2012 Era Jinbei 2.2L Armour Security vehicle

2012 Era Jinbei 2.2L Armour Security vehicle

Check out these auto moulds china images:

2012 Era Jinbei 2.2L Armour Security vehicle
auto moulds china
Image by Aero7MY
Photographed in Cyberjaya, Malaysia

Assembly : Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia

It’s a Toyota HiAce… or is it ? Well in a word; no… not really. The Era Jinbei, or Jinbei Haise (pronounced ‘Hi-sze’), as it’s best known in its home country of China, is actually a badge engineered fourth generation Toyota HiAce. However, you’d be forgiven for thinking that the Jinbei is a cheap copy of the popular HiAce. There are many other companies in China which shamelessly reverse engineer the HiAce, but Jinbei is the only one with formal ties to Toyota. Jinbei actually imports the technology, moulds and other important bits from Toyota, and the company managed to sell over 600,000 of these in China (as of 2010).

Malaysia first received the Jinbei van in 2009. It was renamed Era Jinbei, and initially came with a standard 2.2-litre petrol engine. It now comes with a 2.4L petrol and 2.8L diesel too. The Jinbei is assembled in Kulim, in the northern end of the Malay Peninsula by Berjaya Brilliance Auto, which is owned by none other than Malaysian tycoon, Vincent Tan through the Berjaya Group. The Jinbei van sold well in Malaysia at launch, and sales continued to climb since. The considerable success of the Jinbei van inspired other Malaysian companies to bring in other, similar Chinese vans like the Foton View, King Long Placer and Joy Long Komuter. Some may question why so many Malaysian businesses and organizations have been buying these arguably inferior Chinese vans…. and the answer is extremely simple; cost. These vans are cheap…. very cheap ! So cheap in fact, that one could buy two low-end Chinese vans for the cost of one high-end Toyota HiAce or Nissan Urvan. Toyota and Nissan have forgotten that some business and organizations just want something that fits as many people, with the smallest price tag. These are people who can’t be bothered by things like ride comfort, refinement, style… or even subjective matters like morality and dignity. And it’s hard to blame them… seeing how difficult it is to run a proper business these days in Kuala Lumpur, with rising living costs, fuel costs and whatnot. In that sense, these Chinese vans are a blessing in disguise.

I LIKE : Cheap to buy. Versatile. The fact that Jinbei didn’t just blatantly copy Toyota’s design, unlike the other Chinese companies.

I DISLIKE : Unrefined and unreliable. Not safe… don’t let that cheesy ‘ABS+EBD’ badge fool you. Weak engine.

2012 Era Jinbei 2.2L Armour Security vehicle
auto moulds china
Image by Aero7MY
Photographed in Cyberjaya, Malaysia

Assembly : Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia

It’s a Toyota HiAce… or is it ? Well in a word; no… not really. The Era Jinbei, or Jinbei Haise (pronounced ‘Hi-sze’), as it’s best known in its home country of China, is actually a badge engineered fourth generation Toyota HiAce. However, you’d be forgiven for thinking that the Jinbei is a cheap copy of the popular HiAce. There are many other companies in China which shamelessly reverse engineer the HiAce, but Jinbei is the only one with formal ties to Toyota. Jinbei actually imports the technology, moulds and other important bits from Toyota, and the company managed to sell over 600,000 of these in China (as of 2010).

Malaysia first received the Jinbei van in 2009. It was renamed Era Jinbei, and initially came with a standard 2.2-litre petrol engine. It now comes with a 2.4L petrol and 2.8L diesel too. The Jinbei is assembled in Kulim, in the northern end of the Malay Peninsula by Berjaya Brilliance Auto, which is owned by none other than Malaysian tycoon, Vincent Tan through the Berjaya Group. The Jinbei van sold well in Malaysia at launch, and sales continued to climb since. The considerable success of the Jinbei van inspired other Malaysian companies to bring in other, similar Chinese vans like the Foton View, King Long Placer and Joy Long Komuter. Some may question why so many Malaysian businesses and organizations have been buying these arguably inferior Chinese vans…. and the answer is extremely simple; cost. These vans are cheap…. very cheap ! So cheap in fact, that one could buy two low-end Chinese vans for the cost of one high-end Toyota HiAce or Nissan Urvan. Toyota and Nissan have forgotten that some business and organizations just want something that fits as many people, with the smallest price tag. These are people who can’t be bothered by things like ride comfort, refinement, style… or even subjective matters like morality and dignity. And it’s hard to blame them… seeing how difficult it is to run a proper business these days in Kuala Lumpur, with rising living costs, fuel costs and whatnot. In that sense, these Chinese vans are a blessing in disguise.

I LIKE : Cheap to buy. Versatile. The fact that Jinbei didn’t just blatantly copy Toyota’s design, unlike the other Chinese companies.

I DISLIKE : Unrefined and unreliable. Not safe… don’t let that cheesy ‘ABS+EBD’ badge fool you. Weak engine.

Lidded Box (He) with Peony Spray LACMA M.84.213.337a-b

Lidded Box (He) with Peony Spray LACMA M.84.213.337a-b

Check out these china box mold images:

Lidded Box (He) with Peony Spray LACMA M.84.213.337a-b
china box mold
Image by
Wikimedia Commons image page
Description

Title
Lidded Box (He) with Peony Spray

Description

: China, Fujian Province, Dehua County, Yuan dynasty, 14th-15th century
: Furnishings; Accessories
: Wheel-thrown porcelain with molded decoration and cream glaze
: Gift of Ambassador and Mrs. Edward E. Masters (M.84.213.337a-b)
: [http: //www.lacma.org/art/collection/chinese-art Chinese Art]

Accession number
M.84.213.337a-b

Date
14th-15th century

Dimensions
a) Lid height- 1 3/8 in. (3.49 cm); a) Lid diameter- 5 3/8 in. (13.65 cm); b) Body height- 1 5/8 in. (4.13 cm); b) Body diameter- 5 3/8 in. (13.65 cm); Overall height- 2 3/4 in. (6.99 cm); Overall diameter- 5 3/8 in. (13.65 cm)

Source
*Image: http: //collections.lacma.org/sites/default/files/remote_images/piction/ma-31791082-O3.jpg
*Gallery: http: //collections.lacma.org/node/249189

Institution
{{Institution: Los Angeles County Museum of Art}}

Permission
License
Public domain LACMA

Art of China in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Images from LACMA uploaded by Fæ
Images from LACMA uploaded by Fæ (check needed)

Image from page 5 of “Third annual exhibition of black and white art [electronic resource]” (1880)
china box mold
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: bml-SCR_N1206_Un3_Sa4
Title: Third annual exhibition of black and white art [electronic resource]
Year: 1880 (1880s)
Authors: Salmagundi Sketch Club National Academy of Design (U.S.)
Subjects: Drawing, American Prints, American
Publisher: New York, NY : [S.n.]
Contributing Library: Brooklyn Museum Libraries and Archives
Digitizing Sponsor: Metropolitan New York Library Council – METRO

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About This Book: Catalog Entry
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Text Appearing Before Image:

Text Appearing After Image:
MANUFACTURERS OF ARTISTS OIL COLORS, IN TUBES; 0-a.ist-VuA.s, ,a.o-a.x>e🇮🇲-s- ibo-a.m>s, MILLBOAKDS AND OIL SKETCHING PAPEES; Fine Brushes lax- Oil and Water Color Paintings Varnishes, Water Color Liquids, Oils, Flxatlf, etc. Wooden Panels,—Drawing Papers,—Sketching Books ana Blocks,—Pencils.—Mathematical Instruments,— Charcoal ana Crayon Drawing Materials,—Illustrated Books on Art,—Folding ana Stuaio Easels,— Drawing Boaras,—Studies,—Manikins ana Lay-Figures— Out-of-Door Sketching Boxes,— Sculptors Tools, Modeling Wax ana Clay. Winsor A Newtons Cake and Moist Water Colors, Oil Colors in Tubes, Canvas, Ac—Plaster Casts lor.Moaels. Materials for Pottery, Tile and China Decora- tion. Wax Slower ana Fruit Supplies,—Colors, Tools, Moulds ana Brushes. F. W. DEVOE & CO. will send a small copy of their new Illustrated and Priced Catalogueof Artists Materials, (257 pages), on receipt often cents, in postage stamps. >}MANUFACTURERSAND IMPORTERS OF WHI

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Image from page 1065 of “Hardware merchandising January-March 1916” (1916)
china box mold
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: hardmerchjanmar1916toro
Title: Hardware merchandising January-March 1916
Year: 1916 (1910s)
Authors:
Subjects: Hardware industry Hardware Implements, utensils, etc Building
Publisher: Toronto :
Contributing Library: Fisher – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: Algoma University, Trent University, Lakehead University, Laurentian University, Nipissing University, Ryerson University and University of Toronto Libraries

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Text Appearing Before Image:
ed lead is painted on.They are allowed to remain a day in thedrying room, then are cleaned with adamp cloth, rolled in paper and packedin boxes twenty to each. Art Glass Work A very important part of the activi-ties of a large glass concern is the artglass department. Here a large stockof the various shades of glass is kept.The colored glasses are mostly all madewith the use of chemicals. In the rubyglass the color is obtained by mixing insome pure gold. Cobalt blue is obtainedby adding the cobalt metal. An artistdesigns all the various patterns. Hemakes a drawing and indicates the num-ber and shade of the glass he desires.Another man cuts the glass and arrangesthe pieces according to the specificationson the drawing. These pieces are thenlaid together on a work table with theaid of the lead frames. When the de-sign is completely laid out the lead sec-tions are soldered together and a cementrun around the glass in the frame tokeep it securely in place. Copper frames HARDWARE AND METAL

Text Appearing After Image:
Mivi-h 18, 191! Arranging and cementing art glass designs. are used on some of the better classes ofart frames. Many Different Kinds of GlassIn addition to the art glass, plateglass and ordinary sheet glass there arcnumerous other kinds of glass, such asthe wired plate glass, which is usedlargely in skylights, elevator fronts, fac-tory window. Ordinary chicken wirenetting is molded into the centre of theglass and prevents the glass from fall-ing out should it become cracked. Thenthere is the prism glass for the purposeof reflecting light into the interior ofbuildings from alleyways and light wellsand other places where it is difficult toget a direct light ray. Also there arethe figured rolled glasses made in manypatterns and used as decorative glasses. Bending of Glass One of the most interesting processesin the manufacture of glass is the bend-ing of sheets to the various shapes re-quired in the trade. There are the hentjilates used in china cahinets, hook casesand cabinets of variou

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Nice Automobile Molds Manufacturers photos

Nice Automobile Molds Manufacturers photos

A few nice automobile molds manufacturers images I found:

1934 Delage D8SS
automobile molds manufacturers
Image by glennfrancosimmons_
This car was really hard to get good photos of because Blackhawk’s second-floor gallery is so dark. Eventually, I’ll see if I have better ones than these.

Blackhawk Automotive Museum contains masterpieces as elegant as any that you will find in the finest museums the world over.

If you believe that statement to be filled with a hubris of hyperbole, then you are probably not a classic-car lover and mistake automotive masterpieces as unworthy of being considered art. Yet it is art. I’ve often mentioned this when discussing Blackhawk.

Already more than two decades young, Blackhawk has gained an international reputation for its legendary automotive collection.

One of the finest vehicles in its galleries is this 1934 Delage D8SS — the only one of its kind ever made.

And Blackhawk has it, in addition to many other very, very rare vehicles.

Not only were Delage autos among the finest ever made in France, but they were renown the world over for their artistic symmetry.

Of the Delages produced, the finest masterpiece was the D8 with its four-liter straight-eight engine that was introduced at the Paris Salon in October 1929, with production continuing until 1933.

The D8 was an auto of elegance and beauty, as you can see by these photos.

Blackhawk said such attributes inspired "coachbuilders," as auto designers were then called, "to create their most-stylish designs."

The D8 developed into the D8S, a 102-hp engine, only to have a power increase up to 118-hp at 3,800 rpm, according to Blackhawk.

Not content with that, the D8SS had a power increase up to 145 hp at 4,500 rpm. One could call it speedy elegance.

Just imagine taking this beauty on a coastal ride up or down Highway 1.

The beautiful coachwork in this Delage resulted from a partnership with the skillful coachbuilders Fernandez & Darrin that reached its golden age with this special model.

"The coachbuilding firm of Fernandez & Darrin was formed through a partnership between American designer Howard ‘Dutch’ Darrin and Mr. Fernandez, a Parisian banker," Blackhawk notes.

Darrin was a former partner of the Hibbard & Darrin coachbuilding company, which Blackhawk said created "concours-winning body designs for the chassis of Europe’s most-prestigious luxury marques."

The beautifully elegant cabriolet shown in this post "has a removable panel over its front seat and length that is accented with polished aluminum on the hood and belt molding," Blackhawk notes.

"The Lalique crystal radiator mascot, ‘Tete de paon,’ depicts the proud peacock’s head in profile," Blackhawk states.

Engine:
7-cylinder, straight-eight, OHV
3.03" bore, 4.29" stroke
247 cubic inch
145 hp at 4,500 rpm

Body/Coachbuilder
Fernandez & Darrin
Paris, France.

Manufacturer
Automobiles Delage,
Courbevoie, Seine, France

Price when new: ,000 (chassis only in 1934 dollar valuation).

1930 Pierce Arrow Model B Victoria Coupe
automobile molds manufacturers
Image by Sicnag
Pierce Arrow Motor Car Company was an American automobile manufacturer based in Buffalo, New York, which was active from 1901 to 1938. Although best known for its expensive luxury cars, Pierce-Arrow also manufactured commercial trucks, fire trucks, camp trailers, motorcycles, and bicycles.
Early cars had the largest automobile engines in the world. In 1914 Pierce-Arrow adopted its most enduring styling hallmark when its headlights were moved from a traditional placement on either side of the radiator into flared housings molded into the front fenders of the car, this hallmark carried through to the last model in 1938.
In 1928 Studebaker took over Pierce Arrow.
For 1930 Pierce introduced the A, B, and C models. The A was the largest and most expensive, while the C was the cheapest of the three. Customers had four wheelbase sizes to select from, including 132, 134, 139 and 144 inches
Model B Engine; 125hp 365 cu in 6 cyl

Nice China Mould Make Maker photos

Nice China Mould Make Maker photos

A few nice china mould make maker images I found:

FOR SALE: Original North Light “Kitley Ladybird” – Dartmoor Pony mare
china mould make maker
Image by appaIoosa
Model # P1133 – bay
Size: 5-3/4"H x 6-1/2"L
Original mold, produced by North Light.
Identifying marks & logos:
On belly: "KITLEY LADYBIRD "
On right buttock cheek: " © North Light 1986 "
Inside right hind leg: " Godfrey "
Inside left hind leg: " MADE IN UK

This is a model of the classic British breed, the Dartmoor. These ponies are hardy and well balanced, originating in Devon, England. This breed is closely related to the Exmoor Pony and probably descended from the same stock. These ponies roamed wild over the rugged moorlands of southwestern Devon for many centuries. Toward the end of the 19th century, the breed’s traits were stabilized by the creation of the Dartmoor Pony Breed Society, with standard requirements. The maximum height for this pony is 12.2 hands high at the withers. She is a well-balanced pony with small head, ears and eyes. The mane and tail are thick and full. The neck is wide, the chest deep and muscular and the shoulders are strong and sloping.

This North Light model is a lovely representative of a Dartmoor Pony from the North Light Native Pony Series.

|||****************************|||

North Light model horse figurines are made of a porcelain and resin composition, which allow for the extensive mold detailing (some with individual hair detailing, braided manes & tails, etc) that is very evident in the finish. The figurines are finished in a studio where they are airbrushed with the body color and shading required for the particular breed piece. Next comes the hand detailing , which can be extensive, depending on the horses’ color pattern. Pinto and appaloosa patterns require extensive hand work, and vary greatly from horse to horse. Facial features also receive hand detailing, with expressive, lifelike eyes which have a final gloss application to make them look moist and realistic. Touches of pink are added to muzzles. Nostrils are darkened inside to add depth.

With this degree of hand detailing, each model horse will vary slightly.

North Light is a company located in Stoke-On-Trent, Staffordshire, England. The area is famous for its potteries and figurines, including the well known Wedgwood, Beswick and Royal Doulton brands. In 2005, the North Light factory was sold – including all existing North Light molds – to the company: WADE CERAMICS LTD (yes, the same company that made those little whimsy figurines found in red rose tea boxes years ago). Wade repackaged the existing North Light horses under their new trademark and resold them within the Wade division as "North Light @ Wade" horses.

Directly from Wade Co. website, verbatim:
———————————–
Contributed by Carol Atrak
Monday, 18 July 2005

We have pleasure in announcing that Wade has purchased certain assets from Dennis Doyle of the North Light resin figurine range. North Light, which will trade as a division within Wade as "North Light @ Wade", is famous for its range of dogs, farm animals, horses and wildlife figurines. They are manufactured in resin and hand painted. The "Classic Dog and Horse Ranges" are finished in marble, china blue, bronze, Monet and other effects to grace the sideboards and coffee tables of the World’s finest homes.

Managing Director, Paul Farmer said, "North Light @ Wade" will bring a new dimension to Wade’s figurine capability and Wade’s mechanisms for online purchases of its ceramic products will be adapted to cater for North Light products too. We are also looking forward to improving our ceramic hand painting techniques which come with the North Light asset purchase."

Artists, Guy Pocock and Anne Godfrey, have been retained to continue modelling new lines and Clare Beswick, from that famous family of figurine makers which bears her name, has been appointed Sales and Product Manager for North Light @ Wade.

The manufacture has been moved from Biddulph to a separate resin area within Wade’s Royal Victoria Pottery in Burslem.

In 2008, Wade announced they would no longer produce the North Light @Wade horses (and dogs) at the factory (in the UK). Instead they decided to release a new line: "North Light @ Wade Premier Collection" (consisting of 17 horses and 22 dogs) – to be produced in China. Many of the existing NL horses you see being sold on eBay (and elsewhere) today, bear the "made in China" sticker, along with the NL backstamp.

In 2009, Wade ceased production altogether on all existing North Light models . Today, North Light horses are no longer being produced, sold or marketed by Wade Ceramics, making these horses highly sought after, valuable and rare.

I have no idea what the Wade Co. decided to do with all the existing North Light horses. Some say they sold the existing molds to a company in China.

If your North Light horse has the "©North Light Made in the UK" backstamp, you have a very rare & valuable collectible indeed!

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Lockheed Martin X-35B Joint Strike Fighter, with other modern jet aircraft

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Lockheed Martin X-35B Joint Strike Fighter, with other modern jet aircraft

A few nice automobile plastic parts made in china images I found:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Lockheed Martin X-35B Joint Strike Fighter, with other modern jet aircraft
automobile plastic parts made in china
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed Martin X-35B STOVL:

This aircraft is the first X-35 ever built. It was originally the X-35A and was modified to include the lift-fan engine for testing of the STOVL concept. Among its many test records, this aircraft was the first in history to achieve a short takeoff, level supersonic dash, and vertical landing in a single flight. It is also the first aircraft to fly using a shaft-driven lift-fan propulsion system. The X-35B flight test program was one of the shortest, most effective in history, lasting from June 23, 2001 to August 6, 2001.

The lift-fan propulsion system is now displayed next to the X-35B at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Dulles Airport.

On July 7, 2006, the production model F-35 was officially named F-35 Lightning II by T. Michael Moseley, Chief of Staff USAF.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Date:
2001

Dimensions:
Wing span: 10.05 m (33 ft 0 in)
Length: 15.47 m (50 ft 9 in)
Height: approximately 5 m (15 ft 0 in)
Weight: approximately 35,000 lb.

Materials:
Composite material aircraft skin, alternating steel and titanium spars. Single-engine, single-seat configuration includes lift-fan and steering bars for vertical flight.

Physical Description:
Short takeoff/vertical landing variant to be used by U.S. Air Force, U.S. Marines and the United Kingdom, equipped with a shaft-driven lift fan propulsion system which enables the aircraft to take off from a short runway or small aircraft carrier and to land vertically.
Engine: Pratt & Whitney JSF 119-PW-611 turbofan deflects thrust downward for short takeoff/vertical landing capability. The Air Force and Navy versions use a thrust-vectoring exhaust nozzle. The Marine Corps and Royal Air Force/Navy version has a swivel-duct nozzle; an engine-driven fan behind the cockpit and air-reaction control valves in the wings to provide stability at low speeds.
Other major subcontractors are Rolls Royce and BAE.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Grumman A-6E Intruder:

The Navy’s experience in the Korean War showed the need for a new long-range strike aircraft with high subsonic performance at very low altitude–an aircraft that could penetrate enemy defenses and find and destroy small targets in any weather. The Grumman A-6 Intruder was designed with these needs in mind. The Intruder first flew in 1960 and was delivered to the Navy in 1963 and the Marine Corps in 1964.

The Navy accepted this airplane as an "A" model in 1968. It served under harsh combat conditions in the skies over Vietnam and is a veteran of the 1991 Desert Storm campaign, when it flew missions during the first 72 hours of the war. It has accumulated more than 7,500 flying hours, over 6,500 landings, 767 carrier landings, and 712 catapult launches.

Transferred from the United States Navy, Office of the Secretary

Date:
1960

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 16ft 2in. x 52ft 12in. x 54ft 9in., 26745.8lb. (4.928m x 16.154m x 16.688m, 12131.8kg)

Materials:
Conventional all-metal, graphite/epoxy wing (retrofit), aluminium control surfaces, titanium high-strength fittings (wing-fold).

Physical Description:
Dual place (side by side), twin-engine, all-weather attack aircraft; multiple variants.

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: South hangar panorama, including Vought OS2U-3 Kingfisher seaplane, B-29 Enola Gay, among others
automobile plastic parts made in china
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Vought OS2U-3 Kingfisher:

The Kingfisher was the U.S. Navy’s primary ship-based, scout and observation aircraft during World War II. Revolutionary spot welding techniques gave it a smooth, non-buckling fuselage structure. Deflector plate flaps that hung from the wing’s trailing edge and spoiler-augmented ailerons functioned like extra flaps to allow slower landing speeds. Most OS2Us operated in the Pacific, where they rescued many downed airmen, including World War I ace Eddie Rickenbacker and the crew of his B-17 Flying Fortress.

In March 1942, this airplane was assigned to the battleship USS Indiana. It later underwent a six-month overhaul in California, returned to Pearl Harbor, and rejoined the Indiana in March 1944. Lt. j.g. Rollin M. Batten Jr. was awarded the Navy Cross for making a daring rescue in this airplane under heavy enemy fire on July 4, 1944.

Transferred from the United States Navy.

Manufacturer:
Vought-Sikorsky Aircraft Division

Date:
1937

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 15ft 1 1/8in. x 33ft 9 1/2in., 4122.6lb., 36ft 1 1/16in. (460 x 1030cm, 1870kg, 1100cm)

Materials:
Wings covered with fabric aft of the main spar

Physical Description:
Two-seat monoplane, deflector plate flaps hung from the trailing edge of the wing, ailerons drooped at low airspeeds to function like extra flaps, spoilers.

ARIZONA BORDERS AND CITIZEN SAFETY…
automobile plastic parts made in china
Image by roberthuffstutter
The United States Border Patrol is a federal law enforcement agency within U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), a component of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Its 20,200 Agents[1] are primarily responsible for immigration and border law enforcement as codified in the Immigration and Nationality Act. Their duty is to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States and to deter, detect, and apprehend illegal aliens and individuals involved in the illegal drug trade who enter the United States other than through designated ports of entry.

Additionally, the CBP enforces federal controlled substances laws (as codified in the Controlled Substances Act) when violations occur or are found during the enforcement of federal immigration laws, via delegated authority from the Drug Enforcement Administration.

Note that there are two personnel segments of U.S. Customs and Border Protection that people often confuse with each other, the CBP Officer [1], who wears a blue uniform and the Border Patrol Agent [2] who wears a green uniform.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Strategy
2.1 1986: Employer sanctions and interior enforcement
2.2 Inspection stations
2.2.1 El Paso Sector’s Operation Hold the Line
2.2.2 San Diego Sector’s Operation Gatekeeper
2.2.3 Tucson Sector’s Operation Safeguard
2.3 Northern border
2.4 Border Patrol moves away from interior enforcement
2.5 The new strategy
3 Capabilities
4 Expansion
5 Special Operations Group
5.1 Other specialized programs
6 Border Patrol organization
6.1 Border Patrol Sectors
7 Training
7.1 Uniforms
7.2 Border Patrol (OBP) Ranks and Insignia
7.2.1 Border Patrol Shoulder Ornaments
8 Awards
8.1 Newton-Azrak Award for Heroism
9 Border Patrol Uniform Devices
10 Equipment
10.1 Weapons
10.2 Transportation
11 Line of duty deaths
12 Armed incursions
13 Ramos and Compean
14 Criticisms
14.1 Ineffective
14.2 Allegations of abuse
14.3 Corruption
15 National Border Patrol Council
16 National Border Patrol Museum
17 In popular culture
17.1 Books
17.2 Film
17.2.1 Documentaries
18 See also
19 References
20 External links
21 External Video
21.1 GAO and OIG Reports

[edit] History

Immigration inspectors, circa 1924Mounted watchmen of the United States Immigration Service patrolled the border in an effort to prevent illegal crossings as early as 1904, but their efforts were irregular and undertaken only when resources permitted. The inspectors, usually called "mounted guards", operated out of El Paso, Texas. Though they never totaled more than 75, they patrolled as far west as California trying to restrict the flow of illegal Chinese immigration.

In March 1915, Congress authorized a separate group of mounted guards, often referred to as "mounted inspectors". Most rode on horseback, but a few operated automobiles, motorcycles and boats. Although these inspectors had broader arrest authority, they still largely pursued Chinese immigrants trying to avoid the National Origins Act and Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. These patrolmen were Immigrant Inspectors, assigned to inspection stations, and could not watch the border at all times. U.S. Army troops along the southwest border performed intermittent border patrolling, but this was secondary to "the more serious work of military training." Non-nationals encountered illegally in the U.S. by the army were directed to the immigration inspection stations. Texas Rangers were also sporadically assigned to patrol duties by the state, and their efforts were noted as "singularly effective".

The Border Patrol was founded on May 28, 1924 as an agency of the United States Department of Labor to prevent illegal entries along the Mexico–United States border and the United States-Canada border. The first two border patrol stations were in El Paso, Texas and Detroit, Michigan.[2] Additional operations were established along the Gulf Coast in 1927 to perform crewman control to insure that non-American crewmen departed on the same ship on which they arrived. Additional stations were temporarily added along the Gulf Coast, Florida and the Eastern Seaboard during the sixties when in Cuba triumphed the Cuban Revolution and emerged the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Prior to 2003, the Border Patrol was part of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), an agency that was within the U.S. Department of Justice. INS was disbanded in March 2003 when its operations were divided between CBP, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

The priority mission of the Border Patrol, as a result of the 9/11 attacks and its merging into the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States of America. However, the Border Patrol’s traditional mission remains as the deterrence, detection and apprehension of illegal immigrants and individuals involved in the illegal drug trade who generally enter the United States other than through designated ports of entry. The Border Patrol also operates 33 permanent interior checkpoints along the southern border of the United States.

Currently, the U.S. Border Patrol employs over 20,200 agents (as of the end of fiscal year 2009),[3] who are specifically responsible for patrolling the 6,000 miles of Mexican and Canadian international land borders and 2,000 miles of coastal waters surrounding the Florida Peninsula and the island of Puerto Rico. Agents are assigned primarily to the Mexico–United States border, where they are assigned to control drug trafficking and illegal immigration.[4] Patrols on horseback have made a comeback since smugglers have been pushed into the more remote mountainous regions, which are hard to cover with modern tracking strategies.[5]

[edit] Strategy
[edit] 1986: Employer sanctions and interior enforcement

Border Patrol Agents with a Hummer and Astar patrol for illegal entry into U.S.The Border Patrol’s priorities have changed over the years. In 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act placed renewed emphasis on controlling illegal immigration by going after the employers that hire illegal immigrants. The belief was that jobs were the magnet that attracted most illegal immigrants to come to the United States. The Border Patrol increased interior enforcement and Form I-9 audits of businesses through an inspection program known as "employer sanctions". Several agents were assigned to interior stations, such as within the Livermore Sector in Northern California.

Employer sanctions never became the effective tool it was expected to be by Congress. Illegal immigration continued to swell after the 1986 amnesty despite employer sanctions. By 1993, Californians passed Proposition 187, denying benefits to illegal immigrants and criminalizing illegal immigrants in possession of forged green cards, I.D. cards and Social Security Numbers. It also authorized police officers to question non-nationals as to their immigration status and required police and sheriff departments to cooperate and report illegal immigrants to the INS. Proposition 187 drew nationwide attention to illegal immigration.

[edit] Inspection stations
United States Border Patrol Interior Checkpoints are inspection stations operated by the USBP within 100 miles of a national border (with Mexico or Canada) or in the Florida Keys. As federal inspection stations are also operated by the Mexican government within 50 km of its borders where they are officially known as a "Garita de Revisión." or Garitas, they are known also by that name to Latinos.

[edit] El Paso Sector’s Operation Hold the Line
El Paso Sector Chief Patrol Agent (and future U.S. congressman) Silvestre Reyes started a program called "Operation Hold the Line". In this program, Border Patrol agents would no longer react to illegal entries resulting in apprehensions, but would instead be forward deployed to the border, immediately detecting any attempted entries or deterring crossing at a more remote location. The idea was that it would be easier to capture illegal entrants in the wide open deserts than through the urban alleyways. Chief Reyes deployed his agents along the Rio Grande River, within eyesight of other agents. The program significantly reduced illegal entries in the urban part of El Paso, however, the operation merely shifted the illegal entries to other areas.

[edit] San Diego Sector’s Operation Gatekeeper

A Border Patrol Jeep stands watch over the U.S.-Mexico border at San Ysidro, California.San Diego Sector tried Silvestre Reyes’ approach of forward deploying agents to deter illegal entries into the country. Congress authorized the hiring of thousands of new agents, and many were sent to San Diego Sector.[citation needed] In addition, Congressman Duncan Hunter obtained surplus military landing mats to use as a border fence.[citation needed] Stadium lighting, ground sensors and infra-red cameras were also placed in the area.[citation needed] Apprehensions decreased dramatically in that area as people crossed in different regions.

[edit] Tucson Sector’s Operation Safeguard
California was no longer the hotbed of illegal entry and the traffic shifted to Arizona, primarily in Nogales and Douglas.[citation needed] The Border Patrol instituted the same deterrent strategy it used in San Diego to Arizona.

[edit] Northern border
In 2001, the Border Patrol had approximately 340 agents assigned along the Canada – United States border border. Northern border staffing had been increased to 1,128 agents to 1,470 agents by the end of fiscal year 2008, and is projected to expand to 1,845 by the end of fiscal year 2009, a sixfold increase. Resources that support Border Patrol agents include the use of new technology and a more focused application of air and marine assets.

The northern border sectors are Blaine (Washington), Buffalo (New York), Detroit (Selfridge ANGB, Michigan), Grand Forks (North Dakota), Havre (Montana), Houlton (Maine), Spokane (Washington), and Swanton (Vermont).

[edit] Border Patrol moves away from interior enforcement
In the 1990s, Congress mandated that the Border Patrol shift agents away from the interior and focus them on the borders.

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created two immigration enforcement agencies out of the defunct Immigration and Naturalization Service: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). ICE was tasked with investigations, detention and removal of illegal immigrants, and interior enforcement. CBP was tasked with inspections at U.S. ports of entry and with preventing illegal entries between the port of entry, transportation check, and entries on U.S. coastal borders. DHS management decided to align the Border Patrol with CBP. CBP itself is solely responsible for the nation’s ports of entry, while Border Patrol maintains jurisdiction over all locations between ports of entry, giving Border Patrol agents federal authority absolutely[dubious – discuss] nationwide[dubious – discuss].

In July 2004, the Livermore Sector of the United States Border Patrol was closed. Livermore Sector served Northern California and included stations at Dublin (Parks Reserve Forces Training Area), Sacramento, Stockton, Fresno and Bakersfield. The Border Patrol also closed other stations in the interior of the United States including Roseburg, Oregon and Little Rock, Arkansas. The Border Patrol functions in these areas consisted largely of local jail and transportation terminal checks for illegal immigrants. These functions were turned over to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

[edit] The new strategy

Cameras add "Smart Border" surveillance.In November 2005, the U.S. Border Patrol published an updated national strategy.[6] The goal of this updated strategy is operational control of the United States border. The strategy has five main objectives:

Apprehend terrorists and terrorist weapons illegally entering the United States;
Deter illegal entries through improved enforcement;
Detect, apprehend, and deter smugglers of humans, drugs, and other contraband;
Use "smart border" technology; and
Reduce crime in border communities, improving quality of life.
[edit] Capabilities
The border is a barely discernible line in uninhabited deserts, canyons, or mountains. The Border Patrol utilizes a variety of equipment and methods, such as electronic sensors placed at strategic locations along the border, to detect people or vehicles entering the country illegally. Video monitors and night vision scopes are also used to detect illegal entries. Agents patrol the border in vehicles, boats, aircraft, and afoot. In some areas, the Border Patrol employs horses, all-terrain motorcycles, bicycles, and snowmobiles. Air surveillance capabilities are provided by unmanned aerial vehicles.[3]

The primary activity of a Border Patrol Agent is "Line Watch". Line Watch involves the detection, prevention, and apprehension of terrorists, undocumented aliens and smugglers of aliens at or near the land border by maintaining surveillance from a covert position; following up on leads; responding to electronic sensor television systems and aircraft sightings; and interpreting and following tracks, marks, and other physical evidence. Major activities include traffic check, traffic observation, city patrol, transportation check, administrative, intelligence, and anti-smuggling activities.[4]

Traffic checks are conducted on major highways leading away from the border to detect and apprehend illegal aliens attempting to travel further into the interior of the United States after evading detection at the border, and to detect illegal narcotics.[3]

Transportation checks are inspections of interior-bound conveyances, which include buses, commercial aircraft, passenger and freight trains, and marine craft.[3]

Marine Patrols are conducted along the coastal waterways of the United States, primarily along the Pacific coast, the Caribbean, the tip of Florida, and Puerto Rico and interior waterways common to the United States and Canada. Border Patrol conducts border control activities from 130 marine craft of various sizes. The Border Patrol maintains watercraft ranging from blue-water craft to inflatable-hull craft, in 16 sectors, in addition to headquarters special operations components.[3]

Horse and bike patrols are used to augment regular vehicle and foot patrols. Horse units patrol remote areas along the international boundary that are inaccessible to standard all-terrain vehicles. Bike patrol aids city patrol and is used over rough terrain to support linewatch.[3] Snowmobiles are used to patrol remote areas along the northern border in the winter.

[edit] Expansion
Attrition in the Border Patrol was normally at 5%. From 1995-2001 attrition spiked to above 10%, which was a period when the Border Patrol was undergoing massive hiring. In 2002 the attrition rate climbed to 18%. The 18% attrition was largely attributed to agents transferring to the Federal Air Marshals after 9/11. Since that time the attrition problem has decreased significantly and Congress has increased journeyman Border Patrol Agent pay from GS-9 to GS-11 in 2002. The Border Patrol Marine Position was created in 2009 (BPA-M). This position will be updated to a GS-12 position sometime in 2010 or 2011. Border Patrol Field Training Officers may possibly be updated in 2010 to a temporary GS-12 pay rate. In 2005, Border Patrol attrition dropped to 4% and remains in the area of 4% to 6% as of 2009.[7]

The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (signed by President Bush on December 17, 2004) authorized hiring an additional 10,000 agents, "subject to appropriation". This authorization, if fully implemented, would nearly double the Border Patrol manpower from 11,000 to 21,000 agents by 2010.

In July 2005, Congress signed the Emergency Supplemental Spending Act for military operations in Iraq/Afghanistan and other operations. The act also appropriated funding to increase Border Patrol manpower by 500 Agents. In October 2005, President Bush also signed the DHS FY06 Appropriation bill, funding an additional 1,000 Agents.

In November 2005, President George W. Bush made a trip to southern Arizona to discuss more options that would decrease illegal crossings at the U.S. and Mexican border. In his proposed fiscal year 2007 budget he has requested an additional 1,500 Border Patrol agents.

The Secure Fence Act, signed by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2006, has met with much opposition. In October 2007, environmental groups and concerned citizens filed a restraining order hoping to halt the construction of the fence, set to be built between the United States and Mexico. The act mandates that the fence be built by December 2008. Ultimately, the United States seeks to put fencing around the 1,945-mile (3,130 km) border, but the act requires only 700 miles (1,100 km) of fencing. DHS secretary Michael Chertoff has bypassed environmental and other oppositions with a waiver that was granted to him by Congress in Section 102 of the act, which allows DHS to avoid any conflicts that would prevent a speedy assembly of the fence.[8][9]

This action has led many environment groups and landowners to speak out against the impending construction of the fence.[10] Environment and wildlife groups fear that the plans to clear brush, construct fences, install bright lights, motion sensors, and cameras will scare wildlife and endanger the indigenous species of the area.[11] Environmentalists claim that the ecosystem could be affected due to the fact that a border fence would restrict movement of all animal species, which in turn would keep them from water and food sources on one side or another. Desert plants would also feel the impact, as they would be uprooted in many areas where the fence is set to occupy.[12]

Property owners in these areas fear a loss of land. Landowners would have to give some of their land over to the government for the fence. Citizens also fear that communities will be split. Many students travel over the border every day to attend classes at the University of Texas at Brownsville. Brownsville mayor Pat Ahumada favors alternative options to a border fence. He suggests that the Rio Grande River be widened and deepened to provide for a natural barrier to hinder illegal immigrants and drug smugglers.[13]

The United States Border Patrol Academy is located in Artesia, New Mexico.

[edit] Special Operations Group

A Border Patrol Special Response Team searches room-by-room a hotel in New Orleans in response to Hurricane Katrina.
CBP BORSTAR canine team conducting rappeling trainingIn 2007, the Border Patrol created the Special Operations Group (SOG) headquartered in El Paso, TX to coordinate the specialized units of the agency.[14]

Border Patrol Tactical Unit (BORTAC)
National Special Response Team (NSRT)
Border Patrol, Search, Trauma and Rescue (BORSTAR)
Air Mobile Unit (AMU)
[edit] Other specialized programs
The Border Patrol has a number of other specialized programs and details.

Air and Marine Operations
K9 Units
Mounted Patrol
Bike patrol
Sign-cutting (tracking)
Snowmobile unit
Infrared scope unit
Intelligence
Anti-smuggling investigations
Border Criminal Alien Program
Multi-agency Anti-Gang Task Forces (regional & local units)
Honor Guard
Pipes and Drums
Chaplain
Peer Support
[edit] Border Patrol organization

David V. Aguilar, Acting Commissioner of Customs and Border ProtectionThe current Acting Chief of the Border Patrol is Michael J. Fisher who succeeded in 2010 David V. Aguilar, who is now the Acting Commissioner of Customs and Border Protection.

[edit] Border Patrol Sectors
There are 20 Border Patrol sectors, each headed by a Sector Chief Patrol Agent.

Northern Border (West to East):

Blaine Sector (Western Washington State, Idaho, and Western Montana.) – stations; Bellingham, Blaine, Port Angeles, Sumas.
Spokane Sector (Eastern Washington State)
Havre Sector (Montana)
Grand Forks Sector (North Dakota)
Detroit Sector (Selfridge Air National Guard Base, Michigan) – stations; Downtown Detroit, Marysville, Gibralter, Sault Sainte Marie, Sandusky Bay.
Buffalo Sector (New York) – stations; Buffalo, Erie, Niagura Falls, Oswego, Rochester, Wellesley Island.
Swanton Sector (Vermont)
Houlton Sector (Maine)
Southern Border (West to East):

San Diego Sector (San Diego, California)
El Centro Sector (Imperial County, California)
Yuma Sector (Western Arizona)- stations; Wellton, Yuma, Blythe
Tucson Sector (Eastern Arizona)
El Paso Sector (El Paso, Texas and New Mexico) – stations; Alamogordo, Albuquerque, Deming, El Paso, Fabens, Fort Hancock, Las Cruces, Lordsburg, Santa Teresa, Truth or Consequences, Ysleta
Marfa Sector (Big Bend Area of West Texas) – stations; Alpine, Amarillo, Big Bend, Fort Stockton, Lubbock, Marfa, Midland, Pecos, Presidio, Sanderson, Sierra Blanca, Van Horn
Del Rio Sector (Del Rio, Texas) – stations; Abilene, Brackettville, Carrizo Springs, Comstock, Del Rio, Eagle Pass North, Eagle Pass South, Rocksprings, San Angelo, Uvalde
Rio Grande Valley Sector (South Texas) – stations; Brownsville, Corpus Christi, Falfurrias, Fort Brown, Harlingen, Kingsville, McAllen, Rio Grande City, Weslaco
Laredo Sector (South Texas) – stations; Cotulla, Dallas, Freer, Hebbronville, Laredo North, Laredo South, Laredo West, San Antonio, Zapata
New Orleans Sector (Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and West Florida)
Miami Sector (Florida East and South)
Caribbean

Ramey Sector (Aguadilla, Puerto Rico) and the Virgin Islands, it is the only Border Patrol Sector located outside the continental United States
[edit] Training
All Border Patrol Agents spend 15 weeks in training at the Border Patrol Academy (if they are fluent in Spanish) in Artesia, New Mexico, which is a component of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC).Those who are not fluent in Spanish spend an additional eight weeks at the Academy. Recruits are instructed in Border Patrol and federal law enforcement subjects.

Border Patrol courses include: Immigration and Nationality Law, Criminal Law and Statutory Authority, Spanish, Border Patrol Operations, Care and Use of Firearms, Physical Training, Driver Training, and Anti-Terrorism.

FLETC courses include: Communications, Ethics and Conduct, Report Writing, Introduction to Computers, Fingerprinting, and Constitutional Law.[15]

The physical aspects of the Border Patrol Training Program are extremely demanding. At the end of 55 days, trainees must be able to complete a one and a half mile run in 13 minutes or less, a confidence course in two and a half minutes or less, and a 220 yard dash in 46 seconds or less. This final test is much easier than the day to day physical training during the program.[15]

[edit] Uniforms
The Border Patrol currently wears the following types of uniforms:

CBP officers at a ceremony in 2007Dress uniform – The dress uniform consists of olive-green trousers with a blue stripe, and an olive-green shirt, which may or may not have blue shoulder straps. The campaign hat is worn with uniform.
Ceremonial uniform – When required, the following items are added to the dress uniform to complete the ceremonial uniform: olive-green Ike jacket or tunic with blue accents (shoulder straps and cuffs, blue tie, brass tie tack, white gloves, and olive-green felt campaign hat with leather hat band. The campaign hat is worn with uniform.
Rough duty uniform – The rough duty uniform consists of green cargo trousers and work shirt (in short or long sleeves). Usually worn with green baseball cap or tan stetson.
Accessories, footwear, and outerwear – Additional items are worn in matching blue or black colors as appropriate.
Organization patches – The Border Patrol wears two:
The CBP patch is worn on the right sleeves of the uniform. It contains the DHS seal against a black background with a "keystone" shape. A "keystone" is the central, wedge-shaped stone in an arch, which holds all the other stones in place.
Border Patrol agents retain the circular legacy Border Patrol patch, which is worn on the left sleeve.
The Border Patrol uniform is getting its first makeover since the 1950s to appear more like military fatigues and less like a police officer’s duty garb.[16] Leather belts with brass buckles are being replaced by nylon belts with quick-release plastic buckles, slacks are being replaced by lightweight cargo pants, and shiny badges and nameplates are being replaced by cloth patches.

[edit] Border Patrol (OBP) Ranks and Insignia
Location Title Collar insignia Shoulder ornament Pay grade
Border Patrol Headquarters Chief of the Border Patrol Gold-plated Senior Executive Service (SES)
Deputy Chief of the Border Patrol Gold-plated SES
Division Chief Gold-plated SES
Deputy Division Chief Gold-plated GS-15, General Schedule
Associate Chief Gold-plated GS-15
Assistant Chief Silver-plated GS-14
Operations Officer Oxidized GS-13

Border Patrol Sectors Chief Patrol Agent (CPA) Gold-plated SES or GS-15
Deputy Chief Patrol Agent (DCPA) Gold-plated SES/GS-15 or GS-14
Division Chief Gold-plated GS-15
Assistant Chief Patrol Agent (ACPA) Silver-plated GS-15 or GS-14
Patrol Agent in Charge (PAIC) Silver-plated GS-14 or GS-13
Assistant Patrol Agent in Charge (APAIC) Oxidized GS-13
Special Operations Supervisor (SOS) Oxidized GS-13
Field Operations Supervisor (FOS) Oxidized GS-13
Supervisory Border Patrol Agent (SBPA) Oxidized GS-12
Senior Patrol Agent (SPA) (Note: Being phased out through attrition) No insignia Currently GS-11 (Will be upgraded to full performance level GS-12 sometime during the 1st quarter of 2011)
Border Patrol Agent (BPA) No insignia GS-5, 7, 9, 11 (Upgrade to GS-12 pending)

Border Patrol Academy Chief Patrol Agent (CPA) Gold-plated GS-15
Deputy Chief Patrol Agent (DCPA) Gold-plated GS-15
Assistant Chief Patrol Agent (ACPA) Silver-plated GS-14
Training Operations Supervisor (TOS) Oxidized GS-14
Supervisory Border Patrol Agent (Senior Instructor) Oxidized GS-13
Supervisory Border Patrol Agent (Instructor) Oxidized GS-13

[edit] Border Patrol Shoulder Ornaments

[edit] Awards
Newton-Azrak Award for Heroism Commissioners Distinguished Career Service Award Commissioners Exceptional Service Medal Commissioners Meritorious Service Award Commissioners Special Commendation Award Chiefs Commendation Medal
No Image Available No Image Available No Image Available

Commissioners Excellence in Group Achievement Award Purple Cross Wound Medal Academy Honor Award Winner Border Patrol Long Service Medal 75th Anniversary of the Border Patrol Commemorative Medal
No Image Available No Image Available

[edit] Newton-Azrak Award for Heroism
The Border Patrol’s highest honor is the Newton-Azrak Award for Heroism. This Award is bestowed to Border Patrol Agents for extraordinary actions, service; accomplishments reflecting unusual courage or bravery in the line of duty; or an extraordinarily heroic or humane act committed during times of extreme stress or in an emergency.

This award is named for Border Patrol Inspectors Theodore Newton[17] and George Azrak,[18] who were murdered by two drug smugglers in San Diego County in 1967.

[edit] Border Patrol Uniform Devices
Border Patrol Tactical Unit (BORTAC) Border Patrol Search, Trauma and Rescue Unit (BORSTAR) Special Response Team (NSRT) Honor Guard Border Patrol Pipes and Drums Cap Badge
No Image Available
K-9 Handler Chaplain Field Training Officer Peer Support

[edit] Equipment
[edit] Weapons

A Border Patrol Agent carrying an M14 rifle.Border Patrol Agents are issued the H&K P2000 double action pistol in .40 S&W. It can contain as many as 13 rounds of ammunition (12 in the magazine and one in the chamber).

Like other law enforcement agencies, the Remington 870 is the standard shotgun.

Border Patrol Agents also commonly carry the M4 Carbine and the H&K UMP 40 caliber submachine gun. The M14 rifle is used for mostly ceremonial purposes.

As a less than lethal option, the Border Patrol also uses the FN303.

[edit] Transportation
Unlike in many other law enforcement agencies in the United States, the Border Patrol operates several thousand SUVs and pickup trucks, which are known for their capabilities to move around in any sort of terrain. This vehicles may have individual revolving lights (strobes or LEDs) and/or light bars and sirens. An extensive modernization drive has ensured that these vehicles are equipped with wireless sets in communication with a central control room. Border Patrol vehicles may also have equipment such as speed radar, breathalyzers, and emergency first aid kits. Some sectors make use of sedans like the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor or the Dodge Charger as patrol cars or high speed "interceptors" on highways. The Border Patrol also operates ATVs, motorcycles, snowmobiles, and small boats in the riverine environment. In 2005, all Border Patrol and ICE aircraft operations were combined under CBP’s Office of Air and Marine. All CBP vessel operation in Customs Waters are conducted by Office of Air and Marine.

Color schemes of Border Patrol vehicles are either a long green stripe running the length of the vehicle or a broad green diagonal stripe on the door. Most Border Patrol vehicles are painted predominantly white.

The Border Patrol also extensively uses horses for remote area patrols. The U.S. Border Patrol has 205 horses As of 2005[update]. Most are employed along the Mexico–United States border. In Arizona, these animals are fed special processed feed pellets so that their wastes do not spread non-native plants in the national parks and wildlife areas they patrol.[19]

[edit] Line of duty deaths
Total line of duty deaths (since 1904): 105[20]

Aircraft accident: 14
Assault: 2
Automobile accident: 28
Drowned: 4
Fall: 4
Gunfire: 30
Gunfire (Accidental): 3
Heart attack: 6
Heat exhaustion: 1
Motorcycle accident: 2
Stabbed: 2
Struck by train: 3
Struck by vehicle: 3
Vehicle pursuit: 2
Vehicular assault: 3
[edit] Armed incursions
On August 7, 2008, Mexican troops crossed the border into Arizona and held a U.S. Border Patrol Agent at gunpoint. Agents stationed at Ajo, Arizona said that the Mexican soldiers crossed the border into an isolated area southwest of Tucson and pointed rifles at the agent, who has not been identified. The Mexicans withdrew after other American agents arrived on the scene.[21]

[edit] Ramos and Compean
In February 2005, Border Patrol Agents Ignacio Ramos and Jose Compean were involved in an incident while pursuing a van in Fabens, Texas. The driver, later identified as Aldrete Davila, was shot by Agent Ramos during a scuffle. Davila escaped back into Mexico, and the agents discovered that the van contained a million dollars worth of marijuana (about 750 pounds). None of the agents at the scene orally reported the shooting, including two supervisors. The Department of Homeland Security opened up an internal affairs investigation into the incident.[22] See also [23][24][25]

[edit] Criticisms
[edit] Ineffective
In 2006, a documentary called The Illegal Immigration Invasion[26] linked the scale of illegal immigration into the United States chiefly to the ineffectiveness of the Border Patrol. The film claimed that this is due to the lack of judicial powers of the Border Patrol and the effective hamstringing of the agency by the federal government. The film interviews people that deal with illegal immigration on a daily basis, as well as local citizens living in the border areas.

[edit] Allegations of abuse
There are allegations of abuse by the United States Border Patrol such as the ones reported by Jesus A. Trevino, that concludes in an article published in the Houston Journal of International Law (2006) with a request to create an independent review commission to oversee the actions of the Border Patrol, and that creating such review board will make the American public aware of the "serious problem of abuse that exists at the border by making this review process public" and that "illegal immigrants deserve the same constitutionally-mandated humane treatment of citizens and legal residents".[27]
In 1998, Amnesty International investigated allegations of ill-treatment and brutality by officers of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and particularly the Border Patrol. Their report said they found indications of human rights violations during 1996, 1997 and early 1998.[28]
An article in Social Justice by Michael Huspek, Leticia Jimenez, Roberto Martinez (1998) cites that in December 1997, John Case, head of the INS Office of Internal Audit, announced at a press conference that public complaints to the INS had risen 29% from 1996, with the "vast majority" of complaints emanating from the southwest border region, but that of the 2,300 cases, the 243 cases of serious allegations of abuse were down in 1997. These serious cases are considered to be distinct from less serious complaints, such as "verbal abuse, discrimination, extended detention without cause."[29]
[edit] Corruption
Incidences of corruption in the U.S. Border Patrol include:

Pablo Sergio Barry, an agent charged with one count of harboring an illegal immigrant, three counts of false statements, and two counts of making a false document.[30] He plead guilty.[31]
Christopher E. Bernis, an agent indicted on a charge of harboring an illegal immigrant for nine months while employed as a U.S. Border Patrol agent.[32]
Jose De Jesus Ruiz, an agent whose girlfriend was an illegal immigrant, he was put on administrative leave pending an investigation.[32]
Oscar Antonio Ortiz, an illegal immigrant[33] who used a fake birth certificate to get into the Border Patrol admitted to smuggling more than 100 illegal immigrants into the U.S., some of them in his government truck,[34] and was helping to smuggle illegal immigrants and charged with conspiring with another agent to smuggle immigrants.
An unidentified patrol agent who was recorded on a wire tap stating that he helped to smuggle 30 to 50 immigrants at a time.[33]
[edit] National Border Patrol Council
National Border Patrol Council (NBPC) is the labor union which represents over 14,000 Border Patrol Agents and support staff. The NBPC was founded in 1968, and its parent organization is the American Federation of Government Employees, AFL-CIO. The NBPC’s executive committee is staffed by current and retired Border Patrol Agents and, along with its constituent locals, employs a staff of a dozen attorneys and field representatives. The NBPC is associated with the Peace Officer Research Association of California’s Legal Defense Fund.[35]

[edit] National Border Patrol Museum
The National Border Patrol Museum is located in El Paso, Texas. The museum exhibits uniforms, equipment, photographs, guns, vehicles, airplanes, boats, and documents which depict the historical and current sector operations throughout the United States.

[edit] In popular culture
[edit] Books
Border Patrol by Alvin Edward Moore
The Border Patrol by Deborah Wells Salter
EWI: Entry Without Inspection (Title 8 U.S.C. § 1325 Improper entry by alien) by Fortuna Testarona Valiente
Tracks in the Sand: A Tale of the Border Patrol by Kent E Lundgren,
On The Line: Inside the U.S. Border Patrol by Alex Pacheco and Erich Krauss
Patrolling Chaos: The U.S. Border Patrol in Deep South Texas by Robert Lee Maril
The U.S. Border Patrol: Guarding the Nation (Blazers) by Connie Collwell Miller
My Border Patrol Diary: Laredo, Texas by Dale Squint
Holding the Line: War Stories of the U.S. Border Patrol by Gerald Schumacher
The Border Patrol Ate My Dust by Alicia Alarcon, Ethriam Cash Brammer, and Ethriam Cash Brammer de Gonzales
The Border: Exploring the U.S.-Mexican Divide by David J. Danelo
Beat The Border: An Insider’s Guide To How The U.S. Border Works And How To Beat It by Ned Beaumont
West of the Moon: A Border Patrol Agent’s Tale by D. B. Prehoda
The Journey: U.S. Border Patrol & the Solution to the Illegal Alien Problem by Donald R. Coppock
Border patrol: With the U.S. Immigration Service on the Mexican boundary, 1910-54 by Clifford Alan Perkins
Border Patrol: How U.S. Agents Protect Our Borders from Illegal Entry by Carroll B. Colby
In Mortal Danger: The Battle for America’s Border and Security by Tom Tancredo
[edit] Film
Border Patrolman, a 1936 film in which a Border Patrolman Bob Wallace, played by George O’Brien, resigns in protest after being humiliated by the spoiled granddaughter of a millionaire.
Border Patrol, a 1943 film starring William C. Boyd, Andy Clyde, George Reeves, and Robert Mitchum
Borderline, a 1950 film noir starring Fred MacMurray about drug smuggling across the U.S./Mexico border
Border Patrol, a 1959 syndicated television series, starring Richard Webb as the fictitious deputy chief of the U.S. Border Patrol
Borderline, a 1980 movie starring Charles Bronson about a Border Patrol Agent on the U.S./Mexico border
The Border, a 1982 film starring Jack Nicholson
El Norte, a 1983 film portraying Central American Indian peasants traveling to the United States.
Flashpoint, a 1984 film starring Kris Kristofferson
Last Man Standing, a 1996 film starring Bruce Willis and Ken Jenkins as Texas Ranger Captain Tom Pickett who is investing the killing of an unnamed Immigration Inspector (played by Larry Holt) across the border in Mexico.
Men in Black, a 1997 science fiction comedy action film starring Tommy Lee Jones, Will Smith and Vincent D’Onofrio. The Border Patrol was portrayed as Immigration Inspectors
The Gatekeeper, a 2002 film by John Carlos Frey about the struggles of migrants at the Mexican/US border.
The Shepherd: Border Patrol, a 2007 film starring Jean-Claude Van Damme
Linewatch, a 2008 film starring Cuba Gooding, Jr., as a Border Patrol agent defending his family from a group of Los Angeles gang members involved in the illegal trade of importing narcotics into the United States.
[edit] Documentaries
Border Patrol: American’s Gatekeepers A&E with former United States Attorney General Janet Reno
Investigative Reports: Border Patrol: America’s Gatekeepers A&E Investigates
History the Enforcers : Border Patrol History Channel
[edit] See also
Border Protection Personnel
United States portal
Law enforcement/Law enforcement topics portal
List of United States federal law enforcement agencies
Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Border control
Ignacio Ramos
Illegal immigration
H.R. 4437
Minuteman Project
MQ-9 Reaper
No More Deaths
Office of CBP Air
United States Mexico barrier
United States-Canadian Border
la migra
[edit] References
^ "Reinstatements to the northern border". CPB.gov. US Customs and Border Protection. 2008-05-19. www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/reinsta…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/border_…
^ a b c d e f "Boarder Patrol overview". CPB.gov. US Customs and Boarder Protection. 2008-08-22. www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/border_…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ a b "Who we are and what we do". CPB.gov. US Customs and Boarder Protection. 2008-09-03. www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/who_we_…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ Gaynor, Tim (2008-01-23). "U.S. turns to horses to secure borders". Reuters. www.reuters.com/article/inDepthNews/idUSN2323280820080124…. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
^ www.cbp.gov/linkhandler/cgov/border_security/border_patro…[dead link]
^ Nuñez-Neto, Blas (2006-010-25) (PDF). Border security: The role of the U.S. Border Patrol. Congressional Research Service. p. 35. digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs//data/2006/upl-meta-c…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ Coyle, Marcia (2008-03-03). "Waivers for border fence challenged: Environmental groups take their complaints to Supreme Court". The Recorder.
^ Archibold, Randal C. (2008-04-02). "Government issues waiver for fencing along border". New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2008/04/02/us/02fence.html. Retrieved 2008-04-02.
^ "Conservation groups call for an immediate halt to construction of border fence in San Pedro National Conservation Area". US Newswire. 2007-10-05.
^ Gordon, David George (May 2000). "A ‘grande’ dispute". National Geographic World: p. 4.
^ Cohn, Jeffrey P. (2007). "The environmental impacts of a border fence". BioScience 57 (1): 96. doi:10.1641/B570116. www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1641/B570116. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ "Expansive border fence stirs fights over land". Tell Me More. NPR. 2008-03-03.
^ 2007 State of the Border Patrol video[dead link]
^ a b "FAQs: Working for the Border Patrol-basic training". CPB.gov. US Customs and Boarder Protection. 2008-05-29. www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/careers/customs_careers/border_career…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ Spagat, Elliot (2007-08-16). "Border Patrol uniform gets first makeover since the 1950s". North County Times. www.nctimes.com/articles/2007/08/17/news/sandiego/18_64_3…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ "Border Patrol Inspector Theodore L. Newton Jr.". The Officer Down Memorial Page. www.odmp.org/officer.php?oid=9933. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ "Border Patrol Inspector George F. Azrak". The Officer Down Memorial Page. www.odmp.org/officer.php?oid=1368. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ Rostien, Arthur H. (2005-06-09). "Border Patrol horses get special feed that helps protect desert ecosystem". Environmental News Network. www.enn.com/top_stories/article/1731. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ "United States Department of Homeland Security – Customs and Border Protection – Border Patrol". The Officer Down Memorial Page. www.odmp.org/agency/4830-united-states-department-of-home…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ Meyers, Jim (2008-08-06). "Mexican troops cross border, hold border agent". Newsmax.com. newsmax.com/insidecover/mexican_troops_border/2008/08/06/…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ "Glenn Beck: Ramos & Compean – the whole story". The Glenn Beck Program. Premiere Radio Networks. 2008-07-29. www.glennbeck.com/content/articles/article/196/13098/. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". Ramos-Compean. ramos-compean.blogspot.com/. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ "2 Border Patrol agents face 20 years in prison". WorldDailyNet. 2006-08-07. www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=51417. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ "Ramos and Campean – court appeal". www.scribd.com/doc/219384/Ramos-and-Campean-Court-Appeal. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ (Google video) The illegal immigration invasion. October Sun Films. 2006-04-06. video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1451035544403625746. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ Jesus A. Trevino (1998). "Border violence against illegal immigrants and the need to change the border patrol’s current complaint review process" (PDF). Houston Journal of International Law 21 (1): 85–114. ISSN 0194-1879. www.hjil.org/ArticleFiles/21_1_10.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ United States of America: Human rights concerns in the border region with Mexico. Amnesty International. 1998-05-19. web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engAMR510031998. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ Huspek, Michael; Roberto Martinez, and Leticia Jimenez (1998). "Violations of human and civil rights on the U.S.-Mexico border, 1995 to 1997: a report" (Reprint). Social Justice 25 (2). ISSN 1043-1578. findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3427/is_n2_v25/ai_n28711…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
The data compiled in this report suggest that law enforcement in the southwest region of the United States may be verging on lawlessness. This statement receives fuller support from announcements emanating from the INS. In December 1997, John Chase, head of the INS Office of Internal Audit, announced at a press conference that public complaints to the INS had risen 29% from 1996, with the "vast majority" of complaints emanating from the southwest border region. Over 2,300 complaints were filed in 1997 as opposed to the 1,813 complaints filed in 1996. Another 400 reports of "minor misconduct" were placed in a new category. Chase was quick to emphasize, however, that the 243 "serious" allegations of abuse and use of excessive force that could warrant criminal prosecution were down in 1997, as compared with the 328 in 1996. These "serious" cases are considered to be distinct from less serious complaints, such as "verbal abuse, discrimination, extended detention without cause.

^ June 23, 2005 "Border agent accused of hiding an illegal entrant". Arizona Daily Star. 2005-06-23. www.azstarnet.com/sn/border/81082.php June 23, 2005. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ "Border agent pleads guilty to harboring illegal entrant". Arizona Daily Star. 2005-09-22. www.azstarnet.com/sn/border/94491.php. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ a b "U.S. border agent indicted". Arizona Daily Star. 2005-03-11. www.azstarnet.com/sn/border/65117.php. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ a b "Boarder agent said to also be smuggler". SignOnSanDiego.com. Union-Tribune Publishing. 2005-08-05. www.signonsandiego.com/news/mexico/tijuana/20050805-9999-…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ Spagat, Elliot (2006-07-28). "Border agent gets 5 years for smuggling". The Washington Post. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/28/…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ "About NBPC". National Border Patrol Council. 2008-08-14. www.nbpc.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&a…. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
[edit] External links
Official US Border Patrol website
US Border Patrol history
National Border Patrol Strategy(PDF)
Border Patrol official recruiting page
Border Patrol Supervisor’s Association (BPSA)
Border Patrol agents killed in the line of duty
Large Border Patrol site
Border Patrol Museum official site
National Border Patrol Council official site
National Association of Former Border Patrol Officers
Friends of the Border Patrol
Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding the U.S. Border Patrol
Civilian Border Patrol Organizations: An Overview and History of the Phenomenon by the Congressional Research Service.
Border Patrol hiring forums and information for potential agents
National Border Patrol Museum
Pictures of Border Patrol vehicles
Crossing Guards in Training LA Times report on Border Patrol training.
The Coalition Against Illegal Immigration
Border Patrol unofficial Auxiliary NOT a Government Agency and not affiliated with the federal Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
[edit] External Video
Border Stories
[edit] GAO and OIG Reports
GAO Report: Border Patrol – Southwest Border Enforcement Affected by Mission Expansion and Budget August 1992
GAO Report: Border Control – Revised Strategy is Showing Some Positive Results December 1994
g96065.pdf GAO Report: Border Patrol – Staffing and Enforcement Activities March 1996
GAO Report: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION – Southwest Border Strategy Results Inconclusive; More Evaluation Needed December 1997
USDOJ OIG Report: Operation Gatekeeper July 1998
GAO Report: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION – Status of Southwest Border Strategy Implementation 1999
GAO Report: Border Patrol Hiring December 1999
GAO Report: Southwest Border Strategy – Resource and Impact Issues Remain After Seven Years August 2001
National Border Patrol Strategy March 2005
GAO Report: Effectiveness of Border Patrol Checkpoints July 2005
DHS OIG Report: An Assessment of the Proposal to Merge Customs and Border Protection with Immigration and Customs Enforcement November 2005
[hide]v • d • eBorder guards

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Cheapest Bedding And Bath Ideas For The Newlywed Couple

Wow! Getting married. Wedding is the event that transforms your life forever. For this unforgettable event make plans before hand, so that everything turns out perfectly well. Let’s make this special day a memorable one too. There are so numerous things, which need your attention before this big day. We can at least make your choice of bedding and bath accessories undemanding. One of the main things that you would want to be right is your bedroom on this extremely occasion. Now you only sit back and see all the exotic designs to match your mood. You can have a huge range of branded bedding and bath to choose from. Or you can simply invent your own sense of style by asking the designer.

Well provide you a comprehensive, satisfactory detail of bedding and bath stuffs. We have all the brands you would like to glance before buying. Our inexpensive spectacular bedding and bath section have something for everyone. Ranging from lavishly luxurious lush silky sheets to cozy pure cotton everyday usage sheets, from classic royal gentle colors to sharp wanton shades and patterns and of course the antique lacy bed-sets, we can convert an ordinary room into a place you usually desire to live in with our extensive range of all kinds of bed and bath accessories along amazingly agreeable prices. Or infuse your home with the charm and elegance of satin and net. Bedding and bath decor is an art, we spend our best time here as we sleep to rejuvenate ourselves for next coming day. So your bedroom and bathroom should be very comfy and also a desirable place to spend your time in. You have to decide first what you are looking for?

Let us guess. Cotton bedding (http://www.bargainvaluedeals.com/bed-accessories.php) sets are most commonly used. They are easy to use and also inexpensive. But not today, not for this occasion, you would certainly want something out of azure to highlight your mood and put elegance or romance to your bedroom. Lets start with the comforter. This could prove the most expensive accessory of a bed, but this also is the most important one too. Be very careful before putting you hands on only any comforter that looks nice. First get the measurement of your bed as nowadays designers are making comforter in different sizes then the standard sizes. Do keep in mind the TPI or threads per inch. This thread counts above 250 broadly means a more soft and comfortable texture plus the fabric will also last long.

Another suggestion that can really change the look of your bedroom is to find a comforter having design on both sides. And the last but not really the least be sure that a down comforter is stitched so that the insulation material cannot move about extremely freely or shift. So now when you determined your best part of bed accessory. You can move to the most decorative part of bed. Yes, of course the bed sheet. On special occasions a bed sheet doesn’t remain a simple bed sheet it becomes The Bed Sheet. Do you want to spellbound your newly wed wife when she enters the threshold of your bedroom, then this is the time when you can do it. Have a bed sheet so elegant and soft that she fells in loves with your bedroom when she enters it first time.

You can go for distinct “Duchess Lace” elegant sheet or if its as well much of a design in it for you. Then you can think of satin or sheer silk bed sheet that will add elegance with a touch romance in your room. The people who use silk it becomes an addition for them, they wont use anything else for their bed sheet. So on this special occasion indulges you in silk. But if you are a trendsetter and dare to be different you can also think of beautiful floral or bright colored patterned sheets. Or if you don’t want to do it on your own and only need the branded stuff then you can close your eyes and get Marcus, Ralph Lauren, Damask bedding and bath accessories.

Now the last touch of splendor that will equip your bedroom with all the necessity and comfort you need. Blanket, you are right. A bedroom is incomplete without it. Cuddle in the lavishness of 100% pure cashmere and rest with the sweetest of dreams. Only when cashmere touches your skin will you know the meaning of complete luxury. Amazingly, this bedroom treasure is a versatile double-sided blanket, neatly trimmed with a silk edge. Add more spice with matching branded bath accessories. Or you can get the accessories of your choice and match or contrast it with your room. Add velvet towels or cotton towels with monograms, floral designs and embroidery. Don’t forget the brush and soap dish bar, rugs, shower curtains, showerheads, wastebaskets.

Bathroom accessories

Bathroom linen sets.

You can see famous Maker Supima Washcloth, Martex Egyptian or Avanti Maui embellished linen sets. You can also decorate your bath with creative bath linen sets. These sets are open in all sizes and colors, from basic one color to patterned or embroider multicolored sets best known for their softness and durability.

Bathroom furniture

Stylish Bathroom Storage will make your bath simple and clean. A stunning bathroom starts with elegant storage; you can use a smart storage as a start or transform your bathroom with wall cabinet, vanity set along with vanity stool. You can hang a classic royal style wall mirror to treat yourself royally. Depending on what you choose for your bath, you can have a table with mirror to save some room in bath. To organize the accessories you can use tower cabinet. And if you posses a king size bathroom, you probably would like to have separate furniture for everything like you may want a separate stand for towels. And by the way hand carved sinks are very much in. Or on the other hand for a little bath use a wall cabinet along with simple and stylish glass self that will actually serve the purpose.

Bathroom hardware

Its not just about the style but also confirms the durability of the basic requirements of your bath. This is the start from where all sophistication and matching takes place. It is the first step and you should get all the hardware accessories with utmost care as you are going to match or contrast your all other accessories with it. The towel stand, lights, bathtub or Jacuzzi, taps, towel holders and tissue holders are small pieces but all together they make a large difference. Don’t underestimate the effect of these small winy things.

Bathroom rugs

Hmmm does this seem easy to you, think again. This is where your innovations come in. The company designs the Bathroom hardware but now you have to either match or contrast your rugs with it. Still sounds simple, let me explain. The pattern and colors can play a trick on you, try to compliment your other accessories and don’t get too gaudy designs that can give a very complicated look and of course you dont want that. Then you have broad velvet, tiffany, spa bath rug, and nylon, cotton clothe well all sorts of bath rugs. So take some time to before making the purchase.

Towels

Now this is what we say the most important thing in bath. Well we are not negating emphasize on any other requirements of bath. But towels are what give you feedback. You must be wondering how? When your guests visit your washroom, towels catch their eye first. Doesn’t matter how far effort you have put in other accessories of bath. Towels are of main interest at least for the outsiders. Towels should be clean soft and I would say colorful, though it depends on your choice. And certainly you want to wrap yourself in sumptuousness. You can get an extensive range of towels branded with embroider monograms, cartoon towels. You can choose from big, thirsty, soft, thick, 100% cotton to lush, luxuriant, extra absorbent velvet or silky towels.

Showerheads

We all want to soothe ourselves while taking shower, now its actually possible with showerheads with different adjusters, having waterfall-like showerhead, rainfall, shower massage, and oxygenic, multi-setting showerheads. These different setting showerheads will refresh you can enjoy the nature in your bathroom. Then you can also adjust the showerheads or get a showerhead with flexible wire for your ease and enjoy your bath to the fullest.

Shower curtains

Now you can add class to shower curtains too. Besides the average shower curtains at this time you can have brand new style curtains that will give you a breath of freshness when you enter your bath. We all want to soothe ourselves while taking shower, now its possible. You’ll find such a wide-ranging collection of curtains that you can fantasize a shower curtain then start looking for it, trust me you’ll find it. You can also match it with your bedroom sets. You can also avail the distinct option of carved shower rim that gives a extremely innovative look. Then you can go for border, full design, floral, stripped, hook less, single panel, anti mould shower curtain. Your bath now can reflect your taste provided you keep everything in mind.

Wastebaskets

Wastebasket a must for every room but could look quite out if do not really suit the whole set-up. This small item can make fine impact to the surrounding. You can have different shaped baskets, round, square, diamond shaped basket. You can get cloth basket, marble, metal, wooden, plastic, glass basket. Then wastebaskets are available that have inner disposable bin you can change.

There are several things you can do with your bed and bath and make it look like one of a kind. Its not really very complicated though there are a number of things you can add or you have to consider while decorating. But the simple strategy is that can make your bath and bed alluring, keep it simple and neat. Less things will be much more prominent and eye catchy.

For more information about Bed and Bath

Cool Auto Mould Manufacturing images

Cool Auto Mould Manufacturing images

Some cool auto mould manufacturing images:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: South hangar panorama, including Vought OS2U-3 Kingfisher seaplane, B-29 Enola Gay
auto mould manufacturing
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Vought OS2U-3 Kingfisher:

The Kingfisher was the U.S. Navy’s primary ship-based, scout and observation aircraft during World War II. Revolutionary spot welding techniques gave it a smooth, non-buckling fuselage structure. Deflector plate flaps that hung from the wing’s trailing edge and spoiler-augmented ailerons functioned like extra flaps to allow slower landing speeds. Most OS2Us operated in the Pacific, where they rescued many downed airmen, including World War I ace Eddie Rickenbacker and the crew of his B-17 Flying Fortress.

In March 1942, this airplane was assigned to the battleship USS Indiana. It later underwent a six-month overhaul in California, returned to Pearl Harbor, and rejoined the Indiana in March 1944. Lt. j.g. Rollin M. Batten Jr. was awarded the Navy Cross for making a daring rescue in this airplane under heavy enemy fire on July 4, 1944.

Transferred from the United States Navy.

Manufacturer:
Vought-Sikorsky Aircraft Division

Date:
1937

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 15ft 1 1/8in. x 33ft 9 1/2in., 4122.6lb., 36ft 1 1/16in. (460 x 1030cm, 1870kg, 1100cm)

Materials:
Wings covered with fabric aft of the main spar

Physical Description:
Two-seat monoplane, deflector plate flaps hung from the trailing edge of the wing, ailerons drooped at low airspeeds to function like extra flaps, spoilers.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Materials:
Polished overall aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Nice Auto Moulds Factory China photos

Nice Auto Moulds Factory China photos

Check out these auto moulds factory china images:

Churchill Club Top 10 Tech Trends Debate
auto moulds factory china
Image by jurvetson
I just got back from the Churchill Club’s 13th Annual Top 10 Tech Trends Debate (site).

Curt Carlson, CEO of SRI, presented their trends from the podium, which are meant to be “provocative, plausible, debatable, and that it will be clear within the next 1-3 years whether or not they will actually become trends.”

Then the panelists debated them. Speaking is Aneesh Chopra, CTO of the U.S., and smirking to his left is Paul Saffo, and then Ajay Senkut from Clarium, then me.

Here are SRI’s 2011 Top 10 Tech Trends [and my votes]:

Trend 1. Age Before Beauty. Technology is designed for—and disproportionately used by—the young. But the young are getting fewer. The big market will be older people. The aging generation has grown up with, and is comfortable with, most technology—but not with today’s latest technology products. Technology product designers will discover the Baby Boomer’s technology comfort zone and will leverage it in the design of new devices. One example today is the Jitterbug cell phone with a large keypad for easy dialing and powerful speakers for clear sound. The trend is for Baby Boomers to dictate the technology products of the future.

[I voted YES, it’s an important and underserved market, but for tech products, they are not the early adopters. The key issue is age-inspired entrepreneurship. How can we get the entrepreneurial mind focused on this important market?]

Trend 2. The Doctor Is In. Some of our political leaders say that we have "the best medical care system in the world". Think what it must be like in the rest of the world! There are many problems, but one is the high cost of delivering expert advice. With the development of practical virtual personal assistants, powered by artificial intelligence and pervasive low-cost sensors, “the doctor will be in”—online—for people around the world. Instead of the current Web paradigm: “fill out this form, and we’ll show you information about what might be ailing you”, this will be true diagnosis—supporting, and in some cases replacing—human medical practitioners. We were sending X-rays to India to be read; now India is connecting to doctors here for diagnosis in India. We see the idea in websites that now offer online videoconference interaction with a doctor. The next step is automation. The trend is toward complete automation: a combination of artificial intelligence, the Internet, and very low-cost medical instrumentation to provide high-quality diagnostics and advice—including answering patient questions—online to a worldwide audience.

[NO. Most doctor check-ups and diagnoses will still need to be conducted in-person (blood tests, physical exams, etc). Sensor technology can’t completely replace human medical practitioners in the near future. Once we have the physical interface (people for now), then the networking and AI capabilities can engage, bringing specialist reactions to locally collected data. The real near-term trend in point-of-care is the adoption of iPads/phones connected to cloud services like ePocrates and Athenahealth and soon EMRs.]

Trend 3. Made for Me. Manufacturing is undergoing a revolution. It is becoming technically and economically possible to create products that are unique to the specific needs of individuals. For example, a cell phone that has only the hardware you need to support the features you want—making it lighter, thinner, more efficient, much cheaper, and easier to use. This level of customization is being made possible by converging technical advances: new 3D printing technology is well documented, and networked micro-robotics is following. 3D printing now includes applications in jewelry, industrial design, and dentistry. While all of us may not be good product designers, we have different needs, and we know what we want. The trend is toward practical, one-off production of physical goods in widely distributed micro-factories: the ultimate customization of products. The trend is toward practical, one-off production of physical goods in widely distributed micro-factories: the ultimate customization of products.

[NO. Personalization is happening just fine at the software level. The UI skins and app code is changeable at zero incremental cost. Code permeates outward into the various vessels we build for it. The iPhone. Soon, the car (e.g. Tesla Sedan). Even the electrical circuits (when using an FPGA). This will extend naturally to biological code, with DNA synthesis costs plummeting (but that will likely stay centralized in BioFabs for the next 3 years. When it comes to building custom physical things, the cost and design challenges relegate it to prototyping, tinkering and hacks. Too many people have a difficult time in 3D content creation. The problem is the 2D interfaces of mouse and screen. Perhaps a multitouch interface to digital clay could help, where the polygons snap to fit after the form is molded by hand.]

Trend 4. Pay Me Now. Information about our personal behavior and characteristics is exploited regularly for commercial purposes, often returning little or no value to us, and sometimes without our knowledge. This knowledge is becoming a key asset and a major competitive advantage for the companies that gather it. Think of your supermarket club card. These knowledge-gatherers will need to get smarter and more aggressive in convincing us to share our information with them and not with their competitors. If TV advertisers could know who the viewers are, the value of the commercials would go up enormously. The trend is technology and business models based on attracting consumers to share large amounts of information exclusively with service providers.

[YES, but it’s nothing new. Amazon makes more on merchandising than product sales margin. And, certain companies are getting better and better at acquiring customer information and personalizing offerings specifically to these customers. RichRelevance provides this for ecommerce (driving 25% of all e-commerce on Black Friday). Across all those vendors, the average lift from personalizing the shopping experience: 15% increase in overall sales and 8% increase in long-term profitability. But, simply being explicit and transparent to the consumer about the source of the data can increase the effectiveness of targeted programs by up to 100% (e.g., saying “Because you bought this product and other consumers who bought it also bought this other product" yielded a 100% increase in product recommendation effectiveness in numerous A/B tests). Social graph is incredibly valuable as a marketing tool.]

Trend 5. Rosie, At Last. We’ve been waiting a long time for robots to live in and run our homes, like Rosie in the Jetsons’ household. It’s happening a little now: robots are finally starting to leave the manufacturing floor and enter people’s homes, offices, and highways. Robots can climb walls, fly, and run. We all know the Roomba for cleaning floors—and now there’s the Verro for your pool. Real-time vision and other sensors, and affordable precise manipulation, are enabling robots to assist in our care, drive our cars, and protect our homes and property. We need to broaden our view of robots and the forms they will take—think of a self-loading robot-compliant dishwasher or a self-protecting house. The trend is robots becoming embedded in our environments, and taking advantage of the cloud, to understand and fulfill our needs.

[NO. Not in 3 years. Wanting it badly does not make it so. But I just love that Google RoboCar. Robots are not leaving the factory floor – that’s where the opportunity for newer robots and even humanoid robots will begin. There is plenty of factory work still to be automated. Rodney Brooks of MIT thinks they can be cheaper than the cheapest outsourced labor. So the robots are coming, to the factory and the roads to start, and then the home.]

Trend 6. Social, Really. The rise of social networks is well documented, but they’re not really social networks. They’re a mix of friends, strangers, organizations, hucksters—it’s more like walking through a rowdy crowd in Times Square at night with a group of friends. There is a growing need for social networks that reflect the fundamental nature of human relationships: known identities, mutual trust, controlled levels of intimacy, and boundaries of shared information. The trend is the rise of true social networks, designed to maintain real, respectful relationships online.

[YES. The ambient intimacy of Facebook is leading to some startling statistics on fB evidence reuse by divorce lawyers (80%) and employment rejections (70%). There are differing approaches to solve this problem: Altly’s alternative networks with partioning and control, Jildy’s better filtering and auto-segmentation, and Path’s 50 friend limit.]

Trend 7. In-Your-Face Augmented Reality. With ever-cheaper computation and advances in computer vision technology, augmented reality is becoming practical, even in mobile devices. We will move beyond expensive telepresence environments and virtual reality games to fully immersive environments—in the office, on the factory floor, in medical care facilities, and in new entertainment venues. I once did an experiment where a person came into a room and sat down at a desk against a large, 3D, high-definition TV display. The projected image showed a room with a similar desk up against the screen. The person would put on 3D glasses, and then a projected person would enter and sit down at the other table. After talking for 5 to 10 minutes, the projected person would stand up and put their hand out. Most of the time, the first person would also stand up and put their hand into the screen—they had quickly adapted and forgotten that the other person was not in the room. Augmented reality will become indistinguishable from reality. The trend is an enchanted world— The trend is hyper-resolution augmented reality and hyper-accurate artificial people and objects that fundamentally enhance people’s experience of the world.

[NO, lenticular screens are too expensive and 3D glasses are a pain in the cortex. Augmented reality with iPhones is great, and pragmatic, but not a top 10 trend IMHO]

Trend 8. Engineering by Biologists.
Biologists and engineers are different kinds of people—unless they are working on synthetic biology. We know about genetically engineered foods and creatures, such as gold fish in multiple other colors. Next we’ll have biologically engineered circuits and devices. Evolution has created adaptive processing and system resiliency that is much more advanced than anything we’ve been able to design. We are learning how to tap into that natural expertise, designing devices using the mechanisms of biology. We have already seen simple biological circuits in the laboratory. The trend is practical, engineered artifacts, devices, and computers based on biology rather than just on silicon.

[YES, and NO because it was so badly mangled as a trend. For the next few years, these approaches will be used for fuels and chemicals and materials processing because they lend themselves to a 3D fluid medium. Then 2D self-assembling monolayers. And eventually chips , starting with memory and sensor arrays long before heterogeneous logic. And processes of biology will be an inspiration throughout (evolution, self-assembly, etc.). Having made predictions along these themes for about a decade now, the wording of this one frustrated me]

Trend 9. ‘Tis a Gift to be Simple. Cyber attacks are ever more frequent and effective. Most attacks exploit holes that are inevitable given the complexity of the software products we use every day. Cyber researchers really understand this. To avoid these vulnerabilities, some cyber researchers are beginning to use only simple infrastructure and applications that are throwbacks to the computing world of two decades ago. As simplicity is shown to be an effective approach for avoiding attack, it will become the guiding principle of software design. The trend is cyber defense through widespread adoption of simple, low-feature software for consumers and businesses.

[No. I understand the advantages of being open, and of heterogencity of code (to avoid monoculture collapse), but we have long ago left the domain of simple. Yes, Internet transport protocols won via simplicity. The presentation layer, not so much. If you want dumb pipes, you need smart edges, and smart edges can be hacked. Graham Spencer gave a great talk at SFI: the trend towards transport simplicity (e.g. dumb pipes) and "intelligence in the edges" led to mixing code and data, which in turn led to all kinds of XSS-like attacks. Drive-by downloading (enabled by XSS) is the most popular vehicle for delivering malware these days.]

Trend 10. Reverse Innovation. Mobile communication is proliferating at an astonishing rate in developing countries as price-points drop and wireless infrastructure improves. As developing countries leapfrog the need for physical infrastructure and brokers, using mobile apps to conduct micro-scale business and to improve quality of life, they are innovating new applications. The developing world is quickly becoming the largest market we’ve ever seen—for mobile computing and much more. The trend is for developing countries to turn around the flow of innovation: Silicon Valley will begin to learn more from them about innovative applications than they need to learn from us about the underlying technology.

[YES, globalization is a megatrend still in the making. The mobile markets are clearly China, India and Korea, with app layer innovation increasingly originating there. Not completely of course, but we have a lot to learn from the early-adopter economies.]

Nice Automotive Mould Manufacturing photos

Nice Automotive Mould Manufacturing photos

Check out these automotive mould manufacturing images:

Nomination 42 – Body Exterior – View A – Carbon Composite Hood Assembly
automotive mould manufacturing
Image by spe.automotive
CARBON COMPOSITE HOOD ASSEMBLY
•OEM Make & Model: Chrysler Group LLC 2013 model year (MY) SRT Viper® supercar
•Tier Supplier/Processor: Plasan Carbon Composites
•Material Supplier / Toolmaker: Umeco plc/Cytec Industries (carbon fiber weave prepreg); Toray Carbon Fibers Americas, Inc. (unidirectional carbon fiber prepreg); Ashland, Inc. (structural polyurethane adhesive) / Weber Manufacturing Technologies Inc.
•Material / Process: G83C T700S-24K carbon composite / Vacuum bag, autoclave cure
•Description: This hood assembly is a Class A CFRP part with a very large complex clamshell geometry. The painted Class A outer panel is complemented by an exposed weave inner panel. The part represents the largest Class A carbon fiber composite part provided to a mainstream OEM at volumes up to 3,000 vehicle sets/year. Design, tooling, and fabrication technologies from both marine and aerospace were employed for the first time in automotive to facilitate layup of the complex geometry with severe undercuts. Integrated mounting points using riv-nuts and studs are molded into the inner hood panel. Local section thickness was varied to meet structural requirements. The final part, incorporating fenders as well as hood is 44% lighter than the previous hood-only assembly in SMC, helping improve weight distribution and lower the vehicle’s center of gravity, for better vehicle dynamics and power-to-weight ratio.