords stating that the House is not bound to follow its own previous precedent.
30 July – England beats West Germany 4-2 to win the 1966 World Cup at Wembley. Geoff Hurst scores a hat-trick and Martin Peters scores the other English goal in a game which attracts an all-time record UK television audience of more than 32,000,000.
1 August – Everton sign Blackpool’s World Cup winning midfield player Alan Ball, Jr. for a national record fee of £110,000.
2 August – Spanish government forbids overflights of British military aircraft.
4 August – The Kray Twins are questioned in connection with a murder in London.
5 August – The Beatles release the album Revolver.
10 August – George Brown succeeds Michael Stewart as Foreign Secretary.
12 August – Three policemen are shot dead in Shepherd’s Bush, West London, while sitting in their patrol car in Braybrook Street.
15 August – John Whitney is arrested and charged with the murder of three West London policemen.
17 August – John Duddy is arrested in Glasgow and charged with the murder of three West London policemen.
18 August – Tay Road Bridge opens.
24 August – Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is first staged, at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe.
29 August – The Beatles play their very last concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.
3 September – Barely five months after the death of Barry Butler, a second Football League player this year dies in a car crash; 30-year-old John Nicholson, a Doncaster Rovers centre-half who previously played for Port Vale and Liverpool.
5 September – Selective Employment Tax imposed.
15 September – Britain’s first Polaris submarine, HMS Resolution, launched at Barrow-in-Furness.
17 September – Oberon-class submarine HMCS Okanagan launched at Chatham Dockyard, the last warship to be built there.
19 September – Scotland Yard arrests Ronald "Buster" Edwards, suspected of being involved in the Great Train Robbery (1963).
27 September – BMC makes 7,000 workers redundant.
30 September – The Bechuanaland Protectorate in Africa achieves independence from the U.K. as Botswana.
4 October – Basutoland becomes independent and takes the name Lesotho.
18 October – The Ford Cortina MK2 is launched.
20 October – In economic news, 437,229 people are reported to be unemployed in Britain – a rise of some 100,000 on last month’s figures.
21 October – Aberfan disaster in South Wales, 144 (including 116 children) killed by collapsing coal spoil tip.
22 October – British spy George Blake escapes from Wormwood Scrubs prison; he is next seen in Moscow.
Spain demands that United Kingdom stop military flights to Gibraltar – Britain says "no" the next day.
25 October – Spain closes its Gibraltar border against vehicular traffic.
5 November – Thirty-eight African states demand that the United Kingdom use force against Rhodesian government.
9 November – The Rootes Group launches the Hillman Hunter, a four-door family saloon to compete with the Austin 1800, Ford Cortina and Vauxhall Victor.
15 November – Harry Roberts is arrested near London and charged with the murder of three policemen in August.
16 November – The BBC television drama Cathy Come Home, filmed in a docudrama style, is broadcast on BBC1. Viewed by a quarter of the British population, it is considered influential on public attitudes to homelessness and the related social issues it deals with.
24 November – Unemployment sees another short rise, now standing at 531,585.
30 November – Barbados achieves independence.
1 December – Prime Minister Harold Wilson and Rhodesian Prime minister Ian Smith negotiate on HMS Tiger in the Mediterranean.
12 December – Harry Roberts, John Whitney and John Duddy are sentenced to life imprisonment (each with a recommended minimum of thirty years) for the murder of three West London policemen in August.
20 December – Harold Wilson withdraws all his previous offers to Rhodesian government and announces that he agrees to independence only after the founding of black majority government.
22 December – Rhodesian Prime minister Ian Smith declares that he considers that Rhodesia is already a republic.
31 December – Thieves steal millions of pounds worth of paintings from Dulwich Art Gallery in London.
Centre Point, a 32-floor office building at St Giles Circus in London, designed by Richard Seifert for property speculator Harry Hyams, is completed. It remains empty for around a decade.
London School of Contemporary Dance founded.
Mathematician Michael Atiyah wins a Fields Medal.
The motorway network continues to grow as the existing M1, M4 (including the Severn Bridge on the border of England and Wales) and M6 motorways are expanded and new motorways emerge in the shape of the M32 linking the M4 with Bristol, and the M74 near Hamilton in Scotland.
Japanese manufacturer Nissan begins importing its range of Datsun branded cars to the United Kingdom.
The 1966 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Brands Hatch on 16 July 1966. It was the fourth round of the 1966 World Championship. It was the 21st British Grand Prix and the second to be held at Brands Hatch. It was held over 80 laps of the four kilometre circuit for a race distance of 341 kilometres.
The race, the first of the new three-litre engine regulation era where starters reached 20 cars,
was won for the third time by Australian driver Jack Brabham in his Brabham BT19, his second win in succession after winning the French Grand Prix two weeks earlier. New Zealand driver Denny Hulme finished second in his Brabham BT20, a first 1–2 win for the Brabham team. The pair finished a lap ahead of third placed British driver Graham Hill in his BRM P261. Brabham’s win ended a streak of 4 consecutive wins by Jim Clark at the British Grand Prix. Brabham’s win put him ten points clear in the championship chase over Austrian Cooper racer Jochen Rindt with Hulme and Ferrari’s Lorenzo Bandini a point further back.
1965–66 in English football
7 October 1965: An experiment to broadcast a live game to another ground takes place. Cardiff City play Coventry City and the match is broadcast to a crowd of 10,000 at Coventry’s ground Highfield Road.
20 March 1966: The World Cup is stolen from an exhibition at Central Hall, Westminster, where it was on show in the run-up to this summer’s World Cup in England.
27 March 1966: The World Cup is recovered by Pickles, a mongrel dog, in South London.
16 April 1966: Liverpool seal the First Division title for the seventh time in their history with a 2–0 home win over Stoke City.
14 May 1966: Everton win the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday in the final at Wembley Stadium, despite going 2–0 down in the 57th minute.
11 July 1966: England, as the host nation, begin their World Cup campaign with a goalless draw against Uruguay at Wembley Stadium.
16 July 1966: England’s World Cup campaign continues with a 2–0 win over Mexico (goals coming from Bobby Charlton and Roger Hunt) that moves them closes to qualifying for the next
stage of the competition.
20 July 1966: England qualify for the next stage of the World Cup with a 2–0 win over France in their final group game. Roger Hunt scores both of England’s goals.
23 July 1966: England beat Argentina 1–0 in the World Cup quarter-final thanks to a goal by Geoff Hurst.
26 July 1966: England reach the World Cup final by beating Portugal 2–1 in the semi-final.
Bobby Charlton scores both of England’s goals.
30 July 1966: England win the World Cup with a 4–2 win over West Germany in extra time.
Geoff Hurst scores a hat-trick, with Martin Peters scoring the other goal.
First Division Liverpool
Second Division Manchester City
Third Division Hull City
Fourth Division Doncaster Rovers
FA Cup Everton
League Cup West Bromwich Albion
Charity Shield Manchester United and Liverpool (shared)
Home Championship England
Check out these china wide panel moulds manufacturer images:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay” panorama
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning:
In the P-38 Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and his team of designers created one of the most successful twin-engine fighters ever flown by any nation. From 1942 to 1945, U. S. Army Air Forces pilots flew P-38s over Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific, and from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Lightning pilots in the Pacific theater downed more Japanese aircraft than pilots flying any other Allied warplane.
Maj. Richard I. Bong, America’s leading fighter ace, flew this P-38J-10-LO on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field, Ohio, to evaluate an experimental method of interconnecting the movement of the throttle and propeller control levers. However, his right engine exploded in flight before he could conduct the experiment.
Transferred from the United States Air Force.
Lockheed Aircraft Company
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Overall: 390 x 1170cm, 6345kg, 1580cm (12ft 9 9/16in. x 38ft 4 5/8in., 13988.2lb., 51ft 10 1/16in.)
Twin-tail boom and twin-engine fighter; tricycle landing gear.
• • • • •
Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.
On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.
Transferred from the United States Air Force.
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)
Polished overall aluminum finish
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on lower left nose.
A few nice automobile plastic parts suppliers china images I found:
2008 Saturn Astra XR
Image by DVS1mn
Click here for more car pictures at my Flickr site.
Jerry Flint’s 2001 speech on General Motors
Jerry Flint’s 2001 speech to engineers and technicians at General Motors’ Milford Proving Ground.
(With thanks to Paul Eisenstein, editor of TheDetroitbureau.com, who provided this copy from his files.)
There was an auto executive, he was a very high-ranking GM man. You all know his name but I won’t mention it because it might embarrass him. He’s not at General Motors anymore.
I once asked this man what he would do if he found himself the chief executive of General Motors. He said, and I quote, "I would fire 1,000 executives." I’m not sure whether it made any difference to him which 1,000 executives, if he had anyone in particular in mind, or any thousand would do. I just tell you this to start things off.
Fasten your seatbelts. It’s going to get bumpy.
This talk will be divided into four sections. In the first, I will tell you something about myself. That’s long. In the second I will tell you the mistakes General Motors has been making. That’s longer. In the third part, I will tell you why General Motors makes these mistakes. That’s short. In the fourth part, much shorter I am afraid, I will suggest what you can do about it.
I was born in Detroit, in the city, in 1931. We lived on Willis between Second and Third, a few blocks south of Wayne University, which was a city university back then.
I went to the neighborhood schools, tough schools; it was a workers hillbilly neighborhood. As a boy, my father and I would walk miles from our apartment to the Fisher Theater to see the movies, and we walked to save the nickel busfare. We would always stop at the General Motors building to look at the cars, and the models. They used to have a contest. Young people would enter futuristic car designs, or make a copy of a Louis the 14th carriage. I loved that GM display, and dreamed of the day we would have a car.
We moved uptown and I went to Central High School, where by the way, a classmate was Sander Levin, now a member of the House of Representatives and brother to Carl, your senator. Then I came Wayne University, worked as a copy boy on the Detroit News, as a writer for Motor News, the AAA magazine and on the college daily. When I graduated after 3 1/2 years, in 1953, I enlisted in the U.S. Army. The Korean War was on but I served in Europe, in intelligence, in what we called the Army Security Agency.
When I came home in 1956, I joined the Wall Street Journal in Chicago, and in 1958 transferred to Detroit. I worked for the Journal in Detroit until 1967, when I became the New York Times bureau chief in Detroit and I held that position until 1973, when I transferred to New York for the Times, working the national news, then as a financial editor, then the national labor writer. In 1979, I joined Forbes magazine as its Washington bureau chief, and in the 1980s transferred to New York where I worked in various jobs, including assistant managing editor. I retired in 1996, but now write columns, six a month, one for Forbes Magazine monthly called Backseat Driver, plus a weekly column for Forbes.com, plus as monthly column for Ward’s Auto World, the Contrarian, and a monthly column for The Car Connection.com.
I haven’t just written about cars. I’ve covered politics, and am mentioned in "The Making of the President," 1968, by William White. Along the way I’ve done some foreign reporting, chasing Communists in Central America during the Carter/Reagan years. I’ve swung through Africa, Somalia, Nigeria, Angola, South Africa.
Recently I was named one of the top 100 financial journalists of the century by TJFR, a financial journalists group. I was ranked along with the likes of Ida Tarbell (the great muckraker who brought down the Standard Oil Trust), B.C. Forbes (founder of Forbes Magazine), Barney Kilgore, the creator of the modern Wall Street Journal. I tell you this so you will understand that I just may know what I am talking about.
As to the auto business, I was there when Ed Cole created the Corvair and there when John DeLorean created the GTO that Ronny and the Daytonas sang about. I was there when Karl Hahn taught us to "think small" about his beetle-shaped Volkswagen, and I was there when George Romney brought forth the compact Rambler and slew the dinosaurs in the driveway. I was there when the Edsel was born, and when Bob McNamara of Vietnam fame created the little Ford Falcon, the first car to really kick Chevy since the 1920s. And better yet, I was there when Lee Iacocca introduced his Mustang. I was there when Soji Hatori brought Toyota here. Soji, by the way, dumped his Japanese wife and married an American blonde in a blimp over Los Angeles. I was there when Studebaker owned rights to distribute Mercedes cars in this country, and I was there in Utah when Sherwood Egbert sent his lovely Avantis racing across the Salt Flats in a last doomed effort to save Studebaker.
I drove Ralph Nader into Detroit from the airport when he came with his new book, "Unsafe at Any Speed," and I knew Haagen Smit, who explained smog, and Bill Mitchell who knew how to make cars look long and low for General Motors. I was there when Lee (Iacocca) saved Chrysler with his K car and the minivan, and yes, I advised my readers to buy Chrysler stock when it was at 7 on its way down to 3. I was there when Tom Gale and Bob Lutz did cab forward (car design), and saved Chrysler again, and yes, I told my readers to buy Chrysler again at 10.
I do all this name dropping so you know that I know the difference between cars made of steel and cars made of clay, and more important, that I know the difference between men made of steel and men made of clay.
OK, end of Part 1. Now I am going to talk about General Motors.
You won’t like what I have to say.
You are badly led, with an organization that just doesn’t work.
I’m going to prove this to you, and my proof is an unparalleled number of errors, mistakes and failures.
This isn’t a new theme with me. In Wards Auto World of May 1998 I raised the question of GM strategy. I noted that you had a strategy board that didn’t know anything about auto strategy
I wrote that your strategy board had decided that luxury sport-utility vehicles had no place in the company’s own Cadillac division, thereby going about as far as anyone could to destroy Cadillac. This isn’t hindsight. Mercedes, BMW and Lexus all understood what was happening at the same time that GM rejected a Cadillac SUV, and they created SUVs, and so did Lincoln.
Quoting from that column on Saturn: "The board is taking seven years to get Saturn a second car, (it really took 10 years) thereby leaving its most warm and fuzzy division to wallow in a small-car depression. Instead of investing in success, this board starved it."
You know, they took away the Saturn’s product engineers. They are out to make Saturn into another Oldsmobile. Look at the LS launch. First, the idea of forcing Saturn to use a German platform designed for a metal body on a car with a plastic body is ludicrous. It cost more and took longer to do than to get a completely new platform for Saturn. Then the car design was completely undistinguished, and the actual launch was the worst I have ever seen in 40 years. The result is that sales are one-third expectations in the first year and the factory lost a shift. I figure that is a 0-million-a-year loss.
This is the board that has never updated and will soon kill the Camaro. That should take a good part of the excitement from Chevrolet. GM executives don’t seem to understand that the art in the auto business is building desirable vehicles, not killing models and closing plants.
Your strategy board completely missed the trend to car-based all-wheel drive vehicles, and is years behind the Lexus RX 300, the Honda CR-V and the like. Even Ford is in production of the Escape. How many more years must we wait for such a GM vehicle?
Now let’s go beyond that 2 1/2- year-old article:
Your management built an all-new pickup truck without four doors, when Dodge and Ford and Toyota all had four-door big pickups. To this day, no one at GM admits to have made that decision. It must have been someone they promoted. How could they build an all-new vehicle with three doors when they knew their competitors would have four?
How could they be a door short on an all-new vehicle?
Your company still doesn’t have a four-door small pickup. That is unbelievable. Ranger creams them. If Dodge Dakota had the capacity, it probably would outsell the Chevy S-10. I asked one of your highest-ranking executives why no four-door S-10. He explained that since a new S-10 was coming a few years down the road, they didn’t want to spend the money. Your people never, it seems, have heard the word "competition." Now about a month ago you did begin production of a Chevy S-10 Crew Cab. That is a type of four-door, but different from the usual design. In fact, this is a vehicle you build in Brazil, so you could have produced it here earlier. And it is priced ,000 above the two-door.
I’m sure they will sell some, but why are they years late in matching the competition? There is only one answer: incompetence.
Just to repeat what I am doing now, I am listing dumb decisions by your management that proves they know nothing about the auto business.
The EV-1. I am all for experimentation, but to spend 0 million to 0 million for a two-seater with a 40-mile range, are we out of our minds? That is the greatest car disaster ever, covered up by the press because it’s a green disaster. The EV-1 makes the Edsel look like a bases-loaded home run in the last of the ninth of the seventh game of the World Series.
Once the then-chief executive of your company, Jack Smith, said to me, and I quote, "You don’t think we can do anything right." I told him that I did think they did one thing right; they did a good job cutting manufacturing costs. And guess what? They’ve fired the man who did it, Don Hackworth.
And talking about strategy boards, did you know that the chief of design is not on the GM global strategy board, but your vice president of human resources is? That’s right: the global strategy board, the head of design isn’t on it but the head of the employment office is. Go figure.
Brand marketing. I don’t think much of brand marketing theories. To me they are just a way of avoiding the idea of building a better product. I suppose that if your idea of a new model change is putting six more raisins in a box of cereal, then brand marketing might be important. But even if I did believe, the idea that every single car model is a brand is incredibly dumb. No one in the industry believes this, except at GM. The idea that Chevy Impala is a separate brand, that Chevy Monte Carlo is a brand, that Cavalier is a brand, that Malibu is a brand is nutsy coo-koo. You can’t have 75 brands within GM. It won’t work, but it has been the GM strategy. And what’s the result of this strategy? Falling market share every year this management has been in power.
Look at the numbers. Your management has lost an average 3/4 of a percent point of market share very year, from 35% to down toward 28% this year. My belief is that you are headed to 25% of the market. I would also predict that before long someone high will "take the fall" for this loss, which I put directly on the top management and its theories.
Supplier relations: Your company has the poorest supplier relations in the industry, and a reputation of mistreating suppliers, of trying to beat down their prices unfairly. If someone comes up with a great innovation, GM is the last company it will try to sell it to for these reasons. I have had the CEO of major suppliers say this. Yet this is how your management does business.
Another disaster was the strike of 1998, which cost GM, I believe, better than billion in profit. General Motors provoked that strike. Look, I covered the UAW in Detroit. I knew Walter Reuther and Leonard Woodcock and Doug Fraser. I knew the company negotiators like Malcolm Denise of Ford and Earl Bramlett of GM. I was the labor writer of the New York Times. GM deliberately proved the strike. I’m not saying that was wrong. It is OK to provoke a strike, and GM had some justification But when GM was 24 hours from winning, the company surrendered. Apparently GM decided that winning would hurt the UAW’s feelings. Why provoke a strike unless you intend to win? Why surrender when victory is in your grasp. At a cost of billion. The performance of your management was unbelievable here.
How about the dealer ordering system, which was installed by present management? The company has been in business since 1907, and it sets up a system that keeps dealers from getting the cars they need. This cost GM one-half of a percent of market share, which is 85,000 sales, or billion in sales. How could your management install an ordering system that didn’t work? How?
Fit and finish. Look, the quality of your fit and finish is the worst in the industry, excluding Koreans. Your executives know it, too, but what are they doing about it? I’ll know they are doing something when an executive vice president is given the public responsibility of improving fit and finish, and his bonus is on the line.
The dealers. You want to know something? The only reason you are still selling 28% of the market is your dealers. The biggest distribution system in the business. And your management hates them. They actually announced a plan to buy 15% of the GM dealers, to go into competition with their own dealers, and then when the dealers blew up, your chief executive said he didn’t know anything about it. Well, GM is disorganized but I don’t believe that Roy Roberts invented and publicly announced a billion-dollar acquisition plan all by himself.
Design: What do you want me to say? GM invented car design: Harley Earl, Bill Mitchell. I knew some of these people. Now, you have the Aztek.
For God’s sake, why couldn’t they hire somebody. Ford did, Chrysler did, Mercedes and BMW did, they all do (not the Japanese. Their designers really are Japanese). Now GM did hire someone from the outside, a French woman from Renault. Now I like French women, and I wish her well, I am sure she is talented. But please explain to me who buys French Renaults besides the French … and a few Spaniards. Who? Nobody. Why can’t GM find an American who understands the American culture, and who can create a PT Cruiser, or a Thunderbird? Why do they hire a foreigner?
I ask you, if you didn’t work for GM, would you drive a GM car?
Let’s get specific: How about that pickup truck design. You know, that’s where the money is, the T800 platform. The pickup is the heart of it. You used to be No. 1 in pickups, now you are behind Ford F-150 and Dodge Ram has scored big off Chevy. So you designed a new truck, darn good truck, too, except for the rattles. But when it came to design, they made it look like the old one. You know why? Because instead of relying on your designers to design a modern-looking truck, you took the designs to focus groups, and they picked the old look. So your new truck looks dated when it comes out, and in a couple of years will really look dated. And as noted earlier, they forgot to put four doors on it at first. These are the reasons I believe your Silverado sales are less than expected, why you are rebating it.
Then we have the Pontiac Aztek. I’m not going to dump on it, and I hope it catches on. I hear it’s a dud, but you never can tell. But I have never, never seen such dislike of a vehicle design, never.
Look, even the future stuff, the show cars, they just don’t look right. I know it and you know it. Why hasn’t this management done something about it?
Oldsmobile: Look, Olds is dead. Your management is saying that they did everything possible and it’s up to the dealers and the customers to save Olds. Those are code words. Figure five years and gone. They did give Olds new product, but it was product without any design distinction, without any engineering firsts, a new engine that wasn’t better than the competition, and mediocre quality and inexperienced leadership. Hell, they fired the experienced leadership. Remember the Rock, John Rock? The head of Olds today used to sell Alpo dog food. You figure it out. Five years and dead. Why five years? It’s a legal strategy. Starve it to death so sales fall, so we can’t be sued.
Cadillac. Let’s not go over 15 years of disaster. Let’s just say that I’ve seen the new Catera, to be built in a new plant in Lansing. But where’s the new motor? The old German motor was one of the Catera problems, and they are putting that old engine in the new car, maybe with a horsepower boost. That’s not the way to save Cadillac. The car needs a great engine and it doesn’t have one. And I understand that rushing out the Escalade was to save the dealers, but in the long run it reinforced the idea that Caddy is a Chevy with thicker leather. BMW builds an all new X-5. Mercedes builds an all- new ML 320. Caddy gets a redone Tahoe. If they could create new vehicles, and even new factories, why couldn’t GM? Some management.
True story: One of the most important businesswomen in America decided to buy an SUV. Her name is known to all of your directors. She’s big. She asked a friend of mine if he could get her some to test drive. He said he could and would get her a Cadillac Escalade.
She said to him, and this is the quote: "Don’t insult me."
The Escalade isn’t a bad vehicle. It’s quite OK. But the prestige of Cadillac is so low that a well-known person says that being offered a Cadillac to drive is an insult.
Which brings us to Powertrain. Would someone tell me what Powertrain has been doing for 20 years?
You know, a while back GM was the greatest engine maker in the world, the greatest. Then some jackass stuck Chevy engines in Oldsmobiles. Instead of saying, we’re sorry, it will never happen again and firing the idiot, GM solved the problem by eliminating divisional engines and setting up one big engine operation, Powertrain.
In my lifetime, in my lifetime, GM Powertrain has never turned out a world-class four-cylinder engine in North America. Never.
The best Six, the 3800, is as old as Methuselah, so they are trying to sell an ancient engine to a generation that doesn’t want a two-year-old computer. There’s a little four-cylinder engine in the ,000 Toyota Echo that has more technology than any GM engine today. Your first engine with variable valve breathing, comes out next year. Let’s hope they can build it. The Japanese and Europeans have been building them for years; that’s why they are good now. We’ll see what happens to your new variable valve engines next year.
All you hear is Northstar Northstar Northstar. BMW, Mercedes, Toyota, Honda wouldn’t have Northstar in their cars. No variable valve breathing. What GM needs is a new small block V8. Where is it? Don’t ask me.
In fact, you are buying a six-cylinder engine from Honda for Saturn. Saturn was created to prove that Americans could build as good a product as the Japanese. Now they are buying Honda engines for Saturn, which proves that this management not only can’t build a better engine, it’s given up trying. In heaven you can hear Ed Cole and Boss Kett sobbing. GM has to buy engines from a competitor
They don’t even have a five-speed automatic for their own cars which are front-wheel drive. They are getting one, when the competition is getting six-speed automatics. GM will get its five when the competition is getting a six-speed. Actually, GM did make five-speed automatics for rear-wheel drive cars and sold them to your competitors. Believe it or not, you helped your competitors whip you.
This management is so inept that its own wholly-owned subsidiary, German Opel, revolted. Did you know that? The board of directors of German Opel, appointed by GM, revolted. They blamed Detroit for stripping Opel of resources for GM’s globalization, thereby wrecking Opel quality. The American head of Opel, Dave Herman, agreed with the Germans, so GM in Detroit, in effect, fired him, ordered him transferred to Moscow. The German board said no, you can’t fire Dave Herman unless we say so. Unprecedented. It took a half-year to straighten this out, and they are still mad.
And while we’re on this, how about this "alliance" strategy? GM spent billions buying 20% of Suzuki, half of Isuzu, 20% of Fiat, 20% of Subaru. Remember, I’m supposed to be a good financial reporter, voted one of the century’s best.
Well, this alliance strategy makes no sense at all to me. Did you know GM has owned part of Isuzu since 1971, that’s 29 years? What have they gotten from it? They’ve been in Suzuki since 1981. 19 years. What have they gotten from it? In profits? Nothing. They get to sell the Geo Tracker. They don’t even get the good Tracker. You get the old one. Billions down the ratholes and they call it a strategy. Well, it is, a losing strategy.
Here’s an aside:
This year’s General Motors annual report said, "It’s no secret that, in recent times, General Motors has been thought of by some as the ‘product laggard’ in the industry. We don’t think that description has ever been fair. However, that image is going to change."
Well, I’m the one they are talking about. And they say it isn’t true but it’s going to change. Why, with the same people leading the team? They are doing the best they can. It just isn’t good enough.
The other day I saw the new SUV the GMC Envoy. That’s the new Jimmy, like the new Blazer will be called the Trailblazer. That Envoy looked good, darn good. But the version I saw had only two rows of seats, no third-row option. GM will build an extended-wheelbase version for a third seat. That extended-seat version will be the same length of the GMC Yukon that has a third seat. You’ve got to understand, the extended-wheelbase Envoy and the Yukon, both the same length, will sit three feet apart in the showroom.
Why do that? Why not build one Envoy, an inch or two longer if need be, with an optional third seat. If it’s not comfortable, the salesman sells the Yukon. You know, that is what Ford is doing. The new Explorer will have a third-seat option, with no 0 million spent for an extended wheelbase version.
The same thing will go for Chevy extended-wheelbase Trailblazer and the Tahoe. Ain’t there anyone in the RenCen who knows how to play this game?
How about the advertising? Remember the Cadillac Ducks? All that money spent to introduce the Catera with stupid and silly ads. How about the new Cadillac advertising theme? "The power of &." I don’t know anyone that knows what it means. And they never fire an ad agency.
I will say the OnStar ads with Batman are terrific. Super. I don’t understand how they got them. I figure they’ll fire the guy who did them.
There’s so much. It goes on and on. They talk about a major effort to build a five-day car; you can have it built-to-order and delivered in five days. What, you need a five-day Cavalier? The major reasons for not having what the customer wants are corporate. That is, they want V8s and you don’t have enough V8 capacity, so you give incentive money to sell sixes. They want silver paint jobs, but the company bought white paint and wants to use it up. Sure, they should make it faster to get a car built-to-order, but that’s no big deal.
E-Business, China, your management puts its hopes in all these fantasies. Meanwhile, Toyota is going to outsell your cars in California. Last year, you registered 182,000 cars in California. Toyota registered 161,000. You were just 21,000 ahead. When will they pass you? And they are catching up in trucks, too. Your management doesn’t know that beating Toyota in California is more important than dreaming about China.
And there’s no modern GM convertible, either. Chrysler sells 60,000 Sebrings. Ford sells 40,000 Mustangs. Good business. But it’s more than that. The convertible is the spirit of a company. That’s why Toyota builds them. You have the ancient and soon-to-die Camaro and the two-seat ‘Vette.
Do we have to go on?
Everybody makes mistakes. But your management makes so many of them. The proof of their incompetence is in the number of mistakes. There is absolutely no reason to think that this will change. The same people who made the mistakes are still in charge, and they haven’t admitted it.
End of Part 2.
Part 3, a much shorter segment. Why these things happen.
Listen carefully: You have a management that doesn’t know much about the American car business. It isn’t that they are bad people or dumb people. I assume they are smart. They just don’t know much about the American car business. Look at their resumes. The chairman and former CEO was the former treasurer who made his bones negotiating the joint-venture deal for the Fremont plant with Toyota. As a reward he was made boss of GM Canada and then GM Europe, and he did a good job, a good job. But he had no American car experience. And in Europe, he had top people around him; they knew the business. That wasn’t true here.
Your new CEO likewise was a financial official, who did a good job in Brazil and a good job in Europe, but had little American car experience, until he was made president of North American operations. His on-the-job training was running North American Auto Operations. He lost market share very year and was promoted to CEO. Most of the disasters that I’ve described, and the fall in market share, came on his watch. Yes, you did make profit here. It would be amazing if you couldn’t make a profit in a 17-million-car year. What happens when it goes to 13.5 million and you have 25% share?
Look, I don’t have anything against financial people. One of the best officers I knew, Bill Hoglund, the man who turned around Pontiac, you know, "We Build Excitement," was a financial man. But he had cars in his heart, and that’s what counts, what’s in your heart, not what you studied in graduate school.
Your president today of North American operations was selling eyewash five years ago. Actually I like Ron Zarrella. He is terrifically smart, and a quick study. But he doesn’t have any experience, the knowledge you get from seeing how things really work. If he had great backup, that might be OK. But the backup is awful. They don’t know the auto business, either. Ron is like a quarterback just out of college, playing for the NFL in his first year, and with no protection. He’s going to get sacked an awful lot.
It’s one thing not to know the business. But worse, your management doesn’t like people who do know something about the American car business. Look at the top-flight people who have gone. J.T. Battenberg, one of the best, gone from GM. Don Hackworth, who once headed Buick and then manufacturing, going. Lou Hughes, gone. Mike Losh, the CFO who once headed Pontiac and Olds, gone. John Rock, who saved GMC, bounced. Ed Mertz of Buick, gone. My impression has been that they actually consider knowledge of the business as some kind of disadvantage.
But worse is the management system they have set up. You don’t have a working system.
Gentlemen, and ladies, again, I am supposed to know something about managements.
Let me tell you a story. Years ago, in the 1950s, Pontiac was going down, and GM sent over Bunkie Knudsen to take over. He took over 60 days before Job 1. He went down to the styling shop to see what he had coming in 60 days.
Pontiac was an old man’s car then. Its styling symbols were two wide chrome stripes running down the hood, we called them suspenders, and the Pontiac Indian head on the hood.
It was only 60 days before Job 1, and Bunkie couldn’t do much, so he said take off the suspenders and the Indian head.
Well, one day I asked the vice president of Buick, you remember, Ed Mertz, if he could walk in 60 days before Job 1 and strip chrome off his car. That was in the day of the 4-Phase System of new-car development. You remember the 4- Phase system; it started at Phase Zero and ended at Phase 3. I want you to know I never thought much of a company with a 4-Phase System that starts at Zero and goes to 3. Anyway, I told Mertz the Knudsen story and asked if he could go into design 60 days before Job 1 and strip off chrome.
He said, "Sixty days before Job 1? Hell, that’s Phase 5."
Gentlemen, I have not found one man in GM who could by himself order a piece of chrome stripped off a car. Your management has created a system without power or responsibility, or with power and responsibility so diffused that it takes forever to get anything at all done. Even the VLEs have to hold meetings to strip off a piece of chrome.
You could say your CEO has power, but he says he doesn’t know anything about design or engineering or marketing so why would he do anything.
Look, the division chiefs are nothing anymore. They aren’t vice presidents; they have no power over quality even. A division like Cadillac has about 50 people on the payroll. They probably will be eliminated in time and the division chief, too.
The brand-marketing boss is supposed to have power, but as far as I can he or she has power over the advertising. The VLE is supposed to be the boss, but they aren’t vice presidents, and they report to manufacturing and manufacturing never wants to change anything.
As far as I could tell, the most powerful car guy was Don Hackworth, but he’s gotten his head chopped off.
And there seems to be no penalty for failure. Has anyone been fired for that Saturn disaster? I figure the worst launch on top of the worst platform decision, which was, by the way, forced not by Saturn people but by top management of GM. Have they shaken up design for those boring products? Have they changed the brand management for the market share loss? Did they ever fire anybody for lousy advertising? There is no penalty for failure.
How can anyone who knows something about the American car business, about cars, get to the top, or even the No. 2 position, of GM. I don’t see the pathway up. Engineers don’t count for anything anymore in this company as far as I can tell. You know, even Fred Donner, the ultimate financial man at GM, who set up the last management system about 40 years ago, felt that while there should be a financial man on top, the No. 2 should know something about cars. Not today.
I recall John Rock, then a vice president of Oldsmobile, said to me, "This system won’t work, but it will take them 10 years to find out."
Your board of directors. I believe there is only one person on the entire board who likes cars, and it’s not Jack Smith, the chairman, either
The stock price: It is as high as it is because of Hughes, bought by Roger Smith. Without Hughes I figure GM could be selling at 35. And you can thank Carl Icahn, the old raider for pushing it up 12 points by announcing a raid. Now he’s gone. Where will it go?
Enough, end of Part 3
Part 4. What can you do about it?
Well I hope someone made a tape of this speech. If not, I can give you a copy of my text. Each one of you should drop a note to each member of the board.
You could do it in a round robin, if you wanted. That is, everyone signs the same note, in a circle. That’s a round robin. No one stands out.
Tell them you don’t know if I’m right or wrong but you’re worried about GM.
Urge them to set up a committee of outsiders, men who know the business, to study GM and report back with a plan of action in 60 days. Make suggestions about who should be on this committee.
How about Bill Hoglund, ex-GM executive vice president. How about Roger Penske, how about Lee Iacocca, or Bill Mitchell or Bob Eaton or Bob Lutz or J.T. Battenberg or Maryanne Keller.
The board must order that all records and minutes be made available immediately to the committee. They must order that all officers make cooperation with the committee their first, their first priority. That anyone obstructing, delaying or acting in any way uncooperatively shall be suspended by the committee awaiting board action. Who could they hire if they went that way? Believe me, there are people out there who could lead General Motors back to glory. And throw another shrimp on the barbie. That’s a hint about one of them.
The committee should have the right to interview people outside of GM for positions within the company. The committee members must be paid terribly well for their work, too. That’s because if they do it for free no one will respect the report. They only respect what they overpay for.
You can call this the Committee of Public Safety.
What else can you do? Go to church and pray. Your company is going down to 25% of the market. That’s not terrible. You can make money at 25%, Ford does. But I don’t see leaders coming up the pipeline. All I see is more stretch goals.
When you write to your board members, tell them that you don’t understand how a company that depends on products has no upward mobility for product people. None of the top executives are product people.
Write slogans on walls, too. Victory or Death, Beat Ford, V, Sic Semper Tyrannis.
My last words:
Never give up,
And don’t let them take you alive.
Read more: Jerry Flint’s 2001 speech | freep.com | Detroit Free Press www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100812/BUSINES…
by Chris Devers
China has begun to emerge as the economic force to reckon with in the global market. Its billion strong population has made it possible to break through almost all the markets, and these include the car bumper market. It seems that there is no dearth to car bumper manufacturers in China. Below is a list of some of the more visible Chinese manufacturers who have made their presence felt online, plus an overview of their companies.
Xiamen Kingtom Rubber-Plastic Co., Ltd. Is established and located in the province of Xiamen. This ISO 9001 certified company is 400-strong with 60 production lines. They are specialized in rubber and plastic parts for sanitation, automobiles (which includes car bumpers) and electrical appliances. Their monthly capacity is around 400 tons finished items, so items can be delivered in less than a week. Their vision is to turn their company into a large scale company operating for the international market.
Changshu Jianan FRP Products Co., Ltd. specializes in FRP (or fiber reinforced plastic) technology. They have a comprehensive range of products: from the automobile bumper to the motorcycle casing to the cable jacket, they all have it. Although they have a much lesser number of employees – 120 – they do have a vast factory area of over 12,000 square meters, and their annual production capacity is 10,000 MT. Also, the proximity of their location makes it convenient for them to transport their deliveries on time. They mostly cater to the international market, with their products reaching as far as UK, Australia and America. Their annual sales are US $ 2,200,000 and their main buyers are the Hitachi Medical Corporation and the Import Trenz, among others.
The Haiyan Zhenda Automobile Fittings Factory, established in 1976, has been a leading manufacturer of auto parts, including brake lining, rubber parts such as the car bumper, and engine bolts. They are an OEM supplier to major vehicle assemblers, and they are vouched for by their ISO 9001 and TS-16949 certifications. It is no wonder then that their sales top US $ 10,000,000 annually and that half of the products they make find their way throughout the world.
The L&C Auto Parts is relatively young compared to the abovementioned. It was established only in 19990, although they have been in fact steadily growing over the years. Their annual sales tip $ 8,000,000. Their main products include the car bumper, the guard rail, the solenoid, the armature, the exhaust manifold, et al. Their two main factories specialize in producing hardware car parts for assembly and creating starters and armatures, respectively. They place great stock in the quality of their products as evidenced by the investment they put in their R&D and QC departments.
The Anhui Technology is a large trading company that supplies mostly the US and European markets. They have a variety of product offerings, from appliances to chemicals to machinery. This contributed to their export volume of $ 524, 000,000 last year. Their branch, the Anhui Technology Auto Parts & Accessories, offers automotive break parts, automotive suspension parts and accessories (the car bumper being one of these) and automotive battery terminal/fittings.
The Shanghai Tengkun Consulting Co., Ltd. offer a broad range of products, from auto spare parts (like the car bumper, car mirror, or car tire) to furnishing parts and telecommunication equipment. Their products have proven to be a hit in the Japanese, European and North American markets. They are engaged in the export and import service, and also have a Commission agent for their documentation works agency and inspection agency.
And to think that this is only a drop in the sea that is the car bumper business, and the ocean that is the automobile industry. The plethora of car bumper choices is a boon for consumers who wan the best value their money can buy.
Some cool auto moulds factory china images:
In the P-38 Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and his team of designers created one of the most successful twin-engine fighters ever flown by any nation. From 1942 to 1945, U. S. Army Air Forces pilots flew P-38s over Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific, and from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Lightning pilots in the Pacific theater downed more Japanese aircraft than pilots flying any other Allied warplane.
Maj. Richard I. Bong, America’s leading fighter ace, flew this P-38J-10-LO on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field, Ohio, to evaluate an experimental method of interconnecting the movement of the throttle and propeller control levers. However, his right engine exploded in flight before he could conduct the experiment.
Transferred from the United States Air Force.
Lockheed Aircraft Company
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Overall: 390 x 1170cm, 6345kg, 1580cm (12ft 9 9/16in. x 38ft 4 5/8in., 13988.2lb., 51ft 10 1/16in.)
Twin-tail boom and twin-engine fighter; tricycle landing gear.
From 1942 to 1945, the thunder of P-38 Lightnings was heard around the world. U. S. Army pilots flew the P-38 over Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific; from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Measured by success in combat, Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and a team of designers created the most successful twin-engine fighter ever flown by any nation. In the Pacific Theater, Lightning pilots downed more Japanese aircraft than pilots flying any other Army Air Forces warplane.
Johnson and his team conceived this twin-engine, single-pilot fighter airplane in 1936 and the Army Air Corps authorized the firm to build it in June 1937. Lockheed finished constructing the prototype XP-38 and delivered it to the Air Corps on New Year’s Day, 1939. Air Corps test pilot and P-38 project officer, Lt. Benjamin S. Kelsey, first flew the aircraft on January 27. Losing this prototype in a crash at Mitchel Field, New York, with Kelsey at the controls, did not deter the Air Corps from ordering 13 YP-38s for service testing on April 27. Kelsey survived the crash and remained an important part of the Lightning program. Before the airplane could be declared ready for combat, Lockheed had to block the effects of high-speed aerodynamic compressibility and tail buffeting, and solve other problems discovered during the service tests.
The most vexing difficulty was the loss of control in a dive caused by aerodynamic compressibility. During late spring 1941, Air Corps Major Signa A. Gilke encountered serious trouble while diving his Lightning at high-speed from an altitude of 9,120 m (30,000 ft). When he reached an indicated airspeed of about 515 kph (320 mph), the airplane’s tail began to shake violently and the nose dropped until the dive was almost vertical. Signa recovered and landed safely and the tail buffet problem was soon resolved after Lockheed installed new fillets to improve airflow where the cockpit gondola joined the wing center section. Seventeen months passed before engineers began to determine what caused the Lightning’s nose to drop. They tested a scale model P-38 in the Ames Laboratory wind tunnel operated by the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) and found that shock waves formed when airflow over the wing leading edges reached transonic speeds. The nose drop and loss of control was never fully remedied but Lockheed installed dive recovery flaps under each wing in 1944. These devices slowed the P-38 enough to allow the pilot to maintain control when diving at high-speed.
Just as the development of the North American P-51 Mustang, Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, and the Vought F4U Corsair (see NASM collection for these aircraft) pushed the limits of aircraft performance into unexplored territory, so too did P-38 development. The type of aircraft envisioned by the Lockheed design team and Air Corps strategists in 1937 did not appear until June 1944. This protracted shakedown period mirrors the tribulations suffered by Vought in sorting out the many technical problems that kept F4U Corsairs off U. S. Navy carrier decks until the end of 1944.
Lockheed’s efforts to trouble-shoot various problems with the design also delayed high-rate, mass production. When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the company had delivered only 69 Lightnings to the Army. Production steadily increased and at its peak in 1944, 22 sub-contractors built various Lightning components and shipped them to Burbank, California, for final assembly. Consolidated-Vultee (Convair) subcontracted to build the wing center section and the firm later became prime manufacturer for 2,000 P-38Ls but that company’s Nashville plant completed only 113 examples of this Lightning model before war’s end. Lockheed and Convair finished 10,038 P-38 aircraft including 500 photo-reconnaissance models. They built more L models, 3,923, than any other version.
To ease control and improve stability, particularly at low speeds, Lockheed equipped all Lightnings, except a batch ordered by Britain, with propellers that counter-rotated. The propeller to the pilot’s left turned counter-clockwise and the propeller to his right turned clockwise, so that one propeller countered the torque and airflow effects generated by the other. The airplane also performed well at high speeds and the definitive P-38L model could make better than 676 kph (420 mph) between 7,600 and 9,120 m (25,000 and 30,000 ft). The design was versatile enough to carry various combinations of bombs, air-to-ground rockets, and external fuel tanks. The multi-engine configuration reduced the Lightning loss-rate to anti-aircraft gunfire during ground attack missions. Single-engine airplanes equipped with power plants cooled by pressurized liquid, such as the North American P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection), were particularly vulnerable. Even a small nick in one coolant line could cause the engine to seize in a matter of minutes.
The first P-38s to reach the Pacific combat theater arrived on April 4, 1942, when a version of the Lightning that carried reconnaissance cameras (designated the F-4), joined the 8th Photographic Squadron based in Australia. This unit launched the first P-38 combat missions over New Guinea and New Britain during April. By May 29, the first 25 P-38s had arrived in Anchorage, Alaska. On August 9, pilots of the 343rd Fighter Group, Eleventh Air Force, flying the P-38E, shot down a pair of Japanese flying boats.
Back in the United States, Army Air Forces leaders tried to control a rumor that Lightnings killed their own pilots. On August 10, 1942, Col. Arthur I. Ennis, Chief of U. S. Army Air Forces Public Relations in Washington, told a fellow officer "… Here’s what the 4th Fighter [training] Command is up against… common rumor out there that the whole West Coast was filled with headless bodies of men who jumped out of P-38s and had their heads cut off by the propellers." Novice Lightning pilots unfamiliar with the correct bailout procedures actually had more to fear from the twin-boom tail, if an emergency dictated taking to the parachute but properly executed, Lightning bailouts were as safe as parachuting from any other high-performance fighter of the day. Misinformation and wild speculation about many new aircraft was rampant during the early War period.
Along with U. S. Navy Grumman F4F Wildcats (see NASM collection) and Curtiss P-40 Warhawks (see NASM collection), Lightnings were the first American fighter airplanes capable of consistently defeating Japanese fighter aircraft. On November 18, men of the 339th Fighter Squadron became the first Lightning pilots to attack Japanese fighters. Flying from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal, they claimed three during a mission to escort Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers (see NASM collection).
On April 18, 1943, fourteen P-38 pilots from the 70th and the 339th Fighter Squadrons, 347th Fighter Group, accomplished one of the most important Lightning missions of the war. American ULTRA cryptanalysts had decoded Japanese messages that revealed the timetable for a visit to the front by the commander of the Imperial Japanese Navy, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. This charismatic leader had crafted the plan to attack Pearl Harbor and Allied strategists believed his loss would severely cripple Japanese morale. The P-38 pilots flew 700 km (435 miles) at heights from 3-15 m (10-50 feet) above the ocean to avoid detection. Over the coast of Bougainville, they intercepted a formation of two Mitsubishi G4M BETTY bombers (see NASM collection) carrying the Admiral and his staff, and six Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighters (see NASM collection) providing escort. The Lightning pilots downed both bombers but lost Lt. Ray Hine to a Zero.
In Europe, the first Americans to down a Luftwaffe aircraft were Lt. Elza E. Shahan flying a 27th Fighter Squadron P-38E, and Lt. J. K. Shaffer flying a Curtiss P-40 (see NASM collection) in the 33rd Fighter Squadron. The two flyers shared the destruction of a Focke-Wulf Fw 200C-3 Condor maritime strike aircraft over Iceland on August 14, 1942. Later that month, the 1st fighter group accepted Lightnings and began combat operations from bases in England but this unit soon moved to fight in North Africa. More than a year passed before the P-38 reappeared over Western Europe. While the Lightning was absent, U. S. Army Air Forces strategists had relearned a painful lesson: unescorted bombers cannot operate successfully in the face of determined opposition from enemy fighters. When P-38s returned to England, the primary mission had become long-range bomber escort at ranges of about 805 kms (500 miles) and at altitudes above 6,080 m (20,000 ft).
On October 15, 1943, P-38H pilots in the 55th Fighter Group flew their first combat mission over Europe at a time when the need for long-range escorts was acute. Just the day before, German fighter pilots had destroyed 60 of 291 Eighth Air Force B-17 Flying Fortresses (see NASM collection) during a mission to bomb five ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt, Germany. No air force could sustain a loss-rate of nearly 20 percent for more than a few missions but these targets lay well beyond the range of available escort fighters (Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, see NASM collection). American war planners hoped the long-range capabilities of the P-38 Lightning could halt this deadly trend, but the very high and very cold environment peculiar to the European air war caused severe power plant and cockpit heating difficulties for the Lightning pilots. The long-range escort problem was not completely solved until the North American P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection) began to arrive in large numbers early in 1944.
Poor cockpit heating in the H and J model Lightnings made flying and fighting at altitudes that frequently approached 12,320 m (40,000 ft) nearly impossible. This was a fundamental design flaw that Kelly Johnson and his team never anticipated when they designed the airplane six years earlier. In his seminal work on the Allison V-1710 engine, Daniel Whitney analyzed in detail other factors that made the P-38 a disappointing airplane in combat over Western Europe.
• Many new and inexperienced pilots arrived in England during December 1943, along with the new J model P-38 Lightning.
• J model rated at 1,600 horsepower vs. 1,425 for earlier H model Lightnings. This power setting required better maintenance between flights. It appears this work was not done in many cases.
• During stateside training, Lightning pilots were taught to fly at high rpm settings and low engine manifold pressure during cruise flight. This was very hard on the engines, and not in keeping with technical directives issued by Allison and Lockheed.
• The quality of fuel in England may have been poor, TEL (tetraethyl lead) fuel additive appeared to condense inside engine induction manifolds, causing detonation (destructive explosion of fuel mixture rather than controlled burning).
• Improved turbo supercharger intercoolers appeared on the J model P-38. These devices greatly reduced manifold temperatures but this encouraged TEL condensation in manifolds during cruise flight and increased spark plug fouling.
Using water injection to minimize detonation might have reduced these engine problems. Both the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and the North American P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection) were fitted with water injection systems but not the P-38. Lightning pilots continued to fly, despite these handicaps.
During November 1942, two all-Lightning fighter groups, the 1st and the 14th, began operating in North Africa. In the Mediterranean Theater, P-38 pilots flew more sorties than Allied pilots flying any other type of fighter. They claimed 608 enemy a/c destroyed in the air, 123 probably destroyed and 343 damaged, against the loss of 131 Lightnings.
In the war against Japan, the P-38 truly excelled. Combat rarely occurred above 6,080 m (20,000 ft) and the engine and cockpit comfort problems common in Europe never plagued pilots in the Pacific Theater. The Lightning’s excellent range was used to full advantage above the vast expanses of water. In early 1945, Lightning pilots of the 12th Fighter Squadron, 18th Fighter Group, flew a mission that lasted 10 ½ hours and covered more than 3,220 km (2,000 miles). In August, P-38 pilots established the world’s long-distance record for a World War II combat fighter when they flew from the Philippines to the Netherlands East Indies, a distance of 3,703 km (2,300 miles). During early 1944, Lightning pilots in the 475th Fighter Group began the ‘race of aces.’ By March, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas J. Lynch had scored 21 victories before he fell to antiaircraft gunfire while strafing enemy ships. Major Thomas B. McGuire downed 38 Japanese aircraft before he was killed when his P-38 crashed at low altitude in early January 1945. Major Richard I. Bong became America’s highest scoring fighter ace (40 victories) but died in the crash of a Lockheed P-80 (see NASM collection) on August 6, 1945.
Museum records show that Lockheed assigned the construction number 422-2273 to the National Air and Space Museum’s P-38. The Army Air Forces accepted this Lightning as a P-38J-l0-LO on November 6, 1943, and the service identified the airplane with the serial number 42-67762. Recent investigations conducted by a team of specialists at the Paul E. Garber Facility, and Herb Brownstein, a volunteer in the Aeronautics Division at the National Air and Space Museum, have revealed many hitherto unknown aspects to the history of this aircraft.
Brownstein examined NASM files and documents at the National Archives. He discovered that a few days after the Army Air Forces (AAF) accepted this airplane, the Engineering Division at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, granted Lockheed permission to convert this P-38 into a two-seat trainer. The firm added a seat behind the pilot to accommodate an instructor who would train civilian pilots in instrument flying techniques. Once trained, these test pilots evaluated new Lightnings fresh off the assembly line.
In a teletype sent by the Engineering Division on March 2, 1944, Brownstein also discovered that this P-38 was released to Colonel Benjamin S. Kelsey from March 3 to April 10, 1944, to conduct special tests. This action was confirmed the following day in a cable from the War Department. This same pilot, then a Lieutenant, flew the XP-38 across the United States in 1939 and survived the crash that destroyed this Lightning at Mitchel Field, New York. In early 1944, Kelsey was assigned to the Eighth Air Force in England and he apparently traveled to the Lockheed factory at Burbank to pick up the P-38. Further information about these tests and Kelsey’s involvement remain an intriguing question.
One of Brownstein’s most important discoveries was a small file rich with information about the NASM Lightning. This file contained a cryptic reference to a "Major Bong" who flew the NASM P-38 on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field. Bong had planned to fly for an hour to evaluate an experimental method of interconnecting the movement of the throttle and propeller control levers. His flight ended after twenty-minutes when "the right engine blew up before I had a chance [to conduct the test]." The curator at the Richard I. Bong Heritage Center confirmed that America’s highest scoring ace made this flight in the NASM P-38 Lightning.
Working in Building 10 at the Paul E. Garber Facility, Rob Mawhinney, Dave Wilson, Wil Lee, Bob Weihrauch, Jim Purton, and Heather Hutton spent several months during the spring and summer of 2001 carefully disassembling, inspecting, and cleaning the NASM Lightning. They found every hardware modification consistent with a model J-25 airplane, not the model J-10 painted in the data block beneath the artifact’s left nose. This fact dovetails perfectly with knowledge uncovered by Brownstein. On April 10, the Engineering Division again cabled Lockheed asking the company to prepare 42-67762 for transfer to Wright Field "in standard configuration." The standard P-38 configuration at that time was the P-38J-25. The work took several weeks and the fighter does not appear on Wright Field records until May 15, 1944. On June 9, the Flight Test Section at Wright Field released the fighter for flight trials aimed at collecting pilot comments on how the airplane handled.
Wright Field’s Aeromedical Laboratory was the next organization involved with this P-38. That unit installed a kit on July 26 that probably measured the force required to move the control wheel left and right to actuate the power-boosted ailerons installed in all Lightnings beginning with version J-25. From August 12-16, the Power Plant Laboratory carried out tests to measure the hydraulic pump temperatures on this Lightning. Then beginning September 16 and lasting about ten days, the Bombing Branch, Armament Laboratory, tested type R-3 fragmentation bomb racks. The work appears to have ended early in December. On June 20, 1945, the AAF Aircraft Distribution Office asked that the Air Technical Service Command transfer the Lightning from Wright Field to Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma, a temporary holding area for Air Force museum aircraft. The P-38 arrived at the Oklahoma City Air Depot on June 27, 1945, and mechanics prepared the fighter for flyable storage.
Airplane Flight Reports for this Lightning also describe the following activities and movements:
6-21-45 Wright Field, Ohio, 5.15 hours of flying.
6-22-45Wright Field, Ohio, .35 minutes of flying by Lt. Col. Wendel [?] J. Kelley and P. Shannon.
6-25-45Altus, Oklahoma, .55 hours flown, pilot P. Shannon.
6-27-45Altus, Oklahoma, #2 engine changed, 1.05 hours flown by Air Corps F/O Ralph F. Coady.
10-5-45 OCATSC-GCAAF (Garden City Army Air Field, Garden City, Kansas), guns removed and ballast added.
10-8-45Adams Field, Little Rock, Arkansas.
5-28-46Freeman Field, Indiana, maintenance check by Air Corps Capt. H. M. Chadhowere [sp]?
7-24-46Freeman Field, Indiana, 1 hour local flight by 1st Lt. Charles C. Heckel.
7-31-46 Freeman Field, Indiana, 4120th AAF Base Unit, ferry flight to Orchard Place [Illinois] by 1st Lt. Charles C. Heckel.
On August 5, 1946, the AAF moved the aircraft to another storage site at the former Consolidated B-24 bomber assembly plant at Park Ridge, Illinois. A short time later, the AAF transferred custody of the Lightning and more than sixty other World War II-era airplanes to the Smithsonian National Air Museum. During the early 1950s, the Air Force moved these airplanes from Park Ridge to the Smithsonian storage site at Suitland, Maryland.
• • •
Quoting from Wikipedia | Lockheed P-38 Lightning:
The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was a World War II American fighter aircraft built by Lockheed. Developed to a United States Army Air Corps requirement, the P-38 had distinctive twin booms and a single, central nacelle containing the cockpit and armament. Named "fork-tailed devil" by the Luftwaffe and "two planes, one pilot" by the Japanese, the P-38 was used in a number of roles, including dive bombing, level bombing, ground-attack, photo reconnaissance missions, and extensively as a long-range escort fighter when equipped with drop tanks under its wings.
The P-38 was used most successfully in the Pacific Theater of Operations and the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations as the mount of America’s top aces, Richard Bong (40 victories) and Thomas McGuire (38 victories). In the South West Pacific theater, the P-38 was the primary long-range fighter of United States Army Air Forces until the appearance of large numbers of P-51D Mustangs toward the end of the war. The P-38 was unusually quiet for a fighter, the exhaust muffled by the turbo-superchargers. It was extremely forgiving, and could be mishandled in many ways, but the rate of roll was too slow for it to excel as a dogfighter. The P-38 was the only American fighter aircraft in production throughout American involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to Victory over Japan Day.
Variants: Lightning in maturity: P-38J
The P-38J was introduced in August 1943. The turbo-supercharger intercooler system on previous variants had been housed in the leading edges of the wings and had proven vulnerable to combat damage and could burst if the wrong series of controls were mistakenly activated. In the P-38J model, the streamlined engine nacelles of previous Lightnings were changed to fit the intercooler radiator between the oil coolers, forming a "chin" that visually distinguished the J model from its predecessors. While the P-38J used the same V-1710-89/91 engines as the H model, the new core-type intercooler more efficiently lowered intake manifold temperatures and permitted a substantial increase in rated power. The leading edge of the outer wing was fitted with 55 gal (208 l) fuel tanks, filling the space formerly occupied by intercooler tunnels, but these were omitted on early P-38J blocks due to limited availability.
The final 210 J models, designated P-38J-25-LO, alleviated the compressibility problem through the addition of a set of electrically-actuated dive recovery flaps just outboard of the engines on the bottom centerline of the wings. With these improvements, a USAAF pilot reported a dive speed of almost 600 mph (970 km/h), although the indicated air speed was later corrected for compressibility error, and the actual dive speed was lower. Lockheed manufactured over 200 retrofit modification kits to be installed on P-38J-10-LO and J-20-LO already in Europe, but the USAAF C-54 carrying them was shot down by an RAF pilot who mistook the Douglas transport for a German Focke-Wulf Condor. Unfortunately the loss of the kits came during Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier‘s four-month morale-boosting tour of P-38 bases. Flying a new Lightning named "Snafuperman" modified to full P-38J-25-LO specs at Lockheed’s modification center near Belfast, LeVier captured the pilots’ full attention by routinely performing maneuvers during March 1944 that common Eighth Air Force wisdom held to be suicidal. It proved too little too late because the decision had already been made to re-equip with Mustangs.
The P-38J-25-LO production block also introduced hydraulically-boosted ailerons, one of the first times such a system was fitted to a fighter. This significantly improved the Lightning’s rate of roll and reduced control forces for the pilot. This production block and the following P-38L model are considered the definitive Lightnings, and Lockheed ramped up production, working with subcontractors across the country to produce hundreds of Lightnings each month.
Noted P-38 pilots
Richard Bong and Thomas McGuire
The American ace of aces and his closest competitor both flew Lightnings as they tallied 40 and 38 victories respectively. Majors Richard I. "Dick" Bong and Thomas J. "Tommy" McGuire of the USAAF competed for the top position. Both men were awarded the Medal of Honor.
McGuire was killed in air combat in January 1945 over the Philippines, after racking up 38 confirmed kills, making him the second-ranking American ace. Bong was rotated back to the United States as America’s ace of aces, after making 40 kills, becoming a test pilot. He was killed on 6 August 1945, the day the atomic bomb was dropped on Japan, when his P-80 Shooting Star jet fighter flamed out on takeoff.
The famed aviator Charles Lindbergh toured the South Pacific as a civilian contractor for United Aircraft Corporation, comparing and evaluating performance of single- and twin-engined fighters for Vought. He worked to improve range and load limits of the F4U Corsair, flying both routine and combat strafing missions in Corsairs alongside Marine pilots. In Hollandia, he attached himself to the 475th FG flying P-38s so that he could investigate the twin-engine fighter. Though new to the machine, he was instrumental in extending the range of the P-38 through improved throttle settings, or engine-leaning techniques, notably by reducing engine speed to 1,600 rpm, setting the carburetors for auto-lean and flying at 185 mph (298 km/h) indicated airspeed which reduced fuel consumption to 70 gal/h, about 2.6 mpg. This combination of settings had been considered dangerous; it was thought it would upset the fuel mixture and cause an explosion. Everywhere Lindbergh went in the South Pacific, he was accorded the normal preferential treatment of a visiting colonel, though he had resigned his Air Corps Reserve colonel’s commission three years before. While with the 475th, he held training classes and took part in a number of Army Air Corps combat missions. On 28 July 1944, Lindbergh shot down a Mitsubishi Ki-51 "Sonia" flown expertly by the veteran commander of 73rd Independent Flying Chutai, Imperial Japanese Army Captain Saburo Shimada. In an extended, twisting dogfight in which many of the participants ran out of ammunition, Shimada turned his aircraft directly toward Lindbergh who was just approaching the combat area. Lindbergh fired in a defensive reaction brought on by Shimada’s apparent head-on ramming attack. Hit by cannon and machine gun fire, the "Sonia’s" propeller visibly slowed, but Shimada held his course. Lindbergh pulled up at the last moment to avoid collision as the damaged "Sonia" went into a steep dive, hit the ocean and sank. Lindbergh’s wingman, ace Joseph E. "Fishkiller" Miller, Jr., had also scored hits on the "Sonia" after it had begun its fatal dive, but Miller was certain the kill credit was Lindbergh’s. The unofficial kill was not entered in the 475th’s war record. On 12 August 1944 Lindbergh left Hollandia to return to the United States.
The seventh-ranking American ace, Charles H. MacDonald, flew a Lightning against the Japanese, scoring 27 kills in his famous aircraft, the Putt Putt Maru.
Main article: Robin Olds
Robin Olds was the last P-38 ace in the Eighth Air Force and the last in the ETO. Flying a P-38J, he downed five German fighters on two separate missions over France and Germany. He subsequently transitioned to P-51s to make seven more kills. After World War II, he flew F-4 Phantom IIs in Vietnam, ending his career as brigadier general with 16 kills.
A P-38 piloted by Clay Tice was the first American aircraft to land in Japan after VJ-Day, when he and his wingman set down on Nitagahara because his wingman was low on fuel.
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
Noted aviation pioneer and writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry vanished in a F-5B-1-LO, 42-68223, c/n 2734, of Groupe de Chasse II/33, out of Borgo-Porreta, Bastia, Corsica, a reconnaissance variant of the P-38, while on a flight over the Mediterranean, from Corsica to mainland France, on 31 July 1944. His health, both physical and mental (he was said to be intermittently subject to depression), had been deteriorating and there had been talk of taking him off flight status. There have been suggestions (although no proof to date) that this was a suicide rather than an aircraft failure or combat loss. In 2000, a French scuba diver found the wreckage of a Lightning in the Mediterranean off the coast of Marseille, and it was confirmed in April 2004 as Saint-Exupéry’s F-5B. No evidence of air combat was found. In March 2008, a former Luftwaffe pilot, Horst Rippert from Jagdgruppe 200, claimed to have shot down Saint-Exupéry.
The RAF’s legendary photo-recon "ace", Wing Commander Adrian Warburton DSO DFC, was the pilot of a Lockheed P-38 borrowed from the USAAF that took off on 12 April 1944 to photograph targets in Germany. W/C Warburton failed to arrive at the rendezvous point and was never seen again. In 2003, his remains were recovered in Germany from his wrecked USAAF P-38 Lightning.
Some cool automobile plastic parts made in china images:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Vought F4U-1D Corsair, with P-40 Warhawk in background
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Vought F4U-1D Corsair :
By V-J Day, September 2, 1945, Corsair pilots had amassed an 11:1 kill ratio against enemy aircraft. The aircraft’s distinctive inverted gull-wing design allowed ground clearance for the huge, three-bladed Hamilton Standard Hydromatic propeller, which spanned more than 4 meters (13 feet). The Pratt and Whitney R-2800 radial engine and Hydromatic propeller was the largest and one of the most powerful engine-propeller combinations ever flown on a fighter aircraft.
Charles Lindbergh flew bombing missions in a Corsair with Marine Air Group 31 against Japanese strongholds in the Pacific in 1944. This airplane is painted in the colors and markings of the Corsair Sun Setter, a Marine close-support fighter assigned to the USS Essex in July 1944.
Transferred from the United States Navy.
Vought Aircraft Company
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Overall: 460 x 1020cm, 4037kg, 1250cm (15ft 1 1/8in. x 33ft 5 9/16in., 8900lb., 41ft 1/8in.)
All metal with fabric-covered wings behind the main spar.
R-2800 radial air-cooled engine with 1,850 horsepower, turned a three-blade Hamilton Standard Hydromatic propeller with solid aluminum blades spanning 13 feet 1 inch; wing bent gull-shaped on both sides of the fuselage.
• • • • •
Whether known as the Warhawk, Tomahawk, or Kittyhawk, the Curtiss P-40 proved to be a successful, versatile fighter during the first half of World War II. The shark-mouthed Tomahawks that Gen. Claire Chennault’s "Flying Tigers" flew in China against the Japanese remain among the most popular airplanes of the war. P-40E pilot Lt. Boyd D. Wagner became the first American ace of World War II when he shot down six Japanese aircraft in the Philippines in mid-December 1941.
Curtiss-Wright built this airplane as Model 87-A3 and delivered it to Canada as a Kittyhawk I in 1941. It served until 1946 in No. 111 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force. U.S. Air Force personnel at Andrews Air Force Base restored it in 1975 to represent an aircraft of the 75th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, 14th Air Force.
Donated by the Exchange Club in Memory of Kellis Forbes.
Curtiss Aircraft Company
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Overall: 330 x 970cm, 2686kg, 1140cm (10ft 9 15/16in. x 31ft 9 7/8in., 5921.6lb., 37ft 4 13/16in.)
Single engine, single seat, fighter aircraft.