Cool Automotive Mold Design images

Cool Automotive Mold Design images

Some cool automotive mold design images:

1969 Lotus Europa S2 (09)
automotive mold design
Image by Georg Sander
The Lotus Europa was a two door mid-engined GT coupé built by Lotus Cars from 1966 to 1975. In 2006 Lotus began production of a totally new, Lotus Elise-derived design, a mid-engined GT coupé named Europa S.

The original Europa used Lotus founder Colin Chapman’s minimalist steel backbone chassis that was first used in the Lotus Elan, while also relying on its fibreglass moulded body for structural strength. The Europa was based on a prototype built to compete for Henry Ford II’s contract to build a Le Mans race car in the early 1960s.

The Europa was designed and built to be an embodiment of Chapman’s oft-stated philosophy of automotive design: "Simplify, then add lightness."

(Wikipedia)

– – –

Der Europa, im Dezember 1966 vorgestellt, war ursprünglich nur für die ausländischen (nicht-UK) Märkte bestimmt. Die ersten Fahrzeuge wurden nach Frankreich und in die Schweiz verkauft. Er verfügte über den gleichen Motor wie der Renault 16, jedoch war er hinter der Fahrgastzelle als Mittelmotor eingebaut. Dies verlieh dem Europa eine Straßenlage und Fahreigenschaften die eines Rennwagens würdig waren, auch sein Rahmen war für Motoren mit mehr als nur 1470 cm³ ausgelegt. Die Karosserie aus glasfaserverstärktem Polyester war mit einem Zentralträgerchassis aus Stahlblech zu einem geschlossenem Chassis verklebt. Diese Kombination war Voraussetzung für die hervorragenden Fahreigenschaften. Nur 296 Exemplare des ursprünglichen S1 (auf Basis des Grundgedankens des Lotus Gründers Colin Chapman ) wurden gebaut (Chassis Nummer 460001 bis 460296). Diese Fahrzeuge bestanden aus einer extrem minimalistischen Konstruktion, mit geschlossenen Seitenfenstern, festen Sitzen (nur die Pedale waren verstellbar), kaum Türverkleidungen und einfachen Aluminiuminstrumenten.

Ab 1969, anlässlich des Erscheinens der zweiten Serie (Europa S2), wurden Chassis und Karosserie miteinander verschraubt, was jedoch auch die ursprünglichen Fahreigenschaften änderte. Gleichzeitig wurde für den amerikanischen Markt ein Motor mit 1565 cm³ eingeführt. 1971 wurde der Europa TwinCam vorgestellt, der über einen Motor mit zwei Nockenwellen im Leichtmetallkopf und 1558 cm³ verfügte, wie er bereits im Lotus Elan eingebaut wurde. Ein Jahr später ging man zur leistungsgesteigerten Version „Big Valve“ (ähnlich wie beim Lotus Elan Sprint) über und verband ihn mit einem Renault 5-Gang-Getriebe. Diese neue Ausführung nannte man Europa Special.

(Wikipedia)

Nice Automotive Parts Mold photos

Nice Automotive Parts Mold photos

Some cool automotive parts mold images:

Kevlar fibre composite shear surface
automotive parts mold
Image by CORE-Materials
DoITPoMS, University of Cambridge

This is an image of the shear surface in a failed composite beam. ‘Hackles’ of matrix are clearly visible where shear has occurred within the matrix and it is also clear that shear has occurred across the fibre/matrix interface. The fibres are for the most part totally unscathed, though some mis-aligned fibres have become caught between the shear surfaces and ‘fibrillated’ by rolling and bending actions. It may be that this failure mechanism has been partly inhibited by poor fibre alignment since some off-axis fibres will reinforce the matrix in shear. It will have been promoted, however, by the extensive longitudinal voids.

System
Kevlar composite

Composition
Kevlar fibre, epoxy resin matrix

Reaction
Kevlar is a lyotropic liquid crystal polymer. This means that it can be readily processed in solution (in this case, sulphuric acid). It is annealed under tension to increase its elastic modulus

Processing
A crude Kevlar composite was made by laying out 40 tows of fibre, painting them with epoxy resin, compressing them in a mould, and curing them for five hours at 100-190 degrees C

Applications
Kevlar composites are used as a structural material in the aerospace and automotive industries, as well as in certain high-performance sporting equipment. They present exceptional stiffness and can be structurally optimised for particular load-bearing applications.

Sample preparation
The bar has been bent to failure in a three-point bending rig.

Technique
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

Contributor
J A Curran

Organisation
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge

View micrograph in DoITPoMS website

Image from page 935 of “Automotive industries” (1899)
automotive parts mold
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: automotiveindust44phil
Title: Automotive industries
Year: 1899 (1890s)
Authors:
Subjects: Automobiles Aeronautics
Publisher: Philadelphia [etc.] Chilton [etc.]
Contributing Library: Engineering – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
(1) One of a battery of four modern electric furnaces with a daily capacity of slif/htly more than 150 tons. (2) Pouring■ ■■:,■■■■ •■/ into ,„,,,,/ moulds ,„ the Timhen steel will. ( ?,, 11 ,,,1 ran I ir press ami electric manipulator where inuots arepressed into blooms. (4) Twenty-two inch, three stand rolling mill and tilting tables where blooms are converted intorounds and squares with a size range of from 2 in. to 6% in. (5) Twelve inch, three-stand rolling mill where bars for rollsare converted into coils and small rods. (6) Piercing mill where bars are converted into seamless tubes. 914 AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIESTHE AUTOMOBILE April 28, 1921

Text Appearing After Image:
there pierced seamless tubes are automatically finished. (8) Straightening machine where finished traii/lttened. (9) Bulldozer for fabrication of formed seamless tubes. (10) Part of the screw machine nibesare fabricated on automatic screw machines into green cups and cones. (11) Four spindle roller fuhrictihit,/ much nies where rods tire fabricated al high speed into <• rarictij a) si cs o) rolls held to much tiling tolerances not in excess of .003 of an inch. (12) Another view of the screw machine department where large cups and cones made from forgings are machined on automatic screw machines. (7) Reducing millseamless tubes aredepartment win re tul April 28, 1921 AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES THE AUTOMOBILE 915

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

4 remaining days of Major Project
automotive parts mold
Image by Matty Ring
The whiter coloured material is a mould made of silicon rubber, for the rims on my car. the yellow material is two part plastic.

Nice Automotive Parts Mold photos

Nice Automotive Parts Mold photos

Check out these automotive parts mold images:

Smart Doll Stand Material
automotive parts mold
Image by Danny Choo
The fixture in the back is removable but allows a stand to be mounted which allows dynamic poses like this one.
The frame is made from durable Polyoxymethylene – the following blurb about this material copied from WIkipedia.

Typical applications for injection-molded POM include high performance engineering components such as small gear wheels, ball bearings, ski bindings, fasteners, knife handles, lock systems, and model rocket launch buttons. The material is widely used in the automotive and consumer electronics industry. The M-16 rifle’s stock and other parts are made of it.

View more at www.dannychoo.com/en/post/27135/Smart+Doll+Manual+Version…

Nice Automotive Mould Manufacturing photos

Nice Automotive Mould Manufacturing photos

Check out these automotive mould manufacturing images:

Nomination 42 – Body Exterior – View A – Carbon Composite Hood Assembly
automotive mould manufacturing
Image by spe.automotive
CARBON COMPOSITE HOOD ASSEMBLY
•OEM Make & Model: Chrysler Group LLC 2013 model year (MY) SRT Viper® supercar
•Tier Supplier/Processor: Plasan Carbon Composites
•Material Supplier / Toolmaker: Umeco plc/Cytec Industries (carbon fiber weave prepreg); Toray Carbon Fibers Americas, Inc. (unidirectional carbon fiber prepreg); Ashland, Inc. (structural polyurethane adhesive) / Weber Manufacturing Technologies Inc.
•Material / Process: G83C T700S-24K carbon composite / Vacuum bag, autoclave cure
•Description: This hood assembly is a Class A CFRP part with a very large complex clamshell geometry. The painted Class A outer panel is complemented by an exposed weave inner panel. The part represents the largest Class A carbon fiber composite part provided to a mainstream OEM at volumes up to 3,000 vehicle sets/year. Design, tooling, and fabrication technologies from both marine and aerospace were employed for the first time in automotive to facilitate layup of the complex geometry with severe undercuts. Integrated mounting points using riv-nuts and studs are molded into the inner hood panel. Local section thickness was varied to meet structural requirements. The final part, incorporating fenders as well as hood is 44% lighter than the previous hood-only assembly in SMC, helping improve weight distribution and lower the vehicle’s center of gravity, for better vehicle dynamics and power-to-weight ratio.

Nice Automotive Mould Maker photos

Nice Automotive Mould Maker photos

Some cool automotive mould maker images:

Image from page 97 of “Automotive industries” (1899)
automotive mould maker
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: automotiveindust44phil
Title: Automotive industries
Year: 1899 (1890s)
Authors:
Subjects: Automobiles Aeronautics
Publisher: Philadelphia [etc.] Chilton [etc.]
Contributing Library: Engineering – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
Thereare a great many frames which taper materially in depth.For instance, the Scripps Booth, which is very noticeablein this respect, the depth of the frame being constant foronly a short portion of the length. The Maxwell is an-other example in which the frame tapers considerably indepth. The majority of frames, however, have only slighttaper and this takes place at the extremities. The bottle-neck type has about disappeared and in its place thetapered frame is used to get the narrow front end neces-sary to give narrow turning radius and a sightly frontend. There are not any noticeable steering developmentsexcept perhaps in the lubrication of the parts where prac-tice has been improved in line with what has already beensaid under the head of chassis lubrication. There is, how-ever, a tendency on the part of a great many to use heavieroversize parts. The Hupp has been materially strength-ened in this respect, the steering gear having been entirelyrevised and a larger unit installed.

Text Appearing After Image:
Spring shackle at rear end of Paige rear ,i, ing Front connection of rear spring on Paige January 13, 1921 AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES THE AUTOMOBILE 79 Clutches,Transmissions and Universal Joints By Herbert Chase THERE is little that is really new in the way ofclutches, although some makers have changed thetype employed. Substantially all of the higherprice cars use the multiple disk type running dry andfaced with molded or woven asbestos composition. Thenew Pierce-Arrow chassis is fitted with this type, havingfinally abandoned the cone type, which was standard onchassis built by this company for many years. There areto-day in this country but few makers who continue touse the cone clutch and the tendency both here and abroadis toward the multiple or the single disk type which, asa rule, is smoother in engagement and less apt to causeclashing of gears when changing, because it does not con-tinue to spin so long after disengagement. The plate orsingle disk type is very widely used in this c

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Cool High-quality Automotive Molding images

Cool High-quality Automotive Molding images

Some cool high-quality automotive molding images:

Nomination 49 – Materials – Controlled Crystallization Rate to Eliminate Paint
high-quality automotive molding
Image by spe.automotive
CONTROLLED CRYSTALLIZATION RATE TO ELIMINATE PAINT
•OEM Make & Model: Ford Motor Co. 2013MY Ford Escape CUV & Fusion® sedan, & Lincoln® MKZ® luxuary sedan
•Tier Supplier/Processor: TRW Automotive, Key Plastics LLC
•Material Supplier / Toolmaker: Asahi Kasei Plastics North America / Liberty Molds, Inc., J&J Tool & Mold Ltd.
•Material / Process: Leona® 90G60 B3374 PA 6/6 / 6I / injection molding
•Description: In order to support greater design freedom for any shape and length register vanes while meeting stiffness, durability, and perceived quality requirements, a partially aromatic injection-molded PA 6/6 / 6I resin was used to boost modulus without increasing wall thickness or adding glass reinforcement to achieve a high-quality, MIC Class A surface without paint. Owing to the "kinked" crystalline structure of the semi-aromatic PA resin, crystallization rate can be better controlled, so parts fully pack out before skins freeze off, leading to a resin-rich surface with a smoother surface and better appearance, eliminating the need to paint.

Extremely rigid construction
high-quality automotive molding
Image by felixdaacat
Superior passive safety is only one benefit of the extreme rigidity of a full carbon fiber monocoque – very high torsional rigidity is another. The monocoque is connected at the front and rear with equally rigid aluminum sub-frames, on which the suspension, engine and transmission are mounted.

The entire body-in-white of the future V12 model weighs only 229.5 kilograms (505 lbs) and boasts phenomenal torsional rigidity of 35,000 Newton meters per degree of twist. This guarantees a superb feeling of solidity, but, more importantly, extremely exact wheel control with excellent steering precision and sensitive feedback. For the dedicated driver, both are essential for truly enticing driving pleasure. The new Lamborghini flagship responds to the most minute steering input with the stunning precision of a perfectly balanced race car.

Depending on the form, function and requirements of the individual elements, the Lamborghini development team selected from three main CFRP manufacturing methods within its technology tool kit. They differ not only in their production processes, but also in the type of carbon fiber and its weave and, most importantly, in the chemical composition of the synthetic resin used.

Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM): In this process the carbon fiber mats are preformed and impregnated with an exact amount of resin. Afterwards, they are cured under heat while the part is in the mould. Lamborghini has achieved a major breakthrough by further developing this method. Using the patented “RTM-Lambo” process, the final mould is no longer a heavy, complex metal piece, but is made instead from lightweight carbon-fiber parts, thus making the manufacturing process faster, more flexible and more efficient.
An additional benefit of the RTM-Lambo process is the low injection pressure that doesn’t require expensive equipment.

Prepreg – The carbon fiber mats used in this method, commonly known as prepreg, are pre-injected by the supplier with a thermosetting liquid resin and must be stored at a low temperature. The mats are then laminated in molds and cured under heat and pressure in an autoclave. Prepreg components are complex to make, but have an extremely high-quality surface finish (Class-A surface quality) and are therefore the preferred option for use in visible locations.

Braiding – These components are manufactured by using RTM technology. This carbon fiber weave technology is derived from the textile industry and used to make tubular components for special applications such as structural roof pillars and rocker panels. The woven components are made by diagonally interweaving the fiber in several layers.

The monocoque of the new V12 super sports car is constructed using these technologies applied in a series of special processes. One significant advancement Lamborghini realized is the ability to use already-assembled monocoque elements as the mould for the next step in the process. This makes for a considerable simplification of the manufacturing process compared with conventional methods.

Epoxy foam components are also used within the monocoque. They are placed in strategic points to increase the stiffness of the monocoque by working as spacers between the composite layers while also dampening noise and vibration. In addition, aluminum inserts are laminated into the front and rear surfaces to facilitate connection with the aluminum front and rear sub-frame elements.

Because of the complexity of the materials and process outlined above, Lamborghini decided to produce its new monocoque completely in-house, managing one strategic step in the production process.

Quality control is an absolutely crucial factor – every single monocoque is measured to exacting tolerances of only 0.1 millimeters, facilitating the extreme precision of the overall vehicle. Quality control starts with the purchase of the carbon fiber parts. Every delivery of carbon fiber is certified and the material is checked regularly for compliance with quality standards. Lamborghini worked together with its suppliers to develop a world-exclusive fiber and resin system for its RTM technology. Ultimately, these materials and processes constitute an important part of Lamborghini’s worldwide leading expertise in the field.

Carbon composite materials – A key technology for tomorrow’s high-performance automotive engineering

These materials made from CFRP combine the lowest possible weight with excellent material characteristics – they are very light, extremely rigid and exceptionally precise.

Furthermore, CFRP materials can also be formed into highly complex components with integrated functions. This reduces the number of individual parts when compared to traditional metal construction – thus enabling further weight reduction. Lighter cars have lower fuel consumption and fewer CO2 emissions. Most significantly, however, it improves the power-to-weight ratio – the deciding factor in the overall feel and performance of a sports car. A super sports car built using CFRP accelerates faster, has superior handling and better braking.

Automotive Parts Moulding Available at Ease for OEMs

Automotive components moulding is a method by which spare components and accessories for automobile parts are manufactured and supplied to the automotive manufactures. Auto mould is generally a generic and holistic term for all the components of moulds that manufactured for vehicles. All kinds of moulds that are utilized in automobiles are known as auto moulds or automotive components mould.

Some major examples of auto moulds contain injection dies, injection moulds, stamping dies, forging dies, casting wax and glass moulds. There are numerous other parts in which auto moulds for the automobile manufactures are needed. This also holds the fact that all. All automotive stamping dies are also termed as the “automotive stamping dies.” Further to this auto moulds are also punching die are stamped on all kinds of automobiles.

Of course auto moulds are a specific series of plastic moulds that have application in vehicles. They are made and made as per the requirement of the automobiles panel dies, gages, assembly and welding fixing that has applications in the de4velopment of a sturdy body for the automobile
They form a special series of plastic moulds which are developed for certain purposes such as the following-

Auto interior or exterior parts -auto moulds are available to fulfil a full range of trim components for both the exterior and interior of the body of the car.
Vehicle Light Moulds created with strict top quality requirements with distinct sorts of plastic variants as per the specifications.

Other plastic components- other important parts of the auto moulds loved ones type the auto bumpers, instrument panels, inside door panels, door slip, rear view mirror, scratch rain, wheel cover, tank, shroud, fan etc. are also effortlessly accessible.

Auto lamp moulds – these are one more type of parts accessible to be provided to OEM as plastic automobile lamp moulds which are a specific category automotive moulds.

It is achievable to effortlessly procure these parts online as they supply chain procedure for OEMs have turn out to be genuinely feasible. The parts are accessible of highest top quality requirements and straightforward discounts from the web sites. They are created with the common procedures and technical capabilities of the workers. They are not only accessible to provide you the essential goods but also the preferred variety of specification for a certain automobile.

The most simple kind of moulds is plastic moulds that locate their applications in all sorts of purposes. The plastic moulds are also employed in creating the automotive moulds and other parts use in the car physique. They are obtainable in various configurations and well fitted for the most auto makers for distinct types of models. They are obtainable on-line and could be shipped in bulk to the supplier.

This report is written by Jacob Williams on behalf of HQMOULD . His understanding in plastic injection moulding companies has observed him contribute to and create numerous articles on subjects like Auto Parts Mould , plastic pipe fitting mould, commodity mould, china mould manufacturer, Plastic Injection Moulding Makers etc.

Plastic Moulds and Its Utilizes in Automotive Sector

Plastic is a synthetically formed non-metallic compound that has been extremely well-liked more than the years. Plastic plays a vital part in contributing to the modern globe economy. Plastic has turn out to be an vital element that has changed our lives to a great extent. Wherever we go, be it residence or workplace, roads or buying malls, hospitals or airports, the use of plastic can be well noticed. Plastic is utilised extensively in different industries to meet the domestic as properly as industrial specifications.

Plastic Pallet Mould is manufactured by heating the plastic pallets and pouring in the melted plastic into a custom created rigid mould and getting the preferred form following cooling. There are numerous processes of plastic mould manufacturing. The most frequent of these methods are: injection moulding, blow moulding, compression moulding, rotational moulding, and so forth. As the names recommend, the techniques differ in the methods of feeding the polymer in the machines and the step-smart processes connected with them. The plastic mould companies pick a processing approach based on their interest, price range, experience and sources.

Various industries opt for mass-created custom-made plastic moulds according to their certain requirements. The most frequent sector to use plastic pallet mould as raw material to manufacture a finished product is the automotive business. Automotive components makers order for plastic automotive moulds developed in plastic moulding factories in bulk quantities. These moulds are attached and employed to create a variety of complex automotive components or a automobile. Durability is the prime issue in Automotive Parts Moulding and automotive components ought to be robust and corrosion-totally free to make certain ultimate security and comfort to the end user. The cause of adapting plastic over metals and alloys is its durability and zero-upkeep function. Also, plastic doesn’t react to the environmental variables like air, light and moisture. In addition, plastic is regarded to be consuming much less energy and manpower.

Automotive Components Moulding is a critical enterprise that calls for skilled labor, expertise, arranging and infrastructure. China plastic mould makers and suppliers are the most sought right after all about the world for their good good quality item and affordable rates. To get new business and to retain clientele, the China suppliers concentrate on using the ideal skilled manpower and most recent technologies to make sure superior high quality of their items. Also, they are well aware of the adversities associated with plastic mould manufacturing. Plastic can impose specific risks on the overall health of human and other living creatures. Also, the factory emissions and wastes harm the eco system by polluting the air and water. Along with the top quality of their goods, the manufacturers need to also be accountable about these unfavorable effects and take suitable measures of recycling and waste management in an atmosphere friendly manner.

This report is written by Jacob Williams on behalf of HQMOULD. His expertise in plastic moulding industry has noticed him contribute to and create a number of articles on topics like Plastic Mould, Automotive Parts Moulding, Plastic Pallet Mould, plastic mould china and plastic mould factory and so on.
Cool Automotive Interior Mold Factory pictures

Cool Automotive Interior Mold Factory pictures

Verify out these automotive interior mold factory images:

Lotus Europa
automotive interior mold factory
Image by pedrosimoes7
Cascais Classic Motorshow, Cascais, Portugal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

OVERVIEW

ManufacturerLotus Cars
Production1966–1975
Numbers produced:
Series S1: 296
Series S1A/S1B: 342
Series S2: four,294
Series Twin Cam: four,950

AssemblyHethel, Norfolk, England
Body and chassis
ClassSports automobile (S)
Body style2-door coupe
LayoutLongitudinal, Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine
1470 cc Renault A1K I4
1565 cc Renault 807 I4
1557 cc Lotus/Ford DOHC I4

DIMENSIONS

Wheelbase91 in (two,311 mm)
Length157.25 in (3,994 mm)
Width64.5 in (1,638 mm)
Height42.5 in (1,080 mm)
Curb weight1,350 to 1,570 lb (610 to 710 kg)

The Lotus Europa name is utilized on two distinct mid-engined GT coupé cars constructed by Lotus Cars. The original Europa and its variants comprise the Lotus Kinds 46, 47, 54, 65 and 74, and had been developed between 1966 and 1975. The second vehicle is the Sort 121 Europa S, a Lotus Elise-derived design made from 2006 to 2010.

EUROPA (1966-1975)

The Europa concept is believed to have originated throughout 1963 with drawings done by Ron Hickman, then director of Lotus Engineering, for Lotus’a bid for the Ford GT40 racing auto project. When that contract was lost to Lola Cars, Chapman chose to use Hickman’s highly effective aerodynamic design, which had a drag coefficient of only Cd .29, as the basis for a new mid-engined production model initially intended to succeed the Lotus 7.

By the mid-1960s, the mid-engine car configuration was nicely-established as the optimal design and style for Grand Prix automobiles, nonetheless almost no road cars yet employed this arrangement. Lotus planned the Europa to be a volume-created, two-seater mid-engined sports coupe constructed to reasonable expense, quite an ambitious purpose for the time.

Like all Lotus automobiles of the era, the Europa was created and constructed following Chapman’s oft-stated philosophy of automotive design: &quotSimplify, then add lightness&quot. To this end, a number of ingenius design approaches have been made by Lotus to allow it to economically overcome the many challenges presented by the novel mid-engined arrangement.

Production of the original Lotus Europa ceased in 1975, with a total of 9,230 cars of all models obtaining been built.

Style Attributes

Lotus Europa S2 interior (1968 black-badge model).
The Europa employed a lightweight, folded &amp welded &quotminimalist&quot boxed-steel backbone chassis with a fibreglass moulded body, a mixture that was first utilized by Lotus founder Colin Chapman in the Lotus Elan launched in 1962. Earliest versions of the Europa had the physique totally-bonded to the chassis for maximum structural stiffness, nevertheless this was soon changed to a bolted-on physique to let normal chassis and physique repairs to be created.

As opposed to the Elan, the Europa had no front-mounted engine or gearbox to accommodate, and so the Europa’s principal chassis member ran straight forward to intersect a large box-section cross-beam operating across the car amongst the front suspension points. At the rear, the chassis split into a &quotY&quot shape behind the cabin to accommodate the combined engine, transmission and final-drive components, and to support the rear suspension.

ENGINE AND TRANSAXLE

The sourcing of suitable engine, gearbox and final-drive components was regarded critical to the achievement of delivering a low-price mid-engined automobile. Chapman was keen to diversify beyond the Ford elements heavily used in earlier Lotus vehicles, and settled on using the engine and combined transmission/final-drive transaxle units not too long ago released by Renault for their Renault 16.

The 1470cc Renault engine was a light and contemporary design and style (if somewhat pedestrian in the Renault), while the matching Renault 16 transaxle seemed nearly ideal for the Europa project. In the Renault automobile, the transaxle sat ahead of the engine, driving the front wheels. By relocating the combined engine/transaxle unit to the rear of the auto and rotating it 180 degrees in strategy, Lotus could obtain a ready-made contemporary mid-engine configuration – albeit 1 with four reverse gears! By repositioning the differential crownwheel within the final drive assembly, the path of rotation of the output shafts was reversed, as a result correcting this &quotshortcoming&quot.

The Renault 16’s engine’s design and style was well-suited to Lotus’s needs. It utilized an aluminium block with cast-iron cylinder liners, which saved appreciable weight compared to the cast-iron blocks a lot more widespread at the time. It’s overhead-valve design and style had the camshaft situated higher-up in the block, resulting in a compact valve-train nicely suited for higher-rpm operation. Most importantly, all the engine ancillaries (water pump, belt-drives, alternator) have been driven off a v-belt pulley fixed to the transaxle end of the camshaft instead of getting driven by the engine’s crankshaft. When fitted to the Europa, this pulley location place all the engine’s ancillaries at its rear face giving straightforward access for maintenance, rather than them being positioned tough against the vehicle’s bulkhead as-for most standard engines.

For Lotus use the Renault engine was given a quantity of crucial improvements, like a higher compression ratio (ten.25 alternatively of 8.6), larger inlet valves, revised valve timings, dual valve springs and a twin-barrel carburettor. These alterations lifted the engine’s power by 30% from 63 bhp @ 5000 rpm to 82 bhp @ 6000 rpm.

For US export, a de-tuned 1565cc version was used giving 80 bhp @ 6000 rpm.

Later Europa models have been fitted with the same Ford-based Lotus Twin Cam engine utilized in the Lotus Elan range because 1962. This was a sophisticated, twin-overhead-cam, eight-valve higher-efficiency motor making 105 bhp in original kind (later lifted to 126 bhp in &quotbig-valve&quot kind), and it was reported that Lotus initially delayed its introduction in the Europa till they had been confident in the strength of the Renault transaxle. The twin-cam engine 1st appeared in the Europa in 1971.

When Renault released their most effective 16 TX model in 1973, it included a strengthened 5-speed transmission. Lotus rapidly offered this gearbox as an selection in the Europa, along with their Massive Valve twin-cam engine.

SUSPENSION

The Europa’s four-wheel independent suspension was also typical Chapman pondering. The front utilised lightweight pressed steel upper and reduced wishbones with a clever coil-more than spring-damper arrangement, all connected to the wheels using off-the-shelf front uprights, ball joints and trunnions. The steering gear was solid-mounted rack and pinion employing Truimph Herald elements.

The rear suspension was a heavily modified version of the Chapman strut, initially developed for Chapman’s earlier Formula racing automobile styles and utilised in the Lotus Elan. In the Europa, the vertical &quotstrut&quot element pivots on the wheel hub at its reduce end and doesn’t control wheel camber angle as-in earlier Lotus styles. Wheel place and alignment is controlled as an alternative by interaction between a fixed-length, articulated driveshaft top hyperlink, a easy tubular decrease hyperlink, and a massive box-section radius arm operating diagonally forward to the chassis.

These radius arms played a critical part in providing the precise tracking and handling desired, as the Chapman Strut’s use of the driveshaft to resist lateral forces was compromised by the rubber engine and transaxle mounts necessary to isolate vibrations from the auto body. A careful compromise in between the radius arm mount’s stiffness, isolation and automobile handling was needed, culminating ultimately in a sandwich bush that was flexible against shear but stiff in compression and tension.

The car’s subsequent resulting handling prompted automotive writers to describe the Europa as the nearest factor to a Formula car for the road.

Series 1[edit]

Lotus Europa Series 1 (Variety 46)
The Series 1 or S1 Europa (also identified as Lotus Type 46) was announced for sale to European markets on December 20, 1966. The first vehicles were delivered in France in February 1967. Volkswagen owned the rights to the Europa name in Germany, so vehicles for sale in Germany had been badged Europe rather than Europa.

The S1 was fitted with a modified Renault 16 1470 cc inline-4 engine and a four-speed gearbox. The engine was a unique 82 hp (61 kW) version (as opposed to the 52 hp (39 kW) generated in standard type). Lotus adapted the affordable but lightweight Renault engine and gearbox to the revolutionary Europa longitudinal mid-engined layout, inverting the gearbox’s crown wheel on its pinion gear to avoid obtaining 4 reverse gears. The S1 weighed 610 kg (1512 lb). Autocar magazine achieved a prime speed of 121 mph (195 km/h), and did 0–60 mph in 9.3 seconds. Of particular note, in excess of .9 g (eight m/s²) lateral acceleration was regularly accomplished by Car magazine on road tires of that era.

Only 296 examples of the S1 had been manufactured (chassis numbers from 460001 to 460296). These are the rarest on the marketplace. These vehicles had incredibly light and minimalist building, with fixed side windows, fixed seats (adjustable pedals needing the use of tools), no door handles, no internal door covers, and an aluminum dashboard. The steel chassis central beam was sandwiched (incorporated) within the fibreglass bodywork, hence reinforcing stiffness, but producing repair rather complex.

Series 1A and B (about 350 constructed) had removable side windows, wooden dashboard, and internal door panel covers which could accommodate the windows when taken off. Series 1B had a redesigned rear panel, with new, rectangular light clusters.[citation necessary]

Which includes the S1A and S1B (which incorporated some of the later S2 modifications) variations, 644 Europa S1s have been manufactured.

SERIES two

The Europa Series 2, or Lotus Variety 54, was introduced in April 1968 (approximately chassis quantity 0645 onwards). The S2 utilized the very same 1470cc Renault engine and mecahnical components as the earlier Series 1, but added a number of essential refinements including opening electric windows, adjustable seats, a new completely carpeted interior and a polished wooden fascia panel for the dashboard. The most significant alter was the switch from fully-bonded building to the use of bolt fasteners to attach the fibreglass body to the backbone steel frame. Even though decreasing the torsional and flexural stiffneses somewhat, the use of a separable body was welcomed by the automotive insurance business as it greatly reduced the complexity and price of making repairs to the car.

Early examples of the S2 had been externally almost identical to the S1 with the exception of the new windows. From early 1969, secondary front indicator lamp nacelles have been added in between the headlights, and bigger door handles had been utilized in place of the S1’s push-button products. In the course of 1968 a quantity of Europas (and Elans) were made bearing black-and-silver Lotus badges on the nose and steering wheel in place of the customary yellow-and-green ones. The official Lotus Cars website states these &quotblack-badge&quot automobiles have been to commemorate the tragic death earlier in 1968 of Jim Clark, Lotus’s champion Formula 1 driver, however this is debated by other sources.

1968 Lotus Europa S2. The early S2 models had been developed with S1-style front indicators and door handles. Note the S2 two-pane opening windows.
Modern road tests for the Europa S2 recorded a top speed about 120 mph (195 kph), -60 occasions of 9.3 secs, standing 1/4 mile occasions around 16.7 secs, and an all round fuel economy about 30 mpg (9.4 L/one hundred km).

A modest number of Series 2 cars had been modified to be &quotfederalized&quot for export to the United States. These Federal Kind 54s had the low front fenders (guards) of the European model and the larger 1565cc engine of the later Lotus Kind 65. These vehicles have been subsequently recalled by Lotus due to the headlamps becoming beneath the regulated US height (a &quotbug eye&quot headlamp raiser was later to be installed).

In 1969-70, the Kind 65 (also known as S2 Federal) was born especially for export to the U.S., with extra changes to the body, chassis, suspension and the powerplant to much better comply with U.S. D.O.T. requirements. Amongst the modifications, the engine was a slightly modified emission controlled Renault 16TL 1565 cc engine producing 80 hp rather than the 1470 cc engine of the Kind 54. The front suspension was changed to make the front end of the auto taller along with taller front fenders to raise the headlamps. Road &amp Track magazine tested the Federal S2 and recorded -60 mph in 9.6 seconds with a prime speed of 116 mph (187 km/h).

In total Lotus produced three,615 Europa S2s.

TWIN CAM AND Unique

In 1971, the Type 74 Europa Twin Cam was produced accessible to the public, with a 105 bhp 1557cc Lotus-Ford Twin Cam engine (105 bhp US &quotFederal&quot emission normal emissions handle version with Stromberg carburetors, till the finish of production) and a re-designed bodyshell to increase rearward visibility. Initially with the exact same gearbox as the earlier vehicles, once the supply had been exhausted in 1972 a new stronger Renault four-speed gearbox (Kind 352) was introduced. Mike Kimberley, who rose to turn into chief executive of Group Lotus, then a new engineer at Lotus, was appointed Chief Engineer of the Europa TC project. 1,580 cars had been shipped as Europa &quotTwin Cam&quot before Lotus switched to a 126 bhp &quotBig Valve&quot version of the engine.

The huge valve &quotEuropa Particular&quot version was aspirated by Dell’Orto carburettors version of the very same engine in addition it also supplied a new Renault 5-speed (Type 365) gearbox choice. It weighed 740 kg (1631 lb), Motor magazine famously tested a UK Specific to a leading speed of 123 mph (198 km/h), did 0–60 mph in 6.6 seconds, and ran the 1/4 mile in 14.9 sec. This at a time when all road tests were carried out with both a driver and passenger, with only the driver on board the 0–60 mph time would have been well beneath 6 seconds, a phenomenal performance for the period.

1974 LOTUS EUROPA Unique

Introduced in September 1972 the first 100 large valve automobiles have been badged and painted to honour the just won Team Lotus’s 1972 F1 Globe Championship title with John Player Particular as sponsors, all with five-speed gearbox, these had been all black with gold pin stripe matching the livery of the GP cars – plus a numbered JPS dash board badge, becoming the first ever John Player Special commemorative motor autos. The &quotSpecial&quot name and colour scheme was planned to be dropped following the 1st 200 automobiles, reverting to the Twin Cam name, but such was the positive reaction to the new car that the name and pin stripe scheme remained until the end of Europa Production despite the fact that colours other than black have been created accessible.

In the end the numbered plaque distinguished the first, original, 100 JPS cars from other black Europa Specials.

In total 4710 Type 74s have been developed of which 3130 have been badged &quotSpecials&quot.

Sort 47 AND 62

LOTUS Variety 47

Though the original Europa was intended as a clubmans sports racer to replace the Lotus 7, it was realised that the automobile would be uncompetitive with the Renault engines accessible. A choice was for that reason created for Lotus Elements to manufacture a specialist race auto based on the Europa to be raced by Group Lotus and sold to private entrants.

Even though the extremely first Variety 47 was primarily based on a modified Europa, all subsequent automobiles have been produced completely by Lotus Elements rather than the main factory. Launched at the same time as the S1 Europa, the body of the 47 was thinner than the common Europa and with bigger wheel arches. Side vents into the engine bay have been added right after the 1st handful of automobiles experiencing difficulties with engine bay temperature.

The engine, gearbox and rear suspension had been completely different from the normal Europa and have been taken in their entirety from the Lotus 23/Lotus 22 Formula Junior with a Lotus-Ford Twin Cam primarily based 165 hp (123 kW) 1,594 cc Cosworth Mk.XIII dry sump engine, and a Hewland FT 200 five-speed gearbox and suspension with reversed bottom wishbone, top hyperlink and dual radius arms. The front upright was specially cast in common with the F2 version of Lotus 41X to accommodate a larger Girling brake for the later 47A model (which had the Alfa Romeo tail lamp shared with the Europa S2) with reinforced front frame.

The Kind 47 precise production numbers are unknown, the last auto was 47GT-85 but it is unlikely 85 47GT’s had been made, estimates vary from 55 to 68 during the years 1966-70. Although the 47GT is the very best known, a handful of 47F’s were produced, these had the detachable physique equivalent to the S2 Europa, but retaining the massive wheel arches and side vents of the 47GT. Fitted with a tuned Ford cross flow engine but with the Renault gearbox and rear suspension of the Europa. The quantity created is unknown but probably no much more than six.

As a mobile test bed for the new two litre Lotus 907 engine getting developed for the forthcoming Elite and Eclat, the Sort 62 was produced. Only two such cars have been ever created. These have been space frame automobiles with F1 suspension to deal with the 240 hp from the engine. Although deliberately created to resemble the Europa, in practice the only connection to the Europa was a couple of of the Europa’s physique panels. It did win its very first event the 1969 BOAC 500 at Brands Hatch with John Miles and Brian Muir at the wheel. Replica 47’s and 62’s are bespoke-manufactured by Banks Europa Engineering, in a number of variations. A a single-off 47, fitted with a Rover V8 engine (3.five litre enlarged out to four.4 litre), was constructed for GKN in 1968 and registered, GKN 47D, with 300 hp it was capable of 180 mph (290 km/h).

NON-FACTORY CUSTOM SPECIALS

Throughout its life, the Europa attracted the consideration of numerous non-Lotus automotive customising businesses who supplied &quotspecial&quot versions in tiny numbers to the public. Amongst these was the Swiss Lotus importer, who produced two specific versions of the S2 fitted with the Renault 16 TS variety 807 engine, the &quotEuropa Hemi 807&quot and the fuel injected &quotEuropa Black Shadow 807&quot. The Hemi 807 had 105 PS (77 kW) SAE and could attain 200 km/h (124 mph), even though the Black Shadow had 137 PS (101 kW) on tap. The Black Shadow also received a five-speed gearbox.

These automobiles had a wider track, specific wheels and stickers, white indicator lights up front, and featured extractor vents higher on the side panel behind the rear door. The fuel injection program was from Kugelfischer.