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Stalinorgel. Stalin’s Organ. Сталинский орган.
Image by Peer.Gynt
Katyusha multiple rocket launchers (Russian: Катюша) are a variety of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in Planet War II. Compared to other artillery, these numerous rocket launchers deliver a devastating quantity of explosives to an location target speedily, but with decrease accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but low-cost and easy to produce. Katyushas of World War II, the initial self-propelled artillery mass-made by the Soviet Union, have been usually mounted on trucks. This mobility gave Katyushas (and other self-propelled artillery) one more benefit: getting capable to provide a big blow all at once, and then move prior to being positioned and attacked with counter-battery fire.
Katyusha weapons of Globe War II included the BM-13 launcher, light BM-8, and heavy BM-31. These days, the nickname is also applied to newer truck-mounted Soviet numerous rocket launchers—notably the typical BM-21—and derivatives.
Initially, the secrecy kept their military designation from becoming recognized by the soldiers who operated them. They had been known as by code names such as Kostikov Guns (soon after the head of the RNII), and lastly classed as Guards Mortars.[two] The name BM-13 was only permitted into secret documents in 1942, and remained classified until right after the war.[three]
Due to the fact they have been marked with the letter K, for Voronezh Komintern Factory, Red Army troops adopted a nickname from Mikhail Isakovsky’s well-known wartime song, Katyusha, about a girl longing for her absent beloved, who is away performing military service. Katyusha is the Russian equivalent of Katie, an endearing diminutive form of the name Katherine: Yekaterina →Katya →Katyusha.
German troops coined the sobriquet Stalin’s organ (German: Stalinorgel), soon after Soviet leader Joseph Stalin for its visual resemblance to a church musical organ and alluding to the sound of the weapon’s rockets. They are known by the identical name in Sweden. [four]
The heavy BM-31 launcher was also referred to as Andryusha (Андрюша, “Andrew”, endearing diminutive).[five]
Katyushas of Planet War II
Katyusha rocket launchers have been mounted on several platforms throughout Planet War II, which includes on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as properly as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons.
The style was relatively simple, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Every truck had amongst 14 and 48 launchers. The 132-mm diameter M-13 rocket of the BM-13 program was 180 centimetres (70.9 in) long, 13.2 centimetres (five.two in) in diameter and weighed 42 kilograms (92 lb). Initially, the caliber was 130 mm, but the caliber was changed (initial the designation, and then the actual size), to avoid confusing them with normal artillery shells. It was propelled by a solid nitrocellulose-primarily based propellant of tubular shape, arranged in a steel-case rocket engine with a single central nozzle at the bottom finish. The rocket was stabilised by cruciform fins of pressed sheet steel. The warhead, either fragmentation, high-explosive or shaped-charge, weighed around 22 kg (48 lb). The range of the rockets was about five.four kilometres (3.4 mi). Later, 82-mm diameter M-8 and 310-mm diameter M-31 rockets were also developed.
The weapon is much less accurate than standard artillery guns, but is really successful in saturation bombardment, and was particularly feared by German soldiers. A battery of 4 BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered four.35 tons of high explosives over a 4-hectare (ten acres) effect zone.[two] With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new place immediately following firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries were often massed in quite huge numbers to generate a shock impact on enemy forces. The weapon’s disadvantage was the lengthy time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to conventional guns which could sustain a continuous low price of fire.
The sound of the rocket launching also was distinctive in that the continuous "woosh" sound that came from the firing of the rockets could be employed for psychological warfare. The rocket’s devastating destruction also helped to decrease the morale of the German army.
Katyushas of Planet War II
Katyusha rocket launchers were mounted on numerous platforms in the course of World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as nicely as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons.
The design and style was relatively easy, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Each truck had in between 14 and 48 launchers. The 132-mm diameter M-13 rocket of the BM-13 method was 180 centimetres (70.9 in) extended, 13.2 centimetres (five.2 in) in diameter and weighed 42 kilograms (92 lb). Initially, the caliber was 130 mm, but the caliber was changed (initial the designation, and then the actual size), to keep away from confusing them with typical artillery shells[three]. It was propelled by a solid nitrocellulose-based propellant of tubular shape, arranged in a steel-case rocket engine with a single central nozzle at the bottom end. The rocket was stabilised by cruciform fins of pressed sheet steel. The warhead, either fragmentation, higher-explosive or shaped-charge, weighed about 22 kg (48 lb). The range of the rockets was about five.four kilometres (three.4 mi). Later, 82-mm diameter M-8 and 310-mm diameter M-31 rockets were also developed.
The weapon is significantly less correct than conventional artillery guns, but is incredibly successful in saturation bombardment, and was especially feared by German soldiers. A battery of 4 BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered four.35 tons of high explosives over a four-hectare (10 acres) impact zone.[two] With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new location quickly after firing, denying the enemy the chance for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries have been usually massed in extremely large numbers to produce a shock impact on enemy forces. The weapon’s disadvantage was the long time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to standard guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire.
The sound of the rocket launching also was unique in that the constant "woosh" sound that came from the firing of the rockets could be utilised for psychological warfare. The rocket’s devastating destruction also helped to reduced the morale of the German army.
BM-13 battery fire, throughout the Battle of Berlin, April 1945, with metal blast covers pulled over the windshields
The a number of rocket launchers had been top secret in the starting of World War II. A specific unit of the NKVD secret police was raised to operate them. On July 7, 1941, an experimental artillery battery of seven launchers was 1st used in battle at Orsha in Belarus, below the command of Captain Ivan Flyorov, destroying a station with several provide trains, and causing enormous German Army casualties. Following the achievement, the Red Army organized new Guards Mortar batteries for the help of infantry divisions. A battery’s complement was standardized at 4 launchers. They remained below NKVD handle till German Nebelwerfer rocket launchers became widespread later in the war.[six]
A battery of BM-31 multiple rocket launchers in operation
On August eight, 1941, Stalin ordered the formation of eight Special Guards Mortar regiments under the direct manage of the General Headquarters Reserve (Stavka-VGK). Each and every regiment comprised 3 battalions of three batteries, totalling 36 BM-13 or BM-8 launchers. Independent Guards Mortar battalions were also formed, comprising 36 launchers in 3 batteries of twelve. By the end of 1941, there had been eight regiments, 35 independent battalions, and two independent batteries in service, holding a total of 554 launchers.
In June 1942 Heavy Guards Mortar battalions were formed about the new M-30 static rocket launch frames, consisting of 96 launchers in three batteries. In July, a battalion of BM-13s was added to the establishment of a tank corps. In 1944, the BM-31 was used in Motorized Heavy Guards Mortar battalions of 48 launchers. In 1943, Guards Mortar brigades, and later divisions, have been formed equipped with static launchers.
By the end of 1942, 57 regiments have been in service—together with the smaller independent battalions, this was the equivalent of 216 batteries: 21% BM-8 light launchers, 56% BM-13, and 23% M-30 heavy launchers. By the end of the war, the equivalent of 518 batteries had been in service.
 Katyushas since World War II
Russian forces use BM-27 rocket launchers during the Second Chechen War
The accomplishment and economy of multiple rocket launchers (MRL) have led them to continue to be created. In the course of the Cold War, the Soviet Union fielded a number of models of Katyushas, notably the BM-21 launchers fitting the stereotypical Katyusha mould, and the larger BM-27. Advances in artillery munitions have been applied to some Katyusha-type a number of launch rocket systems, like bomblet submunitions, remotely-deployed land mines, and chemical warheads.
With the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited most of its military arsenal such as the Katyusha rockets. In recent history, they have been used by Russian forces in the course of the 1st and Second Chechen Wars and by Armenian and Azerbaijani forces during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. Georgian government forces are reported to have utilised BM-21 or related rocket artillery in fighting in the 2008 South Ossetia war.
Katyushas were exported to Afghanistan, Angola, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, East Germany, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Poland, Syria, and Vietnam. They were also constructed in Czechoslovakia, People’s Republic of China, North Korea, and Iran.[citation necessary]
Katyushas also saw action in the Korean War, utilised by the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army against the South and United Nations forces. Soviet BM-13s had been identified to have been imported to China prior to the Sino-Soviet split and had been operational in the People’s Liberation Army.
Israel captured BM-24 MRLs for the duration of the Six-Day War (1967), used them in two battalions in the course of the Yom Kippur War (1973) and the 1982 Lebanon War, and later created the MAR-240 launcher for the identical rockets, primarily based on a Sherman tank chassis. For the duration of the 2006 Lebanon War, Hezbollah fired between 3,970 and 4,228 rockets, from light truck-mounts and single-rail man-portable launchers. About 95% of these have been 122 mm (four.eight in) Syrian-manufactured Katyusha artillery rockets, which carried warheads up to 30 kg (66 lb) and had a range of up to 30 km (19 mi).. Hamas has launched 122-mm “Grad-type Katyusha” rockets from the Gaza Strip against a number of cities in Israel, even though they are not reported to have truck-mounted launchers.
Katyushas have been also allegedly utilized by the Rwandan Patriotic Front in the course of its 1990 invasion of Rwanda, by means of the 1994 genocide. They were successful in battle, but translated into much anti-Tutsi sentiment in the neighborhood media.
It was reported that BM-21 launchers had been employed against American forces for the duration of 2003 invasion of Iraq. They have also been utilized in the Afghanistan and Iraq insurgencies. In Iraq, according to Related Press and Agence France-Presse reports, Katyusha rockets had been fired at the Green Zone late March 2008.